2LEQ: Why did European immigrants come to America in the 1800s LEQ: Why did European immigrants come to America in the 1800s? What was it like to enter at Ellis Island?Drill:What nationality or ethnicity do you most associate with the words “immigrant” or “immigration” in America today?
3Key Vocabularyimmigrant - (n) a person who migrates to another country, usually for permanent residenceemigrate – (v) to leave one country or region to settle in another
4A History of Immigration to America to 1882: 20,000 to 50,000 years ago = Ancestors of the American Indians1500 = Early European immigrants (colonization)1620 = African slaves “Unwilling Immigrants”1841 to 1860 = Over 4 million from England, Germany, and Ireland= 250,000 Chinese immigrants
5Reasons for Immigrating to the U.S. Push FactorsPull FactorsPoverty and unemploymentWars and forced military servicePolitical tyranny and religious oppressionOver populationLand and jobsHigher standard of livingDemocratic governmentOpportunity for social advancement
7Interactive Tour of Ellis Island Activity Go to the American History page on Mrs. Leonard’s website and open the link for the Interactive Tour of Ellis Island ActivityRead each step, examine photos and videos that may be available, and complete your handout
8LEQ: What was life like in America for immigrants? Drill:How do you think Americans in the late 1800s treated immigrants?How are immigrants treated today? Are some treated better than others? Why?
9NativismBy the 1880s immigrants made up a large percentage of the population in major citiesThey were often separated into ethnic groups: “Little Italy”, “Chinatown”Overtime the increase in immigrants lead to feelings of nativism – an extreme dislike of immigrants by native-born peopleNativists feared the influx of Roman Catholics would “swamp” the mostly Protestant U.S.A. And many believed the immigrants were taking American jobs
10Political Parties and Secret Societies with Nativism: Republican PartyNativist PartySecret Societies = Order of United Americans and the Order of the Star-Spangled Banner. Sworn to secrecy; when asked about the organizations members replied “I know nothing.” = The Know Nothing Party A.K.A. The Know Nothings
11LEQ: What was urban life like in American cities between 1840 and the early 1900s? Drill:How does life in the city compare to life in rural areas?
12LEQ: How was the U.S. from 1870 to 1900 gilded? "Gilded" means covered with gold on the outside, but not really golden on the insideDrill:Identify some things that make American society today good and bad, fair and unfair, rich and poor.
13The Gilded Age lasted from 1870-1900 the name came from the title of a Mark Twain book The Gilded Age: A Tale of Todaya period of rapid economic growth but also much social conflict
14Characteristics of The Gilded Age Industrial growth and new inventionsCrowded citiesCorruptionDisparity between rich and poorStrikes and riots
15New Ideas in the Gilded Age Individualism = “from rags to riches” = Horatio AlgerSocial Darwinism = Human society evolves from competition and natural selectionNaturalism = the circumstances of life are out of our controlRealism = portraying the world as it is
16Gilded Age Then and Now Then Now Average Annual Income: $380 ($5,415 in today’s money)Poverty: 90 % of Americans lived below the poverty lineUrban Life: 40% of population; tenements, high crime rates, filthyAverage Annual Income: $26, 695 (single)S50,000 (household)Poverty: 14.5% of the population (42,000,000 of 300,000,000)Urban Life: 80.7% of population; apartments, townhomes, homes; higher crime rates than rural areas
17LEQ: Is the U.S. in another Gilded Age? "Gilded" means covered with gold on the outside, but not really golden on the insideDrill:Do you think America has entered into a new Gilded Age?Do you feel that the wealthy exploit the less economically advantaged?Do the “one per centers” control more than the reset of us?
18Gilded Age Then and Now Then Now Average Annual Income: $380 ($5,415 in today’s money)Poverty: 90 % of Americans lived below the poverty lineUrban Life: 40% of population; tenements, high crime rates, filthyAverage Annual Income: $26, 695 (single)S50,000 (household)Poverty: 14.5% of the population (42,000,000 of 300,000,000)Urban Life: 80.7% of population; apartments, townhomes, homes; higher crime rates than rural areas
19LEQ: Is the U.S. in another Gilded Age? "Gilded" means covered with gold on the outside, but not really golden on the insideDrill:Get your assigned laptop and finish research from Friday –10 minutes
20Research Articles Go to Mrs. Leonard’s American History webpage In your groups read and discuss the following articles:15% of Americans living in povertyWhy we’re in a new Gilded Age25 Most Dangerous Cities in the U.S.Be prepared to answer the LEQ based on the articles you have read:LEQ: Is the U.S. in another Gilded Age?
