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©2005 Texas Trade and Industrial Education1 Cosmetology Cells, Tissues, and Organs
©2005 Texas Trade and Industrial Education Cosmetology I: Cells, Tissues and Organs 2 Performance Objectives Upon completion of this lesson, the student will be able to identify and describe the functions of cells, tissues, and major body organs. The student will demonstrate these competencies by completing a terms matching activity and a written test with a minimum of 80 percent accuracy.
©2005 Texas Trade and Industrial Education Cosmetology I: Cells, Tissues and Organs 3 Specific Objectives Identify the key responsibility of cells. Describe cells and their structure. Describe cell reproduction. Describe cell metabolism. Match terms associated with cells, tissues, and organs to their correct definitions. