Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1 Street Law Text pp.4-18"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 1 Street Law Text pp.4-18 What is Law?Chapter 1Street Law Textpp.4-18
2 Law Jurisprudence The study of Law and/or Legal Philosophy The rules and regulations made and enforced by government that regulate the conduct of people within a societyJurisprudenceThe study of Law and/or Legal Philosophy
3 What is LawLaws are basically rules. You have had rules all your life from home to school.Rules made and enforced by the government are called laws.Laws affect almost every aspect of daily life.All societies have had laws and understood the importance of them.Not all laws are fair or good but the goal is order and the protection of all citizens.A democracy must be based on the “Rule of Law”. Basically all citizens are required to obey laws
4 Problem 1.1List 10 of your daily activities. Next to each item, list any laws that affect that activity. What is the purpose of each law, would you change any of the laws, why or why not, and finally identify the laws as Federal, State, or Local.
5 Law and ValuesLaws usually reflect societies values and are based on common law.Not everything that is immoral is illegal… laws can not regulate everything nor can they be held to a certain religions beliefs [separation of church and state]Our legal system’s goals:Protect basic human rightsPromote fairnessHelp resolve conflictPromote order and stabilityPromote desirable social and economic behaviorRepresent the will of the majorityProtect the rights of the minority
6 Law and Values cont. Laws are based on: Moral Values Economic Values Political ValuesSocial ValuesLaws must balance Rights with ResponsibilitiesThe will of the majority with the rights of the minoritythe goal is to protect people and resolve conflictsThis does not mean everything, or life, is fair only the attempt to be equitableSome values may interfere with other values [laws]Some believe we have to sacrifice some liberty for securityPeople disagree on what role the law can play in solving all problems [example of drugs] Experience shows there is a limit to what laws can reasonably be expected to do
8 Problem 1.2 “The Shipwrecked Sailors” Should Dudley and Stephens be tried for murder? Explain.As an attorney for Dudley and Stephens, what arguments would you make on their behalf? As an attorney for the government, what arguments would you make on the government’s behalf?If Dudley and Stephens are convicted, what should their punishment be?What purpose would be served by convicting Dudley and Stephens?What is the relationship between law and morality in this case? Was it morally wrong for Dudley and Stephens to kill Brooks? Explain.Can an act be legal but immoral? Can an act be morally right but unlawful? Explain
9 Problem 1.3 Identify a problem for which we need a law. Explain Identify an existing law that is not necessary. Explain
10 Human Rights “Reservations” Rights all people have simply because they are human beings“Reservations”The legal way of making provisions passed by the United Nations, Treaties, or International Law less enforceable than it might other wise be.
11 Balancing Rights with Responsibilities Too concerned with rights while neglecting responsibilitiesYou must be willing to participate in government as well as receiving benefitsAct responsibly…. Parents, drivers, taxesJust because you have a right doesn’t mean you should act immorallyThe correct balance between rights and responsibilities is a difficult journey
12 Problem 1.6 The Apathetic Bystanders Why do you think the bystanders took no action to help Kitty?Did the bystanders commit a crime by not acting? Give your reasons.Did the bystanders do the “right” thing?Should the law hold citizens responsible for not helping out in cases such as this one?
13 Criminal Laws Felonies Misdemeanors Regulate public conduct and set out duties owed to society.FeloniesMore serious crime… with a possible penalty of more than one year in jailMisdemeanorsLess severe crime…. with a possible penalty of up to a year in jail.
14 Civil Laws Civil Action Defendant Plaintiff Regulate relations between individuals or groups of individualsCivil ActionA lawsuit brought by one person who feels wronged or injured by another personDefendantThe person accused of a crime in a criminal case, or the person being sued in a civil case.PlaintiffThe person harmed that files a lawsuit. The person that sues.
15 Beyond a Reasonable Doubt Preponderance of the Evidence ProsecutorThe person that represents the “state” in a criminal trial that tries to prove the guilt of a person.Beyond a Reasonable DoubtStandard of proof in a Criminal trial. It means the if the jury has any reasonable doubts about the defendants guilt they must vote to acquit.Preponderance of the EvidenceStandard of proof in a Civil trial. It means that all the judge or jury has to do is decide if it is more likely than not that the defendant wronged the plaintiff.
16 Criminal v. Civil Law Event Criminal Law Civil Law What is the purpose of the casePunish the perpetratorBenefit the victimWho is the plaintiff/prosecutorThe StateThe VictimWho is the defendantThe perpetrator [person who committed the crime]The perpetrator [person who committed the wrong]What is the victim’s role in the casePossibly a witnessA party and a witnessWho decides to bring a caseThe district attorney or prosecutorThe victim [the person wronged]What standard is required to prevailBeyond a reasonable doubtPreponderance of the evidenceWhat is the punishment if the defendant losesAny of following: jail time, probation, community service, fines, sex offender list, etc.Judgment or settlement requiring Defendant to pay the victim.What rights does the perpetrator-defendant have?Right to state-paid defense attorney;Right to remain silent;Right to not testifyNone of these.
17 Problem 1.7 List all the things you think Matt and Kenji did wrong. What laws are involved in this story?Which of these are criminal laws? Which are civil laws?
18 Oversight of each branch over the other two branches. Limited GovernmentGovernment is limited by the people or a document. Our constitution is an example.Separation of PowersThe division of power between our three branches of government. Make Laws/ Enforce Laws/ Interpret LawsStatutesLaws passed by the government. The legal term for a laws by the Federal or State governments. Local laws are called ordinances.Checks and BalancesOversight of each branch over the other two branches.
19 Veto Judicial Review Unconstitutional Federalism Check from the President on Congress… stops a law and sends it back to CongressJudicial ReviewSupreme Court check on Congress… makes a law UnconstitutionalUnconstitutionalA law that is in violation of the constitutionFederalismDivision of power between a Central government and Local governments
20 Problem 1.8A state law requires that a prayer be said each day in public schools. The courts rule that the law violates a First Amendment clause that prohibits the government from establishing a religion.The U.S. Congress passes a law requiring that Supreme Court sessions be televised.Because a prison is very old and overcrowded, a state court orders the state legislature to spend $100 million on a new prison.