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Rough Guide to Entrepreneurship Jack Lang

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1 Rough Guide to Entrepreneurship Jack Lang

2 Reading list The High-tech Entrepreneur's Handbook Jack Lang Paperback - 224 pages (2 November, 2001) FT.COM; ISBN: 0273656155 Jack Lang

3 An Entrepreneur is… l Someone who starts a project without having the full resources or knowledge – Estimate, guess and gut feel – Risk taking Market risk Technology risk Financial risk l Value accrues as risk lessens – Guesses replaced by justified facts – As development progresses and market established – Transition from intangible hopes to reality and cash- flow – Risk lessens, hence value increases

4 Why? Why now? Because I can: available time and resource Just graduated, or made redundant and nothing else to do Brilliant idea or market opportunity Why me? – Barriers to market entry What have you got to make it through? – Expertise, resource, relationships – Barriers to competition What stops others doing the same thing – IPR, network effect, niche – Unique advantages Know yourself – Know your motivation so you can motivate others What counts as success?

5 Why are you doing it? l Wealth generation – You need £5M by the time you retire, for a modest lifestyle l Better toys l Make a difference – Social consequences Generation of employment Death of the nation state l Fun or profit? – Lifestyle or high growth? Funding Eventual size?

6 High Profit vs High Growth l High Profit l Lifestyle – Restaurant/shop l P&L l Organic Growth – 20 years l Debt finance l High Growth l Sell the Company – Chain of Restaurants/shops l Balance Sheet l Investment – Exit route – 5 years l Equity

7 If you are not in business for fun or profit, what are you doing there?

8 Investor Criteria reflect the risks l Market – Global sustainable under-served market need l Technical – Defensible technological advantage l People – Strong management team l Financial – Believable Plans – 60% IRR

9 Market Need l Largest risk factor: everything else is process or resource l Who needs it? Why? – What are they doing now? – How much is it worth to them? How is it sold, or advertised? – Routes to market – Alliances – Branding – Under served need Competition What other solutions? – Sustainable or one-shot wonder? – Growing market Global potential

10 Who needs it? FAB: Features Advantages Benefits – Feature: This program runs really quickly – Advantages: Less waiting time Uses less resources – Benefits: Less frustration You can get more done Cheaper to run USPs: Unique Selling Points Market Research

11 Market: Who loves ya? Market: Who loves ya? FAB: Features Advantages Benefits – Feature: This chip uses a double super-helical fooglefarg – Advantages: Less Power More speed – Benefits: Cheaper Smaller Works better in marginal conditions Batteries last longer Your friends will be envious Techie Speak Customer Speak

12 Crossing the Chasm l Geoffrey Moore, after Everett Rogers TechUtility

13 Strong management team l You can’t do it all by yourself – “Small” project >10 person-year – Team building – 1:3:10 rule l Alliances l Recruit experience – Financial Director – Sales & Marketing l Training & experience – Merchant bank/Management Consultancy – MBA

14 Senior Team USUK Chair Senior figure; Old wise head Experience and contacts; Major dispute resolution; part-time CEOManaging Director Finding money; Investor relations; Style setting; Keeping the peace CFOFinance Director Accounts etc. Office management; Administration, Legals, Quality control CTOTechnical Director Inventing new things; development COOProduction Director Running the factory and distribution VP Marketing Marketing Director Deciding what and how to sell; pricing Marcoms; Market information VP SalesSales Director Selling; CRM;

15 Defensible technological advantage l IPR – Patent – Copyright – Trademark URL Design right Registered Design Database right Plant breeders rights l Defensible technological leadership – against well-funded competition – Niche Market share – Lock-in (eg hold your data) – Trade secrets

16 Undesirablity of Patents l Expense – 3K first application – 10K grant – 100K international – 1M+ to defend Thermo nuclear stand-off l Network effect – Bio vs tech – Utility increases with square of users – Standards l Timescale – Moore’s Law l Untimely Publication l Hard to administer – No large IPR collection has ever worked E.g NRDC, IBM, Gemstar, University l Typically – Tech has many weak patents – Ways around – Bio-tech has strong patents l Conclusions – Defensive rather than offensive for tech – Be very selective – Handy for bean counters, but suppress innovation

17 Copyright l Copying prohibited – but not re-invention “clean-room” clones – Techniques: include nonsense signatures l Self-declarative – Copyright – library rights – Include statement of rights (e.g. backup) l FAST

18 Internet and Copyright l Overextension of Copyright – 70 years from death of Author (e.g. Mickey Mouse) – DRM etc l “Fair Use” text only – “Deep linking” other than through the main page Probably OK but – Germany Paperboy case, – US:, Ticketmaster vs Microsoft – UK: Shetland Times vs Shetland Chronicle in the UK – “Direct Linking” eg directly linking in another’s picture without permission NOT OK – Search Engines – Still undecided; Kelly v. Arriba Soft Corporation – Implicit permission by omitting the NOINDEX tag

19 Trademarks l Right to exclusive use of name or mark – classes of goods – Local jurisdiction – in USA use must be shown l Company name does not imply trademark – Nor does URL So long as not “passing off”

20 Believable Plans l Business Plan l Development Plan l Marketing plan – Adverts, mail shots, web-sites l Sales Plans – Distribution, Direct Sales l Quality Plans l Financial Projections – Budget 60% IRR – Pay back financing in third year – Cash flow

21 Variables l Resource l Time l Function l “ You can have any two of quick, good or cheap, but not all three”

22 Writing the Business Plan Executive Summary and funding requirement 1. Concept 2. The Market 3.1 Global market size and need 3.2 Sustainability 3.3 Competition 3.4 Marketing plans 4. The Team 4.1 CEO 4.2 CTO 4.3 CFO 4.4 VP Sales and Marketing

23 Writing the Plan - 2 5. The technology and its IPR 6. Summary of plans 6.1 Development plans 6.1.1 Methodology 6.1.2 Milestones 6.2 Marketing 6.3 Sales and distribution 6.4 Quality and industry standards 7. Financials

24 Writing the Plan - 3 Appendices: Financial model Key staff Letters of support Correspondence re IPR Full development plan Full marketing and sales plan Examples and brochures

25 Living Document l Revise frequently – Learning process – Different audiences/sensitivities Investor Presentations – Powerpoint – Every board meeting/investor meeting – Budget – Project Plan – Version control V 154.2

26 Sources of finance l Family and friends £50K – Banks Security l Angels£500K l Venture Capitalists £5M – VCA – VCB$25M – Mezzanine l Stock Market floatation $250M – Acquisition – Exit

27 Why stages? l Risk/Reward profile differ l Successive dilution l Typically 30% dilution each stage – Investment = pre-money valuation/2 – “Squeeze the Angels”


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