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Pharmacology & the certified athletic trainer. ATC and Drugs Study findings Study findings Health advisor Health advisor Watch dog for abuse Watch dog.

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Presentation on theme: "Pharmacology & the certified athletic trainer. ATC and Drugs Study findings Study findings Health advisor Health advisor Watch dog for abuse Watch dog."— Presentation transcript:

1 Pharmacology & the certified athletic trainer

2 ATC and Drugs Study findings Study findings Health advisor Health advisor Watch dog for abuse Watch dog for abuse

3 Terms Drug vs Medicine Drug vs Medicine Pharmacology Pharmacology –Pharmacokinetics –Pharmacodynamics Dosing Dosing –Standard –Pediatric –Loading Potency Potency

4 Pharmacology Pharmacotherapeutics Toxicology PharmacokineticsPharmacodynamics Drug Absorption / Distribution Drug Metabolism / Excretion Cellular Effects Systemic Effects

5 Routes of Administration Enteral vs Parenteral Enteral vs Parenteral Systemic Effects Systemic Effects –Oral (Ingestion) – liquid, tablets, capsules Pros and Cons Pros and Cons Enteric coated pills Enteric coated pills Sustained release tablets/capsules Sustained release tablets/capsules –Injection (Parenteral) – subcutaneous, intravenous, intramuscular Pros and Cons Pros and Cons –Other – intranasal, inhalation, sublingual, buccal, rectal, transdermal Pros and Cons Pros and Cons

6 Routes of Administration Local Effects Local Effects –Topical – applied to the skin to treat skin conditions –Otic –Opthalmic

7 Pharmacokinetics Refers to movement of drugs across body membranes to reach the target organ Refers to movement of drugs across body membranes to reach the target organ 4 phases (ADME) 4 phases (ADME) –Absorption –Distribution –Metabolism –Elimination

8 Pharmacokinetics (phase 1) Absorption Absorption –from GI tract to bloodstream – ingestion –All other methods go directly into blood –Some drug binds to blood protein, some free floating Bioavailability – amount of drug available to use following digestion Bioavailability – amount of drug available to use following digestion Exercises effect on Absorption Exercises effect on Absorption –Rate of dissolution –Surface Area –Lipid solubility

9 Pharmacokinetics (phase 2) Distribution – movement from circulation into tissues Distribution – movement from circulation into tissues –Delivered to target areas –Exercise increases distribution –Affected by poor circulation How does a drug exert its effect? How does a drug exert its effect? –Lipid solubility of drug –Receptor –Physical or Chemical means

10 Drug Actions Activation (Stimulation) – increase the rate of functional activity Activation (Stimulation) – increase the rate of functional activity Inactivation (Depression) – decrease the rate of functional activity Inactivation (Depression) – decrease the rate of functional activity Blocking – prevents an action or response Blocking – prevents an action or response Inhibition – changes cell functioning Inhibition – changes cell functioning Substitutive (Replacement) – substitute an equivalent substance to restore optimal condition Substitutive (Replacement) – substitute an equivalent substance to restore optimal condition Curative – destruction or prevention of growth Curative – destruction or prevention of growth Irritation – abnormal excitation of function Irritation – abnormal excitation of function

11 Drugs in the Body Example Site of action (Target organ) - Neuron Site of action (Target organ) - Neuron –Synapses – space between axon and dendrites In central and peripheral nervous system In central and peripheral nervous system –Dendrite – receive impulse from adjacent neuron –Cell body – processes incoming information; formulate action potential –Axon – transmits action potential –Neurotransmitter – protein chemical messenger that carries an AP across synapse

12 Site of Action Effects on Synapses – either excitatory or inhibitory Effects on Synapses – either excitatory or inhibitory Receptors – protein molecules on a cell membrane that can interact with drugs Receptors – protein molecules on a cell membrane that can interact with drugs

13 Axon Dendrite Neurotransmitter

14 Axon Dendrite

15 Axon Dendrite Drug binds to presynaptic receptor

16 Axon Dendrite Drug binds to postsynaptic receptor

17 Axon Dendrite Drug mimics neurotransmitter

18 Axon Dendrite Drug destroys enzyme that should destroy neurotransmitter

19 + Agonist

20 -

21 Antagonist

22 Factors Affecting Drug Actions Age – infants and elderly more sensitive Age – infants and elderly more sensitive Gender – affects women differently Gender – affects women differently –Hormones, % body fat, less H2O Mindset – Mindset – Dosage – Dosage – Potency – Potency – Purity – Purity – Tolerance – Tolerance –

23 Pharmacokinetics Metabolism (phase 3) – clearing of drugs from the body Metabolism (phase 3) – clearing of drugs from the body –Liver –First pass effect –Makes drug inactivative –Exercise slows metabolism –Liver illness slows metabolism – causes a buildup of unmetabolized drug Excretion (phase 4) – removal of drug from the body Excretion (phase 4) – removal of drug from the body –Exercise slows excretion –Kidney illness slows excretion

24 Example of Pharmacokinetic Process (Aspirin) Orally administered Orally administered Absorbed in Stomach and SI Absorbed in Stomach and SI 80-90% binds to protein, so 10-20% exits blood and has therapeutic effect 80-90% binds to protein, so 10-20% exits blood and has therapeutic effect –Compared with 20-50% binding w/ Tylenol Metabolism begins in blood and ends in liver – changes to salicylic acid Metabolism begins in blood and ends in liver – changes to salicylic acid Excreted by kidney Excreted by kidney

25 Pharmacokinectic Terms Half-life Half-life Duration of Action Duration of Action MEC MEC Toxic Concentration Toxic Concentration Therapeutic Range Therapeutic Range Maximal Efficacy Maximal Efficacy

26 Drug Interactions Definition Definition Depends on many factors….. Depends on many factors….. 2 Types of Interactions 2 Types of Interactions –Pharmacokinetic Interactions –Pharmacodynamic Interactions Additive Effect 2+2=4 Additive Effect 2+2=4 Synergistic Effect 2+3=5 Synergistic Effect 2+3=5 Antagonistic Effect 2+2=1 Antagonistic Effect 2+2=1

27 Drug Interactions (cont) Alcohol and Foods Alcohol and Foods Preventive Methods Preventive Methods –Label –Computerized record keeping Adverse Drug Reactions (ADR) Adverse Drug Reactions (ADR) –Allergies –Negative side effects –Minor or severe –Local or systemic –Seek Tx and requires discontinuation of drug

28 Guidelines for ATCs Read label for appropriate dosage Read label for appropriate dosage Consider possible interactions Consider possible interactions Recognize adverse reactions and act quickly Recognize adverse reactions and act quickly IV and those absorbed thru thin most mucus membrane take effect quicker than oral administration IV and those absorbed thru thin most mucus membrane take effect quicker than oral administration Drug effects are maximal at peak concentration level, but ADME can all be affected by a variety of factors Drug effects are maximal at peak concentration level, but ADME can all be affected by a variety of factors Be aware of all meds an athlete is taking Be aware of all meds an athlete is taking


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