Presentation on theme: "REDD PLUS -- What is that?. 1. REDD PLUS – in brief Background: Deforestation has become a problem that the world cannot ignore. Deforestation results."— Presentation transcript:
REDD PLUS -- What is that?
1. REDD PLUS – in brief Background: Deforestation has become a problem that the world cannot ignore. Deforestation results in the release of the carbon originally stored in trees as carbon dioxide emissions. 30% of the earth’s land area is forest; one third people rely on forest for their livelihood. According to 2006 Stern Review, one fifth of total annual carbon emissions now come from land-use change. This number is even greater than global transportation sector.
1. REDD PLUS – in brief Concept REDD stands for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries; and other roles of Conservation, Sustainable Management of Forests and Enhancement of Forest Carbon Stocks.
1. REDD PLUS – in brief Main idea: governments, companies or forest owners in the South should be rewarded for keeping their forests instead of cutting them down. The core of the concept: a scheme whereby the global community will create mechanisms to reward those who reduce emissions from deforestation and degradation.
2. Historical Background 1997: rejected by Kyoto Protocol because -- Leakage, Additionality, Permanence and Measurement. 2007: Cop-13, became a key element in the Bali Action Plan.Bali Action Plan. 2009: Cop-15, Copenhagen Accord 2010: COP-16 Cancun, Establishment of the global REDD+ mechanism 2010: COP-16 C global REDD+ 2011: Cop-17 Durban
Cop-13, Bali Action PlanBali Action Plan Bali Action Plan, Para. 1 (b) (iii): REDD+ refers to “Policy approaches and positive incentives on issues relating to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation; and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forest and enhancement of forest Carbon stocks in developing countries.”
Copenhagen Accord “6. We recognize the crucial role of reducing emission from deforestation and forest degradation and the need to enhance removals of greenhouse gas emission by forests and agree on the need to provide positive incentives to such actions through the immediate establishment of a mechanism including REDD-plus, to enable the mobilization of financial resources from developed countries”.
Ad Hoc Working Group on long-term Cooperative Action (AWG/LCA) Para. 70: “Encourages developing country Parties to contribute to mitigation actions in the forest sector by undertaking the following activities, as deemed appropriate by each Party and in accordance with their respective capabilities and national circumstances: (a) Reducing emissions from deforestation; (b) Reducing emissions from forest degradation; (c) Conservation of forest carbon stocks; (d) Sustainable management of forest; (e) Enhancement of forest carbon stocks;”
Cop-17 Durban Progress has been made on how to set levels of baseline emissions and how to measure the emission reductions resulting from forestry initiatives, but the decision on social and environmental safeguards of the program is insufficient, while no progress was made concerning the sources of long- term funding.
3. Demonstrating Activities Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF)Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF) UN-REDD Programme Norway’s International Climate and Forest Initiative (NICFI)l Climate and ForI)
Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF) Launched in June 2008 Complements the UNFCCC negotiations on REDD+ by demonstrating how REDD+ can be applied at the country level and by learning lessons from this early implementation phase Now there’re 37 forest developing countries have been elected in this partnership Norway committed USD 50 mil in 2011
UN-REDD Programme Launched in September 2008 Assist developing countries prepare and implement national REDD+ strategies 35 partner countries, of which 13 are receiving support to National Programme activities Norway continues to be the first and largest donor
Norway’s International Climate and Forest Initiative (NICFI) Launched by Prime Minister Jens Stoltenberg during the climate change negotiations in Bali in December 2007 A pledge of up to three billion Norwegian Kroner (US$ 500 million) per year to REDD in developing countries
4. Implementation of REDD 3 phased approach : Readiness phase Multi-stakeholder participation and consultation important for REDD Performance-based REDD-plus payments
4. Implementation of REDD Financing: funds, markets, or combination of two methods? readiness phase: funds been made available by multilateral agreements (FCPF, UN REDD Programme) interim phase: multilaterals are still expected to be one of the main sources of funding third phase: performance-based REDD-plus payments could be linked to compliance markets
4. Implementation of REDD Participants during the implementation forest users such as indigenous peoples, forest communities forest land owners organizations, government agencies, project developers and investors
4. Implementation of REDD REDD being implemented REDD-plus is still being negotiated by the UNFCCC. REDD activities have been implemented for years, but earlier such projects and activities were not being accounted against CO ₂ offsetting. What is new is that such activities are to be accounted for as emission reductions. REDD-plus can be implemented in developing countries with forests.
4. Implementation of REDD Monitoring, Reporting and Verification (MRV) REDD+ can have positive or negative social and developmental impacts, depending on how it is implemented REDD will have to be measured and verified Currently lack of consensus at the international level over the design of effective MRV systems
3 conditions of REDD+: Leakage Additionality Permance 19 4. Implementation of REDD
5.REDD PLUS-Benefits significant, cheap, quick and win-win way to reduce GHG emissions create incentives or compensation for individuals, forest communities, and organizations make funds available for more general benefit distribution among communities that can help build wider legitimacy and support for REDD-plus
6.REDD PLUS-Challenges Financing: fund- or market-based approach ? How to determine reference emission levels and reference levels? Involvement of indigenous peoples and local communities to what extent developed countries might be able to rely on REDD-plus
A video to sum up http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4Z4TIC 1ObUI&feature=relatedhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4Z4TIC 1ObUI&feature=related 22