21Are We In A Second Gilded Age? Using Walmart as a Case Study Money spent at Walmart per minute = $34,880 ($50,227,200 per day; 18,332,928,000 a year)Percent of Walmart goods from China = 80%“The Walton family is the richest family in the United States…Net worth of $148.8 billion.”The Waltons have more wealth than 42% of American families combinedWalmart, the country’s largest private employer, is paying its associates an average of $8.81 an hour
22How has America Changed Since 1900? 20th Century (1900s)21st Century (2000s)Family Structuretwo-parent, one-earner familieslow-income single-parent families or higher-income two-parent, two-earner familiesTechnologylow-skilled laborhigh-skilled labor & specialization (higher education required)MarketsLocal, small businesses, ma and pa shopsglobal
23Education and Income in America Full-time year-round working young adults ages 25–34:bachelor's degree was $46,900associate’s degree $35,700high school diploma or GED $30,000no diploma or GED $22,900
24Annual Income Statistics in America: American Population = 316,000,000Less than $25,000 = 25%$50,000-$100,000 = 30%$125,000 = 3.1 %$250,000 = 2%$350,000 to $1 million = 1%$9,141,190 = 0.01%
25LEQ: Is the U.S. in another Gilded Age? "Gilded" means covered with gold on the outside, but not really golden on the inside.Many immigrants still come to the United States just as they did in the late 19th century in hopes of a better life. These immigrants believe America can provide them with financial security, safety, better education, and more freedom (2012: 41 million immigrants living in the U.S.)Based on what we have researched and discussed in class, do you think America has entered into another Gilded Age?
26LEQ: During the Gilded Age why was Civil Service reform needed? Civil Service – system or method of appointing government employeesDrill:How do you expect politicians to conduct themselves?What is your opinion of politicians today?
27Key TermsPolitical machines – an organization linked to a political party that often controlled the local governmentParty bosses – the person in control of a political machineGraft - gaining money or power in dishonest or illegal waysPendleton Act of government jobs should be awarded on the basis of merit
28Why was Civil Service reform needed? CausesEffectCivil Service Reform:The Pendleton Civil Service Act of 1883
29Why was Civil Service reform needed? CausesEffectStealing money from taxes (Grant)Election fraud (Hayes)Assassination (Garfield)Hiring cronies - a.k.a. friendsMinimal laws regulating campaignsDominance of political machinesCivil Service Reform:The Pendleton Civil Service Act of 1883
30LEQ: What was the People’s Party and what were it’s goals? Drill:During the Gilded Age cities were growing in size, wealth, and population.How might this have affected farmers in the rural areas of America?Ruralvs.Urban
31The Rise of Populism: Unrest in Rural America New technology allowed farmers to produce more cropsIncreased supply of crops caused prices to fall. This is good for the consumer and bad for the farmerHigh tariffs make it difficult for farmers to sell goods overseas*tariff – tax on goods coming into or leaving a countryIncrease in rail shipping costs
32Key Terms: The Election of 1896 The Panic of 1893 a serious economic depression in the United States Similar; it was marked by the overbuilding and shaky financing of railroads, resulting in a series of bank failuresWhistle-Stop a from of campaigning when a nominee "ran" for president instead of "standing" for president. One would travel to all parts of the country by train to make speeches and try to gain the votes of the listeners.
33LEQ: How were African Americans treated beginning in the late 1800s LEQ: How were African Americans treated beginning in the late 1800s? Why?Drill:During the Gilded Age, , immigrants, the working-class, and farmers all faced hardships.Another subgroup during this time was the newly freed African-Americans.Based on what you already know, describe what hardships African American’s may have faced during this time.
34Legislation Affecting African Americans 1864-1870: Emancipation Proclamation of 1864 ends slavery in rebellious states during the Civil War13th Amendment passed in 1865 ends slavery completely and makes it unconstitutional = illegal14th Amendment passed in 1868 grants citizenship to “all persons born or naturalized in the United States,” which included former slaves recently freed15th Amendment passed in 1870 grants African American males the right to vote
35What were the Jim Crow laws? LEQ: How were African Americans treated beginning in the late 1800s? Why?Drill:What were the Jim Crow laws?
36Factors contributing to Discrimination Voting requirementsViolence(lynching's)Factors contributing to DiscriminationAfrican American farmers join the Populist PartyPlessy v FergusonPoll taxJim Crow Laws
37Legalizing Segregation Segregation – the separation of the racesJim Crow Laws – statutes enforcing segregation in public places, mainly in the southern statesPlessy v Ferguson, (1896), Supreme Court Case that upheld the Jim Crow laws : “separate but equal”Show YouTube Videos on Jim Crow
38Response to Discrimination African AmericanResponse to DiscriminationIda B. WellsBooker T. WashingtonW.E.B. Du Bois
39Response to Discrimination African AmericanResponse to DiscriminationIda B. WellsNewspaper articles and book against lynching's and demanding fair trialsBooker T. WashingtonShould concentrate on achieving economic and vocational goalsW.E.B. Du BoisThe Souls of Black Folks; demanded civil rights, especially voting rights