9 Non-specific vs. Specific Immune Response BarriersSeparate the organism from its environmentNonspecific immune response – second lInflammatory ResponseRepel and destroy foreign “cells”Specific immunityHow lymphocytes identify and remember certain types of invasive bacteria, viruses, toxins.Create a “rapid defense system” for any second attack
10 First Line of Defense - Barriers SkinMucous membranesSecrete mucus (all “openings” to the environment)Mucus contains lysozyme (kills bacteria)OthersCilia (Resp. system)Stomach acid (low pH kills bacteria)Enzymes (lysozyme in tears)Respiratory tract
12 Second Line: Non Specific Immunity Inflammatory ResponseHistamine triggers the responseIncreases the permeability of capillary membranes (lets white blood cells out of the capillaries)Phagocytes/macrophages – ingest invadersNatural Killer cells – lymphocytes that provide a rapidresponse to a viral infection.Help contain a viral infectionwhile antibodies are being made.
15 Effects of inflammation PainHeatSwellingRednessLoss of function (sometimes)Chronic (long term) inflammation (depending on location Periodontitis (gums)Atherosclerosis (blood vessels)Crohn’s disease (intestines)Hayfever (respiratory system)Arthritis(joints)
16 FeverIncrease body metabolism , speeding up the repair process (only up to 104 F)Slow down the reproduction of some bacteria and viruses .Makes YOU slow down and “rest”
17 How does fever help? (1) Fever slow down some bacteria and viruses. (2) Fever increase metabolism (enzymes work faster up to 104 F)(3) fever makes a patient feel ill, condition which makes the patient more likely to rest.
18 Protein Production Complement proteins Interferon Stimulate inflammation and phagocytosisInterferonSend warning signals to neighboring cellsReleased by a cell which was attacked by a virus
19 How does the body know to “stop” the inflammatory response Programmed cell death (apoptosis)Based on lack of presence of pathogen (foreign antigens)Signal sent to “self destruct”.
21 Specific ImmunityCells and Tissues that learn about and learn to recognize and attack foreign substances (based on antigen recognition)IncludeMacrophages(from general response)T-cellsB cells
22 Role of each Cell Cell mediated immune response Macrophages/phagocytes– engulf (eat) foreign invadersT cells- identify and destroy infected cells; communicate with B cellsHumoral Immune responseB cells– produce antibodies, immune memoryAntibodies– specific proteins design to restrict spread of pathogen
23 Chemicals “call” cells When macrophage “eats” the bacteria it “displays” antigensHelper T binds to antigensResult: chemical message releasedmore Helper T madeKiller T activatedCommunicate with B cells
25 B cells create Antibodies Bind to a surface antigen on bacteria and clumps them together so that macrophage can “eat them”Complement proteinsPut holes in bacterial cellsCan inactivate or destroy toxins
26 Antibodies and complements Antibodies bind to antigens
27 Once all is under control Chemical messages decrease B and T cellsIMMUNE MEMORYMemory B cells are formedFuture rapid response cellsCirculate in blood
29 Memory CellsThe next time that an individual encounters that same antigen, the immune system is ready to destroy it quickly.
30 What prevents Reinfection? MEMORY CELLSLong term protection against re-infection for lifeHow?Memory B cells remain in the blood. (Bone marrow can remake as needed)Recognize antigen (second time response)Rapid and large production of specific antibodies
31 Ways to obtain immunity Short –term immunitySome vaccines or fluids containing antibodiesInfants have antibodies from motherDue to blood exchange during pregnancyDue to mother nursing childLong-term immunityStimulated by infectionCan be obtained through vaccines made from infectious agents that are not infectious, but do cause antibodies to form
32 Short term vs. Long term Immunity Body has been exposed to infective agentDisease or vaccineShort term immunityIndividual given antibodies (but the body has not learned how to make more)
33 Vaccines vs Antibiotics vs. Antivirals Create a table with three columns and four rowsIn the first columnVaccineAntibioticAntiviral
34 Vaccines, Antibiotics, Antivirals Column 1 – When are they used (before or during or after infection?)Column 2 – What are they effective against?Column 3 - Do they treat, prevent, or cure?Column 4 Do you have other questions or comments to add?
35 Virus consumed by a macrophage 2. Macrophage displays the virus antigens3. Helper T-Cell recognizes “enemy” . Call in the troops.4. B cells and Killer T Cells are manufactured5. B cells produce antibodies that bind the virus. Killer T Cells destroy infected body cells.6. Suppressor T cells stop production of defense.7. Memory cells remain for future rapid response.