Presentation on theme: "Organic Molecules Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids and Nucleic Acids"— Presentation transcript:
1 Organic Molecules Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids and Nucleic Acids NC Essential Standard Bio.4.1
2 Organic MoleculesLarge compounds or macromolecules that contain carbonRequired by all living things4 Organic Molecules:Carbohydates, Lipids, Proteins, and Nucleic AcidsAll form polymers: chains of subunitsHow do we get these molecules?
3 Carbohydrates Composed of Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen Ratio: 1:2:1 (always 1 C: 2 H: 1 O)Collectively called SUGARSImportance:Main source of ENERGY for your body!Cells convert the carbs you eat into energy the cells can use!
4 Carbohydrates Formation of sugars (into polymers): Condensation/dehydration reactionProduces waterBreakdown of sugars:Hydrolysis reactionRequires water3 Classifications of Carbohydrates:Monosaccharides, Disaccharides, Polysaccharides
5 Monosaccharides: 1 sugar “simple sugars”Consists of 1 sugar subunitEx.: glucose, fructose (fruit), galactose (milk)Glucosethe primary energy source for cellsMade by plants during photosynthesis“blood sugar” in the human body
6 Disaccharides: 2 sugars Sugar made of two monosaccharidesExamples:sucrose — common table sugar = glucose + fructoselactose — major sugar in milk = glucose + galactoseServe as energy storageForm of glucose transferin the body
7 Polysaccharides: Many sugars Sugar made of more than two monosaccharides3 polysaccharidesStarch – glucose storage in plants; branched polymerspasta, grains, rice, potatoesGlycogen – glucose storage in animals; highly branched polymersProvide glucose to blood when needed; energy for musclesCellulose – found in plant cell walls; organized ‘chain-linked fence’ polymersProvides structure and support in plantsFiber!!! – humans can’t digest this; improves bowel function
9 Whole Grains vs. Refined Grains Why are whole grains better for you than refined grains (processed white flour)Processing to make white flour removes many of the nutrients and fiber from the grainLeaves behind only the starchy part“enriched white flour” – has some nutrients added back synthetically
10 Carbohydrates in your diet Monosaccharides: simpleGlucose, quick energy - enter the bloodstream fastCandy, honey (fructose), fruitsPolysaccharides: complexPolymers, take time to break down and enter bloodstream, more sustained energy;fiber (whole grains)!Starches: Pasta, cereal, breadsEx. Runner’s diet
11 Glucose in your bodyHuman body requires a steady amount of glucose daily – fuel/energy for the body!We don’t eat bits of food all day longInsulin – hormone secreted by the pancreas; removes glucose from blood and sends it to cells of liver, muscles, and fat so that it can be used or stored (as glycogen)Diabetes: improper regulation of blood sugar (glucose); causes high blood sugarBody does not make enough insulin or does not respond to it normally
12 Lipids Organic compounds that have much less oxygen than carbohydrates Referred to as fats and oilsEx. Beef fat: C57H110O6Insoluble in water because they are non-polarUsed by cells for energy storage, insulation (adipose tissue), protective coating, cell membrane function
13 Types of Lipids 2 Main Types of lipids: Phospholipids Key components in cell membranesControl movement of materials in and out of cellsTriglycerides: We consume these!!!Source of energy; contain more energy than other organic moleculesCan be Saturated or Unsaturated
15 Triglycerides Unsaturated Fats Contain double bonds on the fatty acid chainsNot “saturated” with HydrogenKinked molecules; not linearExample: olive oil, vegetable oil, etc.; usually liquidsBenefits when used in moderation:Can reduce cholesterol and cardiovascular risks
16 Triglycerides Saturated Fats Contain single bonds between the carbons of the fatty acid chain“Saturated” with Hydrogen, as much as it can holdlinear moleculesEx. Steak fat, butter fat, usually solid (animal derived)
17 Triglycerides Problems with too many saturated fats: Don’t really need them in diet; body makes what it needsCan increase “bad” cholesterolFat can build up on arteries; atherosclerosisCan increase risk of cardiovascular disease
18 Proteins Most abundant organic molecule of the body! Composed of C, H, O, N and sometimes SAmino Acids are the building blocks of proteins.20 amino acids found in nature.Amino acid polymer order determines the type of protein.*DNA code determines polymer order!!!Peptide Bond: The covalent bond found between two amino acids to create an amino acid polymerProtein polymers are called “polypeptide chains”
19 Proteins Importance Tissue Building! Keratin: Hair, Fingernails; ExoskeletonsHemoglobin: Carry O2 in bloodInsulin: lowers blood sugar; helps it get stored as glycogen; other hormones tooAntibodies: help provide immunity, etc.ENZYMESProteins that make it easier for a reaction to take place
20 Proteins - Enzymes Enzymes Make it easier for reactions to occur Act as catalysts to speed up a reactionThey lower the activation energy (energy necessary for the rxn. to occur)Lock and Key ModelMakes enzymes only work for specific reactionImportant in controlling reactions of the bodyEx.: amylase, catalase, lactase“Enzymes are proteins that end in –ase”
22 Denaturing ProteinsDenature: when the shape of the protein gets permanently changedEnzyme can’t function any longerCaused by: change in pH or tempCold = usually slows enzymes downHot = denatures enzymesToo acidic or basic = usually denatures enzymes*Important to maintain homeostasis!
24 Nucleic Acidscomplex macromolecules that stores cellular info. in the form of a code.Made up of smaller subunits called nucleotides.Composed of C, H, O, N, P atomsCan contain the information necessary to synthesize proteins.
25 DNA DNA: DeoxyriboNucleic Acid. A master copy of an organism’s genetic informationDouble helix shapeStrands of DNA form genes, which are the components of chromosomes.RNA: RiboNucleic Acid.Helps in the formation of DNA and many proteins.Not a double helix – single strand