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Dr. Inonge M. Kamungoma-Dada

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1 Dr. Inonge M. Kamungoma-Dada
Mega Sports Events and Community Health and Wellness: The Case for Investing in Youth PRESENTER: Dr. Inonge M. Kamungoma-Dada BSc. HB; MBChB; MA; APR. UNFPA South Africa. UNFPA

2 Outline Overview Youth defined Youth and Sports development
Demographic Dividend The Challenges: HIV and AIDS Teenage Pregnancy Gender Issues Urbanization Global context for youth development The MDGs UNFPA Summary UNFPA

3 Overview Largest generation of adolescents in history-1.5 billion is preparing to enter adulthood. More than half of them: 525 million live on less than 2 dollars a day More than 100 million do not attend school 15 million adolescent girls become mothers everyday Among mothers under the age 20…infant mortality rate average 100 deaths per 1,000 live births UNFPA

4 What we Know.. “Educational and health status of the youth, their readiness to take on adult roles and responsibilities and support received from families, communities, (including through mega sports events) and governments, will determine their future and the future of their countries”, UNFPA: Investing in adolescents2 health and rights, State of the World report 2003. UNFPA

5 Youth defined The terms ‘adolescents’, ‘youth’, and ‘young people’ are used differently in various societies Categories are associated with different roles, responsibilities SA National Youth Policy is directed toward young males and females aged from 14 to 35 years Other young age categories in use:        i) Adolescents: years of age        ii) Youth: years of age iii) Young people: years of age For any person interested in sport, whether from a management perspective or as a sportsperson, age is a very important factor. In defining youth, the terms: adolescents, youth and young people are used. SA National Youth Policy In most sports, soccer in particular, a 35 year old is a ambuya! UNFPA

6 Youth and Sports development
‘There has been a growing understanding of the role sports can play in changing peoples’ lives for the better –- and those of young people, in particular, Kofi Annan, Olympic Aid Forum, 2002.  Development: adolescent (10-19) Peak performance (18-25) Retirement (30- 35) Skilled labour, savings and investments, employers Age is important as it also determines the level of activity for a sportsperson: Alas, we also know at these different ages young people are exploring their world UNFPA

7 Youth and sports development..
Sports are an effective instrument for: Building character, tolerance and friendship Delivering and promotion of youth development: reducing poverty Building democracy, conflict resolutions Advocacy to young people on HIV and AIDS, drug abuse and alcoholism etc UNFPA

8 Youth and Mega sports events
Adolescence is a critical passage in which young people gain life experience through schooling, job training, work experiences, community activities, youth groups, relationships and sports . The Glitz and Glamour of the FIFA Soccer World cup allows youth to dream, hope and achieve! UNFPA

9 ‘Demographic Dividend’
The concept of ‘Demographic Dividend’ is rooted in the Theory of Demographic Transition. Demographic transition occurs when a country has achieved significant decline in its birth and death rates, from high to low levels In the transition process, only two demographic factors (fertility & mortality) exert influence on population dynamics The population is assumed to be closed to migration UNFPA

10 Demographic dividend defined
The ‘demographic dividend’ also called ‘demographic gift’ or ‘bonus’ occurs when a falling birth rate changes the age distribution of a population: Fertility decline Decline in population growth Decline in the dependency ratio (ratio of persons under age 15 and over 65 to those in the economically productive age group 15-65). As a result: Less ‘mouths to feed’ Up surge in labour force or working population aged 15-49yrs relative to the dependants If workforce is skilled, and adequate jobs available, there is potential for workforce to increase income, save, invest and thus, stimulate economic growth Dividend: as in profits paid to all of us as shareholders. The business bosses put in a lot of work for dividends. Bonus a sum of money added to a person’s wages for good performance. The workers in this room will be very familiar with the term UNFPA

