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Urban America UNIT 2: CHAPTER 4. LEQ: Why did European immigrants come to America in the 1800s? What was it like to enter at Ellis Island? Drill: What.

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Presentation on theme: "Urban America UNIT 2: CHAPTER 4. LEQ: Why did European immigrants come to America in the 1800s? What was it like to enter at Ellis Island? Drill: What."— Presentation transcript:

1 Urban America UNIT 2: CHAPTER 4

2 LEQ: Why did European immigrants come to America in the 1800s? What was it like to enter at Ellis Island? Drill: What nationality or ethnicity do you most associate with the words “immigrant” or “immigration” in America today?

3 Key Vocabulary 1.immigrant - (n) a person who migrates to another country, usually for permanent residence 2.emigrate – (v) to leave one country or region to settle in another

4 A History of Immigration to America to 1882: 20,000 to 50,000 years ago = Ancestors of the American Indians 1500 = Early European immigrants (colonization) 1620 = African slaves “Unwilling Immigrants” 1841 to 1860 = Over 4 million from England, Germany, and Ireland = 250,000 Chinese immigrants

5 Reasons for Immigrating to the U.S. PUSH FACTORS Poverty and unemployment Wars and forced military service Political tyranny and religious oppression Over population PULL FACTORS Land and jobs Higher standard of living Democratic government Opportunity for social advancement

6 Ellis Island A tiny island in New York Harbor

7 Interactive Tour of Ellis Island Activity 1.Go to the American History page on Mrs. Leonard’s website and open the link for the Interactive Tour of Ellis Island Activity 2.Read each step, examine photos and videos that may be available, and complete your handout

8 LEQ: What was life like in America for immigrants? Drill: How do you think Americans in the late 1800s treated immigrants? How are immigrants treated today? Are some treated better than others? Why?

9 Nativism By the 1880s immigrants made up a large percentage of the population in major cities They were often separated into ethnic groups: “Little Italy”, “Chinatown” Overtime the increase in immigrants lead to feelings of nativism – an extreme dislike of immigrants by native-born people Nativists feared the influx of Roman Catholics would “swamp” the mostly Protestant U.S.A. And many believed the immigrants were taking American jobs

10 Political Parties and Secret Societies with Nativism: Republican Party Nativist Party Secret Societies = Order of United Americans and the Order of the Star-Spangled Banner. Sworn to secrecy; when asked about the organizations members replied “I know nothing.” = The Know Nothing Party A.K.A. The Know Nothings

11 LEQ: What was urban life like in American cities between 1840 and the early 1900s? Drill: How does life in the city compare to life in rural areas?

12 LEQ: How was the U.S. from 1870 to 1900 gilded? "Gilded" means covered with gold on the outside, but not really golden on the inside Drill: Identify some things that make American society today good and bad, fair and unfair, rich and poor.

13 The Gilded Age lasted from the name came from the title of a Mark Twain book The Gilded Age: A Tale of Today a period of rapid economic growth but also much social conflict

14 Characteristics of The Gilded Age Industrial growth and new inventions Crowded cities Corruption Disparity between rich and poor Strikes and riots

15 New Ideas in the Gilded Age Individualism = “from rags to riches” = Horatio Alger Social Darwinism = Human society evolves from competition and natural selection Naturalism = the circumstances of life are out of our control Realism = portraying the world as it is

16 Gilded Age Then and Now THEN Average Annual Income: $380 ($5,415 in today’s money) Poverty: 90 % of Americans lived below the poverty line Urban Life: 40% of population; tenements, high crime rates, filthy NOW Average Annual Income: $26, 695 (single) S50,000 (household) Poverty: 14.5% of the population (42,000,000 of 300,000,000) Urban Life: 80.7% of population; apartments, townhomes, homes; higher crime rates than rural areas

17 LEQ: Is the U.S. in another Gilded Age? "Gilded" means covered with gold on the outside, but not really golden on the inside Drill: Do you think America has entered into a new Gilded Age? Do you feel that the wealthy exploit the less economically advantaged? Do the “one per centers” control more than the reset of us?

18 Gilded Age Then and Now THEN Average Annual Income: $380 ($5,415 in today’s money) Poverty: 90 % of Americans lived below the poverty line Urban Life: 40% of population; tenements, high crime rates, filthy NOW Average Annual Income: $26, 695 (single) S50,000 (household) Poverty: 14.5% of the population (42,000,000 of 300,000,000) Urban Life: 80.7% of population; apartments, townhomes, homes; higher crime rates than rural areas

19 LEQ: Is the U.S. in another Gilded Age? "Gilded" means covered with gold on the outside, but not really golden on the inside Drill: Get your assigned laptop and finish research from Friday – 10 minutes

20 Research Articles 1.Go to Mrs. Leonard’s American History webpage 2.In your groups read and discuss the following articles: 15% of Americans living in poverty Why we’re in a new Gilded Age 25 Most Dangerous Cities in the U.S. 3.Be prepared to answer the LEQ based on the articles you have read: LEQ: Is the U.S. in another Gilded Age?

