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Glyconutrients. Glycoprotein Glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to their polypeptide side-chains.

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Presentation on theme: "Glyconutrients. Glycoprotein Glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to their polypeptide side-chains."— Presentation transcript:

1 Glyconutrients

2 Glycoprotein Glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to their polypeptide side-chains. The process of attaching the glycans is known as glycosalation. The sugar groups attached to glycoprotein can assist in protein folding or improve a proteins’ stability.

3 Functions of Glycoproteins FunctionGlycoprotein Structural MoleculeCollagen Lubricant and Protective AgentMucins Transport MoleculeTransferrin, ceruloplasmin Immunologic MoleculeImmunoglobins, histocompatibility antigens EnzymeVarious, e.g alkaline phosphatase Cell Attachment-recognition siteProteins involved in cell to cellc ommunication Interact with specific carbohydratesLectins, selectins (cell adhesion lectins), antibodies

4 Functions of Glycoproteins FunctionGlycoprotein ReceptorVarious Proteins in hormone and drug action Affect folding of certain proteinsCalnexin, Calreticulin Regulation of developmentNotch and its analogs, key proteins in development Hemostasis (and thrombosis)Specific glycoproteins on the surface membranes of platelets

5 Examples Mucins – mucins are secreted in the mucus of the respiratory and digestive tracts. The sugars attached to the mucins give them considerable water-holding capacity and make them resistant to proteolysis by digestive enzymes. Immune System Glycoproteins – antibodies, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) (interacts with T-cells)

6 Examples Glycoproteins in platelets. Structural glycoproteins

7 Hormones That Are Glycoproteins Follicle-stimulating hormone Luteinizing hormone Thyroid Stimulating hormone Human chorionic gonadotropin Alpha-fetoprotein Erythropoietin

8 Eight Sugars in Glycoproteins SugarAbbreviation β-D-GlucoseGlc β-D-GalactoseGal β-D-MannoseMan α-L-FucoseFuc N-AcetylgalactosamineGalNAc N-AcetylglucosamineGlcNAc N-Acetylneuraminic acidNeuNAc XyloseXyl

9 Eight Sugars in Glycoproteins

10 Glucose Readily available in our diets. Converted from white sugar, fructose, and starchy foods. Usually oversupplied in our diets from sugar cane, rice, corn, potatoes, wheat, etc.

11 Galactose Readily available in our diets. Obtained from the conversion of lactose (milk sugar).

12 Fucose NOT readily available in our diets. Found in breast milk. Present in several medicinal mushrooms. Benefits the immune system.

13 Mannose NOT readily available in our diets. Involved in cellular interactions. Studies show it can lower blood sugar levels. Assists the immune system to defend against microbial pathogens. Anti-inflammatory effect.

14 Xylose Not readily available in our diets. Present in some sugarless gums and candies. Added to some nasal sprays to discourage the binding of allergens and pathogens to mucuos membranes. Anti-bacterial and anti-fungal properties. May help prevent certain cancers.

15 N-acetyl-neuraminic acid NOT readily available in our diet. Present in breast milk. Assists in brain development. Boosts immune function. Anti-viral properties.

16 N-acetyl-glucosamine NOT readily available in our diets. Beneficial for cartilage regeneration and joint inflammation. Glucosamine comes from this compound. Deficiencies have been linked to diseases of the bowel.

17 N-acetyl-galactosamine NOT readily available in the diet. May inhibit the growth of some tumors. Assists in cell to cell communication.

18 Breast Milk Breast milk contains five of the essential sugars. – Fucose – Galactose – N-acetylneuraminic acid – N-acetylglucosamine – Glucose

19 Aloe Vera Aloe vera contains mannose, galactose, and arabinose.

20 Arabinogalactan Saps and gums of trees contain many glyconutrients. Arabinogalactin can be obtained from the Larix decidua or larch tree. It is also found in fruits and vegetables such as tomatoes, corn, carrots, coconut. It is in the herb echinacea.

21 Echinacea Echinacea contains the following glyconutrients: – Arabinogalactan – Galactose – Arabinose

22 Astragalus Gummifer The stems and branches of astragalus shrubs are rich in galactose, arabinose, xylose, fucose, rhamnose, galcturonic acid, and proteins.

23 Gum Acacia Extracted from the African acacia tree, gum acacia contains arabinose, galactose, rhamnose, and glucuronic acid.

24 Gum Ghatti Obtained from the sap of the Indian sumac, gum ghatti contains galactose, arabinose, mannose, xylose, and glucuronic acid

25 Limu Moui A marine vegetable native to Tonga, limu moui contains the following glyconutrients: – Galactose – Mannose – Xylose

26 Medicinal Mushrooms and Beta Glucans Edible mushrooms contain an immune- enhancing sugar compound known as lentinant (a polysaccharide that contains beta- glucans)

27 Pectins Pectins come from fruits like apples, pumpkins, and tomatoes.

28 Foods That Contain Glyconutrients Aloe vera Astralgus Saps Gums Garlic Certain mushrooms Yeasts Husks Breast milk Coconut meat Echinacea Maize Pectins from fruits Some algae Certain herbs

29 Factors That Reduce Glyconutrients In Food Green harvests Processed foods Preservatives Increased toxins Limited variety of foods in our diet

30 Glycoforms Virtually every cell in the body is covered with hair-like glycoforms. The sugar molecules form codes that allow cells to communicate with one another.

31 Glyconutrient Conversion A series of enzyme controlled steps converts one glyconutrient sugar to another. Enzyme conversions require energy. Toxins, stress, drugs, processed foods, lack of enzymes, age, etc. can all inhibit an enzymes ability to convert these glyconutrients. It is more efficient to obtain glyconutrients in the diet than to have to convert them.

32 Glyconutrient Effects Raise the level of natural killer cells and macrophages to fight against infectious organisms. Activate immune T-cell activity only when invaders are present. Decrease cell death in people suffering from chronic fatigue syndrome.

33 Glyconutrient Effects Elevate disease resistance in weakened individuals. Act as antioxidant compounds. Protect the body from toxin and pollution exposure. Slow premature aging.

34 Glyconutrient Effects Decrease inflammation in diseases like rheumatoid arthritis. Helps immune cells recognize invaders due to a mutual “sugar exchange” of information. Enable cellular components to stick to each other initiating the proper reactions.


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