Presentation on theme: "Mushroom Toxins. A. Life-Threatening Poisons 1. Protoplasmic poisons – life-threatening poisons that result in generalized destruction of cells, followed."— Presentation transcript:
A. Life-Threatening Poisons 1. Protoplasmic poisons – life-threatening poisons that result in generalized destruction of cells, followed by organ failure. most likely to be fatal, due to irreversible organ damage.
Protoplasmic poisons victims who are hospitalized and given aggressive support therapy almost immediately after ingestion have a mortality rate of only 10%, those admitted 60 or more hours after ingestion have a 50% to 90% mortality rate.
B. Life-Endangering Poisons The following classes of poisons are generally not life-threatening, although death is possible in severe cases in which large amounts were consumed or the patient has additional health complications : 1.Neurotoxins - compounds that cause neurological symptoms, such as profuse sweating, coma, convulsions, hallucinations, excitement, depression, spastic colon.
2. Gastrointestinal irritants – compounds that produce rapid, transient nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramping, and diarrhea. 3. Disulfiram-like toxins – mushrooms in this category generally are nontoxic and produce no symptoms, unless alcohol is consumed within 72 hours after eating them, in which case a short- lived, acute toxic syndrome is produced.
Protoplasmic Poisons a.Amatoxin (amanitin) Death Cap or Destroying Angel (Amanita phalloides, A. virosa) and several relatives Fool’s Mushroom (A. verna) and some of its relatives Autumn Skullcap (Galerina autumnalis)
b. Hydrazine (gyromitrin) False Morel (Gyromitra esculenta and G. gigas) and some of its relatives
c. Orellanine Sorrel Webcap mushroom (Cortinarius orellanus)
Neurotoxins a.Muscarine Poisoning Inocybe or Clitocybe species (e.g., Inocybe geophylla, Clitocybe dealbata) Inocybe geophylla
b. Ibotenic Acid/Muscimol Poisoning Fly Agaric (Amanita muscaria) and Panthercap (Amanita pantherina)
c. Psilocybin Poisoning Psilocybe, Panaeolus, Copelandia, Gymnopilus, Conocybe, and Pluteus Psilocybe cubensis
Gastrointestinal Irritants Green Gill (Chlorophyllum molybdites), Gray Pinkgill (Entoloma lividum), Tigertop (Tricholoma pardinum), Jack O’Lantern (Omphalotus illudens), Naked Brimcap (Paxillus involutus), Sickener (Russula emetica), Early False Morel (Verpa bohemica), Horse mushroom (Agaricus arvensis), and Pepper bolete (Boletus piperatus).