Presentation on theme: "When Mushroom Go Bad? By Michael Mai. Outline Mushroom species belonging to Amanita genus - Toxin Species of Amanita General Information - Poisonous vs."— Presentation transcript:
Outline Mushroom species belonging to Amanita genus - Toxin Species of Amanita General Information - Poisonous vs. Regular Mushrooms - Parts of the mushroom that are poisonous Common Toxins found in Amanita - Amatoxin- Phallotoxin - Virotoxins- Ibotenic acid General Information, Mechanism of Action and Structural Comparison -Amatoxin -Phallotoxin -Ibotenic Acid Extraction Methods Amanatin Poisoning - Symptoms - Treatment
Mushroom species belonging to Amanita genus A. virosa (amatoxin) A. phalloides (phallotoxin) A. pantheria (Ibotenic acid) Morchella (edible)
Characteristic of Poisonous Mushroom Cap is wide, smooth, come with different colorful Usually sticky or slippery White spore powder Gill size is narrow or surface is smooth
Characteristic of Edible Mushroom Is has odor like almond Spore print is black or brown or chocolate Gill size is broad Mushroom must has no bruises
Which parts of mushroom that are most poisonous? All parts of amatoxin containing mushrooms are poisonous.
Common toxins found in Amanita Amatoxins Phallotoxins Virotoxins Ibotenic acids
Amatoxin Genernal information: Found in virosa and commonly known as “Destroying Angels”. Mechanism of actions: This mushroom can cause liver and kidney damage. Toxin invades nucleus of liver cells. Then it destroys nucleolus and inhibits mRNA Polymerase. The toxin circulates to kidneys and attack kidney cells then re-enter blood stream and back to liver. Amatoxins are LETHAL.
Phallotoxins Genernal information: Found in phalloides commonly known as “Death Cap”. This mushroom was discovered by Lynen and Ulrich Wieland in 1938. Mechanism of actions: Attack plasma membrane and bind to protein receptors. Cells leak Ca ++ and then K +. Toxin enters cytoplasm and attacks organelles by rupturing lysosome membrane.
Ibotenic Acid Genernal information: Found in pantheria and commonly known as “Panther”. Mechanism of actions: Toxins act by mimicking the natural transmitters glutamic acid on neurons in the central nervous system with specialized receptors for amino acids. These toxins may also cause selective death of neurons sensitive to Excitatory Amino Acid (EAAs).
General Structures Continue Ibotenic acid Amatoxin and Phallotoxin are more similar in structure than Ibotenic in that they both are huge cyclic structures. Both also contain a sulfur group in the center of the cyclic structure.
Methods: Dried specimens of Amanita foetidissima and A. pleropus were rehydrated in KOH, then rinsed w/ distilled water. Diced, weighed, then suspended in extraction medium containing methanol: distilled water. Suspended tissues are then incubated then centrifuged. Supernatants were collected and HPLC analysis were than performed. Peaks identified by HPLC were confirmed by FAB mass spectroscopy of the eluted fractions in A. reidii and A. phallodies f. umbrina, two other species known to contain amatoxin and phallotoxin. One Extraction Method for Amatoxin and Phallotoxin
Methods: Ibotenic acid ([alpha]-amino-3-hydroxy-5-isoxazole acetic acid) was separated from spores and caps of Amanita muscaria by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography and identified by flow injection analysis with mass spectrometric detection. One Extraction Method for Ibotenic Acid
Amanatin: Symptoms & Treatments Within 5 to 24 hours - diarrhea, vomiting, and pain (typically 6 to 12 hours) Short remission and apparent improvement 4 to 11 days later - severe liver damage - acute kidney failure - coma and death Supportive care - pump stomach, restore fluid balance Activated charcoal to absorb toxins in stomach Liver transplant High dose penicillin G milk thistle SymptomsTreatments
Works cited http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/wong/Bot430/Lect24_Edible%20and %20Poisonous%20Mushroom.htm http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/wong/Bot430/Lect24_Edible%20and %20Poisonous%20Mushroom.htm Source Citation: "Mushroom poisoning." World of Health. Ed. Brigham Narins. Detroit: Gale, 2000. Science Resource Center. Thomson Gale. 18 April 2006 Source Citation: Kaminstein, David, MD. "Mushroom poisoning." Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Ed. Jacqueline L. Longe and Deirdre S. Blanchfield. 2nd ed. Detroit: Gale, 2002. Science Resource Center. Thomson Gale. 18 April 2006 http://www.ansci.cornell.edu/plants/toxicagents/amanita/amapeptides.html# toxins2 http://www.ansci.cornell.edu/plants/toxicagents/amanita/amapeptides.html# toxins2 http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=onlin e&aid=248683 http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=onlin e&aid=248683 http://www.msu.edu/user/hallenhe/SAJB%20amatoxin.pdf