21 Are We In A Second Gilded Age? Using Walmart as a Case Study Money spent at Walmart per minute = $34,880 ($50,227,200 per day; 18,332,928,000 a year) Percent of Walmart goods from China = 80% “The Walton family is the richest family in the United States…Net worth of $148.8 billion.” The Waltons have more wealth than 42% of American families combined Walmart, the country’s largest private employer, is paying its associates an average of $8.81 an hour

22 How has America Changed Since 1900? 20 th Century (1900s)21 st Century (2000s) Family Structure two-parent, one- earner families low-income single- parent families or higher-income two- parent, two-earner families Technology low-skilled labor high-skilled labor & specialization (higher education required) Markets Local, small businesses, ma and pa shops global

23 Education and Income in America Full-time year-round working young adults ages 25–34: bachelor's degree was $46,900 associate’s degree $35,700 high school diploma or GED $30,000 no diploma or GED $22,900

24 Annual Income Statistics in America: American Population = 316,000,000 Less than $25,000 = 25% $50,000-$100,000 = 30% $125,000 = 3.1 % $250,000 = 2% $350,000 to $1 million = 1% $9,141,190 = 0.01%

25 LEQ: Is the U.S. in another Gilded Age? "Gilded" means covered with gold on the outside, but not really golden on the inside. Many immigrants still come to the United States just as they did in the late 19 th century in hopes of a better life. These immigrants believe America can provide them with financial security, safety, better education, and more freedom (2012: 41 million immigrants living in the U.S.) Based on what we have researched and discussed in class, do you think America has entered into another Gilded Age?

26 LEQ: During the Gilded Age why was Civil Service reform needed? Drill: How do you expect politicians to conduct themselves? What is your opinion of politicians today? Civil Service – system or method of appointing government employees

27 Key Terms Political machines – an organization linked to a political party that often controlled the local government Party bosses – the person in control of a political machine Graft - gaining money or power in dishonest or illegal ways Pendleton Act of government jobs should be awarded on the basis of merit

28 Why was Civil Service reform needed? CAUSES EFFECT Civil Service Reform: The Pendleton Civil Service Act of 1883

29 Why was Civil Service reform needed? CAUSES Stealing money from taxes (Grant) Election fraud (Hayes) Assassination (Garfield) Hiring cronies - a.k.a. friends Minimal laws regulating campaigns Dominance of political machines EFFECT Civil Service Reform: The Pendleton Civil Service Act of 1883

30 LEQ: What was the People’s Party and what were it’s goals? Drill: During the Gilded Age cities were growing in size, wealth, and population. How might this have affected farmers in the rural areas of America? Rural vs. Urban

31 The Rise of Populism: Unrest in Rural America New technology allowed farmers to produce more crops Increased supply of crops caused prices to fall. This is good for the consumer and bad for the farmer High tariffs make it difficult for farmers to sell goods overseas *tariff – tax on goods coming into or leaving a country Increase in rail shipping costs

32 Key Terms: The Election of 1896 The Panic of 1893 a serious economic depression in the United States Similar; it was marked by the overbuilding and shaky financing of railroads, resulting in a series of bank failures Whistle-Stop a from of campaigning when a nominee "ran" for president instead of "standing" for president. One would travel to all parts of the country by train to make speeches and try to gain the votes of the listeners.

33 LEQ: How were African Americans treated beginning in the late 1800s? Why? Drill: During the Gilded Age, , immigrants, the working-class, and farmers all faced hardships. Another subgroup during this time was the newly freed African-Americans. Based on what you already know, describe what hardships African American’s may have faced during this time.

34 Legislation Affecting African Americans : Emancipation Proclamation of 1864 ends slavery in rebellious states during the Civil War 13 th Amendment passed in 1865 ends slavery completely and makes it unconstitutional = illegal 14 th Amendment passed in 1868 grants citizenship to “all persons born or naturalized in the United States,” which included former slaves recently freed 15 th Amendment passed in 1870 grants African American males the right to vote

35 LEQ: How were African Americans treated beginning in the late 1800s? Why? Drill: What were the Jim Crow laws?

36 Factors contributing to Discrimination African American farmers join the Populist Party Violence (lynching's) Plessy v Ferguson Poll tax Jim Crow Laws Voting requirements

37 Legalizing Segregation Segregation – the separation of the races Jim Crow Laws – statutes enforcing segregation in public places, mainly in the southern states Plessy v Ferguson, (1896), Supreme Court Case that upheld the Jim Crow laws : “separate but equal”

38 Response to Discrimination African AmericanResponse to Discrimination Ida B. Wells Booker T. Washington W.E.B. Du Bois

39 Response to Discrimination African AmericanResponse to Discrimination Ida B. Wells Newspaper articles and book against lynching's and demanding fair trials Booker T. Washington Should concentrate on achieving economic and vocational goals W.E.B. Du Bois The Souls of Black Folks; demanded civil rights, especially voting rights


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