11 Demographic Dividend The ‘demographic dividend’ is delivered through three main mechanisms: a) labour supply, b) savings, c) human capital. **However, demographic dividend is not automatic. Countries need to act to capitalize on it through appropriate policies and programmes. N.B. Must seize the ‘gift’ as it is a limited window of opportunity! UNFPA

12 Labour Supply and the Demographic Dividend
The demographic transition affects labor supply through: a) size of the labour force, b) increase in the labour force participation incl. women c) labour productivity. Potential labour force is not an effective labour force Much depends on the extent on investments in education, health, labour force skills and female participation UNFPA

13 SA Projected labour force
Increase of almost 9 million boy male and female will enter the labour force. By 2010 this will be 1.5 million new labour entrants UNFPA

14 Demographic Transition in South Africa
Among the white population the transition from high to low fertility has been completed. The Asian and the Coloured population, with TFR of 2.5 in 1998, have almost completed their fertility transition. The black population (79% of the tot.pop), the level of TFR 3.1 in 1998. However, among the non-urban African population, the TFR was 4.0 in 1998. Rather unequal demographic experience among the racial groups - adopt slightly different strategies to tap the dividends of demographic transition in the population. UNFPA

15 South Africa: Demographic Dividend
Children under the age of 15 are expected to increase from 11.6 million (40% of total population) in 1980 to 21 million (38%) in 2005. The potential economically active population (age group 15-64) from 17 million (56%) to about 30 million (54%) over this period. Unfortunately, the country may not be able to take advantage of this demographic dividend, as the formal economy is unlikely to be able to provide employment for the new labour market entrants. In 1999, for example, only 8.4% of the new entrants could be accommodated, resulting in widespread unemployment, and unemployment rate stands at 25.5% The African population is still experiencing demographic transition, a comprehensive programme of education and skills development is urgently required to capture the dividend. Sports could play a critical contributory role in development UNFPA

16 South Africa: Fertility Transition

17 The SA Population Pyramid
Projection of population in SA. Stage 2-3 DT, deaths reduced people living longer, births reducing. Children born during periods of high fertility are growing up 0-14 years towards the working age group. In the 2037 projection note the bulge in the working age group. At this point we should be reaping the dividend. IF we had planned for it! UNFPA

18 Implications for Demographic Dividend for South Africa
South Africa is about to reap from the “Demographic Dividend” Depends on what policies and programmes are in place to capitalize on the large population of young people in the working age Group. Sports, through the FIFA Soccer World Cup presents an opportunity for young people through sports development, employment and entrepreneurship opportunities. UNFPA

19 Human Capital Formation Policies for Youth
For the demographic dividend to materialize, there must be in place a conducive policy environment, including: Access of youth to reproductive health services and facilities; Reduction in HIV/AIDS prevalence; Reduction in teenage pregnancies; Addressing gender inequalities High quality education and appropriate skills development for the youth. Second chances for out of school youth UNFPA

20 The challenges “..I am someone who benefited in my youth -- and still does benefit -- from the wonderfully formative experience of sport; and who believes in every child’s right to that experience -- the right to play”, Kofi Annan, 2002. HIV and AIDS Teenage Pregnancy Gender disparities Urbanisation UNFPA

21 HIV and AIDS AIDS now a disease of the young, account for half of the 5 million new cases of HIV infection worldwide each year. More than 6,000 young people become infected with HIV – everyday In Sub-Saharan Africa, 63% of those who were HIV positive in 2003 were between the ages of 15-24 Feminization of HIV infection with ratios of new female to male infection in young people as high as 8 to 1 (SA) The overwhelming majority of AIDS orphans live in Africa. UNFPA

22 Teenage Pregnancy Worldwide every year, 14 million adolescent girls aged 15 to 19 give birth. Highest rates of adolescent fertility are found in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Urban and rural girls aged from the poorest groups are three times more likely than their better-off peers to give birth in adolescence Girls aged 15 to 19 account for at least one-fourth of the estimated 20 million unsafe abortions performed each year Statistics in South Africa indicate that one in three girls has had a child by age 20 UNFPA

