2LEARNING OBJECTIVES Define entrepreneurship. Discuss characteristics and types of entrepreneurs.Discuss the applicability of entrepreneurship principles in the profession of pharmacy.Given an “opportunity concept,” apply the process of entrepreneurship to evaluate, pursue, execute, and harvest the venture
3WHAT IS ENTREPRENEURSHIP One commonly used definition is “the process by which individuals pursue opportunities without regard to resources they currently control.”A process means that is cam be repeated analyzed and improved
4WHO IS AN ENTREPRENEUR?Some of the common characteristics of entrepreneurs include:A high level of achievement motivationAn internal locus of controlA tolerance for ambiguity.They are not necessarily experts in all areas of businessThey are very good at establishing networks of people who can help them in areas that are not their strengths
5Types of Entrepreneurs Personal AchieversNeed for feedbackNeed for achievementStrong commitmentInternal locus of controlExpert Idea GeneratorsBuild venture around new productsInvolved with high-tech companiesDesire to innovateIntelligence as source of competitive advantage
6Super Sales PeopleCapacity to understand others, empathizeBelief that social processes are importantGood at external relationship buildingBelief in sales forceReal ManagersDesire to take charge, compete, be decisive, stand outDesire to be corporate leader, desire for powerPositive attitude towards authority
7THE ENTREPRENEURIAL PROCESS Learning entrepreneurship is important because it provides a structured approach that can be repeated, analyzed, and improved on.
8Identifying an Opportunity Ideas can come in many different forms and from many different placesEntrepreneurs often generate and maintain an opportunity registerThe entrepreneur must be disciplined in the selection of opportunities to pursue because resources likely will be limited and pursuit of an opportunity requires focus, perseverance, and dedication.
9Identify an opportunity Changing demographicsEmergence of new market segmentsProcess needs New technologiesIncongruities Regulatory changeSocial change
10Developing the Concept Determining which idea to pursue and how to execute the opportunity are key decisions for the entrepreneur to make. To guide these decisions, the entrepreneur often will perform a feasibility analysisExtensive research is performed on the product/service, industry, market, organizational feasibility, and financial feasibility of the opportunity.
11Develop the ConceptNew productsNew servicesNew processesNew marketsNew organizational structure/formsNew technologiesNew sales / distribution channels
12Determining the Required Resources Entrepreneurs typically will not have all the resources needed to pursue the identified opportunityThis step in the process, which can be a part of the feasibility analysis, will help to identify what resources are needed and help to determine if the entrepreneur can obtain those needed resourcesIdentify the extent to which financial resources need to be acquired and at what stage in the business-development timeline they are neededIn entrepreneurship compares equity to manure The more manure is piled up, the more it smells, but the more it is spread around (on a field), the more it helps things to grow.
13Determine the required resources Skilled employeesGeneral management expertiseMarketing and sales expertiseTechnical expertiseFinancingDistribution channelsSources of supplyProduction facilitiesLicenses, patents, and legal protection
14Acquiring the Necessary Resources Once the entrepreneurial idea and venture have been well defined and researched through the feasibility analysis, resources are acquired to pursue the ideaTo help get others to invest, the entrepreneur will have to put some of his or her own money into the developmentGrants and small-business loans are used often, but grants can take longer to acquire than other methods.“sweat equity” (time put into developing the business without receiving payment for the time put in) required
15Acquire the necessary resources DebtEquityLeveragingOutsourcingLeasingContract laborTemporary staffSupplier financingJoint venturesPartnershipsBarterGifts
16Implement and ManageDecision-making abilities and experience are two of the most important attributes for success in this process.Degrees , training and during work experience are ways of gaining of these skillsTraining for entrepreneurship the BEL( Bernelli Entrepreneurial Learning) Method identifies five stages of development and provides initially for exposure and hands-on experience.
17The key to implementing and managing the opportunity will center on cash flow. First, acquiring capital to get the business started and then, once the business is started, balancing the expenditure of money with the need to obtain more to keep the business going.Businesses often fail because they do not have enough cash when they start.It is recommended that a business have enough cash to support it for 3 years when it is started. However, this is often difficult to obtain. Additionally it is typical for the business to pursue rounds of funding.
18Implement and manageImplementation of conceptMonitoring of performancePayback of resource providersReinvestmentExpansionAchievement of performance goals
20Harvest the VentureHow the entrepreneur will reap the rewards of the endeavorselling the business to someone else,passing the business on to someone in the family,licensing the rights of the intellectual property developed in the business copyrights , trademarks and patentsgoing public with the businessshutting the business down.
21To maximize the reward of the opportunity, it is important to develop the exit strategy or list of potential exit strategies early on in the concept-development process
22Copyright protection is the easiest and least costly to acquire Copyright protection is the easiest and least costly to acquire. However, it also generally provides the least amount of protection. This protection does not protect the ideas, processes, or methods of the intellectual property. It only protects the form, or original work, which is the end result of the ideas, processes or methods. Trademarks are used to protect names, brands, logos, and other marketing devices that are distinctive. Trademarks are somewhat more expensive. It is also possible to do a trademark search on your own on the Internet It is also possible to pay attorneys Patents offer the highest level of protection. They take the most time and money to acquire, usually taking at least 2 years and $4,000 to file. It is generally necessary to hire intellectual property attorneys to assist with the filing and defense of the patent. Patents protect the idea, method, and design of products and businesses
23INCUBATORSIncubators bring all or many of the necessary areas together (e.g., accounting, business plan development, legal, capital acquisition, etc.) to help entrepreneurs bring their ideas to marketIncubators usually take significant equity of the business to get startedentrepreneur must assess how much is really needed and how much the incubator is going to contribute before signing on
24TIMING AND COMPETITION Timing is everythingFirst-movers, the first person to bring a concept to market, can have what is called first-mover advantage, allowing them to gain the rewards of early entry into a market. At other times, the second person into the market can gain the advantage because the first mover has had to go to all the effort to train and educate the market about the concept.
25SELLING THE CONCEPTThe entrepreneur must be able to quickly communicate the value proposition associated with the product, service, or business.In entrepreneurship circles, this is referred to as the elevator pitch. the ability to pitch the concept to a potential investor in the amount of time it takes to get on an elevator and then get off
261. Describe the importance of networking for entrepreneurs, and identify methods of networking in the profession, community, and business world. 2. What, in your opinion, is the most difficult step in the process of entrepreneurship? Describe and explain why? 3. Describe an approach to financing an entrepreneurial venture. Include a discussion of the pros and cons of debt acquisition, using personal and “friends and family” funds, and venture capital. 4. After identifying an opportunity, develop a 30- second elevator pitch that clearly communicates the value of the concept
27Quizze1. What are three common characteristics of entrepreneurs? 2. What are the four types of entrepreneur personalities, which one do you most identify with, and what leads you to identify yourself with this characterization?