2GlycoproteinGlycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to their polypeptide side-chains.The process of attaching the glycans is known as glycosalation.The sugar groups attached to glycoprotein can assist in protein folding or improve a proteins’ stability.
3Functions of Glycoproteins Structural MoleculeCollagenLubricant and Protective AgentMucinsTransport MoleculeTransferrin, ceruloplasminImmunologic MoleculeImmunoglobins, histocompatibility antigensEnzymeVarious, e.g alkaline phosphataseCell Attachment-recognition siteProteins involved in cell to cellc ommunicationInteract with specific carbohydratesLectins, selectins (cell adhesion lectins), antibodies
4Functions of Glycoproteins ReceptorVarious Proteins in hormone and drug actionAffect folding of certain proteinsCalnexin, CalreticulinRegulation of developmentNotch and its analogs, key proteins in developmentHemostasis (and thrombosis)Specific glycoproteins on the surface membranes of platelets
5ExamplesMucins – mucins are secreted in the mucus of the respiratory and digestive tracts. The sugars attached to the mucins give them considerable water-holding capacity and make them resistant to proteolysis by digestive enzymes.Immune System Glycoproteins – antibodies, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) (interacts with T-cells)
6ExamplesGlycoproteins in platelets.Structural glycoproteins
7Hormones That Are Glycoproteins Follicle-stimulating hormoneLuteinizing hormoneThyroid Stimulating hormoneHuman chorionic gonadotropinAlpha-fetoproteinErythropoietin
8Eight Sugars in Glycoproteins Abbreviationβ-D-GlucoseGlcβ-D-GalactoseGalβ-D-MannoseManα-L-FucoseFucN-AcetylgalactosamineGalNAcN-AcetylglucosamineGlcNAcN-Acetylneuraminic acidNeuNAcXyloseXyl
10Glucose Readily available in our diets. Converted from white sugar, fructose, and starchy foods.Usually oversupplied in our diets from sugar cane, rice, corn, potatoes, wheat, etc.
11Galactose Readily available in our diets. Obtained from the conversion of lactose (milk sugar).
12Fucose NOT readily available in our diets. Found in breast milk. Present in several medicinal mushrooms.Benefits the immune system.
13Mannose NOT readily available in our diets. Involved in cellular interactions.Studies show it can lower blood sugar levels.Assists the immune system to defend against microbial pathogens.Anti-inflammatory effect.
14Xylose Not readily available in our diets. Present in some sugarless gums and candies.Added to some nasal sprays to discourage the binding of allergens and pathogens to mucuos membranes.Anti-bacterial and anti-fungal properties.May help prevent certain cancers.
15N-acetyl-neuraminic acid NOT readily available in our diet.Present in breast milk.Assists in brain development.Boosts immune function.Anti-viral properties.
16N-acetyl-glucosamine NOT readily available in our diets.Beneficial for cartilage regeneration and joint inflammation.Glucosamine comes from this compound.Deficiencies have been linked to diseases of the bowel.
17N-acetyl-galactosamine NOT readily available in the diet.May inhibit the growth of some tumors.Assists in cell to cell communication.
18Breast Milk Breast milk contains five of the essential sugars. Fucose GalactoseN-acetylneuraminic acidN-acetylglucosamineGlucose
19Aloe VeraAloe vera contains mannose , galactose, and arabinose.
20Arabinogalactan Saps and gums of trees contain many glyconutrients. Arabinogalactin can be obtained from the Larix decidua or larch tree.It is also found in fruits and vegetables such as tomatoes, corn, carrots, coconut.It is in the herb echinacea.
21Echinacea Echinacea contains the following glyconutrients: ArabinogalactanGalactoseArabinose
22Astragalus GummiferThe stems and branches of astragalus shrubs are rich in galactose, arabinose, xylose, fucose, rhamnose, galcturonic acid, and proteins.
23Gum AcaciaExtracted from the African acacia tree, gum acacia contains arabinose, galactose, rhamnose, and glucuronic acid.
24Gum GhattiObtained from the sap of the Indian sumac, gum ghatti contains galactose, arabinose, mannose, xylose, and glucuronic acid
25Limu MouiA marine vegetable native to Tonga, limu moui contains the following glyconutrients:GalactoseMannoseXylose
26Medicinal Mushrooms and Beta Glucans Edible mushrooms contain an immune-enhancing sugar compound known as lentinant (a polysaccharide that contains beta-glucans)
27PectinsPectins come from fruits like apples, pumpkins, and tomatoes.
28Foods That Contain Glyconutrients Aloe veraAstralgusSapsGumsGarlicCertain mushroomsYeastsHusksBreast milkCoconut meatEchinaceaMaizePectins from fruitsSome algaeCertain herbs
29Factors That Reduce Glyconutrients In Food Green harvestsProcessed foodsPreservativesIncreased toxinsLimited variety of foods in our diet
30GlycoformsVirtually every cell in the body is covered with hair-like glycoforms.The sugar molecules form codes that allow cells to communicate with one another.
31Glyconutrient Conversion A series of enzyme controlled steps converts one glyconutrient sugar to another.Enzyme conversions require energy.Toxins, stress, drugs, processed foods, lack of enzymes, age, etc. can all inhibit an enzymes ability to convert these glyconutrients.It is more efficient to obtain glyconutrients in the diet than to have to convert them.
32Glyconutrient Effects Raise the level of natural killer cells and macrophages to fight against infectious organisms.Activate immune T-cell activity only when invaders are present.Decrease cell death in people suffering from chronic fatigue syndrome.
33Glyconutrient Effects Elevate disease resistance in weakened individuals.Act as antioxidant compounds.Protect the body from toxin and pollution exposure.Slow premature aging.
34Glyconutrient Effects Decrease inflammation in diseases like rheumatoid arthritis.Helps immune cells recognize invaders due to a mutual “sugar exchange” of information.Enable cellular components to stick to each other initiating the proper reactions.