23 Teenage pregnancy and Dividend Policy
Need for a multi-sectoral approach which considers reproductive and sexual health issues as one aspect of personal development, Link to other health, family planning and social services including employment, gender based violence, education and livelihoods programmes. Include positive involvement of boys and men as partners in the struggle for equality and reproductive health Sports presents opportunities for girls UNFPA

24 Investment in Girls’ education
Through sports scholarships Educated mothers increase human capital through influence on the health, education and nutrition of their children Contributes to economic growth and reduces poverty leading to improvement on family’s economic prospects Improves reproductive health including HIV prevention UNFPA

25 Urbanization Majority of these people will be poor.
More that half the human population, 3.3 billion people, will be living in urban areas by 2008, growing to 5 billion by 2030. Majority of these people will be poor. About 60% of all urban dwellers will be under the age of 18 by 2030. Proliferation of street children and homeless orphans Investing in young people could bring about a demographic bonus and break the cycle of poverty which their parents are caught in. A rights based approach to poverty reduction will ensure the full participation of youth in policies and plans. Great opportunities provided through sports UNFPA

26 The Global perspective
International Conference on Population and Development 1994 in Cairo, 179 countries (SA) agreed that: population and development are inextricably linked, empowering girls and women meeting people's needs for education and health, including reproductive health are necessary for both individual advancement and balanced development. MDGs: reflect a broad consensus in the international community. Most MDGs speak to young people Sports contributes to the attainments of all MDGs esp 1-6 1- eradicate extreme hunger and poverty, 2. universal education, 3- gender equality, 5. maternal mortality, 6 HIV AIDS, Malaria, TB, 7: environmental sustainability and 8: global partnerships. UNFPA

27 The reality: Poverty is influenced by and influences population dynamics, such as population growth, age structure, and rural-urban distribution. Population dynamics have a critical impact on a country’s development prospects and specifically on prospects for raising the living standard of the poor and marginalized The global context challenges us to link population and development in a human rights based approach. It is imperative that they are addressed MDGs spells out the agenda, and sets clear targets for us to attain Population and sexual and reproductive health issues, including gender, HIV and AIDS , environment all need to be addressed in development ASRH is an essential component of young people’s ability to become well adjusted, healthy, responsible and productive members of society UNFPA

28 UNFPA on Youth.. Keys: Supportive policy making that applies the lens of population structure and poverty dynamics analysis Gender sensitive life skills based SRH Education Sexual and reproductive health services: HIV prevention Young People’s leadership and participation. UNFPA

29 UNFPA Lead in the UN family on HIV prevention
Scaling up efforts on prevention including attention to gender inequalities and liking HIV to SRH Special focus on young people and vulnerable populations : Information Life skills Youth friendly services A safe and supportive environment Sports and in particular mega sports events provide a perfect opportunity for advocacy and dissemination of key messages to address youth SRH issues. UNFPA

30 In summary Investing in the health and rights of youth will yield large benefits for generations to come. Reducing poverty requires progress in addressing adolescent reproductive needs including HIV prevention, gender and teenage pregnancy. Need to plan to reap from the ‘potential demographic dividend’ from the large number of working age youth Need to put in programmes in place for vulnerable youth Innovative ways to address youth issues, including through sports critical for the development of youth, both for their own personal development and for the future of their countries UNFPA

31 Food for thought How can FIFA Soccer World Cup 2010 contribute to addressing the issues of youth: their players and potential players: to ensure a healthy, motivated, empowered, skilled pool of soccer stars for the many world cups still to be held? What legacy in terms of SRH will the hosting of the FIFA Soccer World Cup leave for our young people in 2010? UNFPA

32 UNFPA- because everyone counts!
Thank you ! UNFPA- because everyone counts! UNFPA

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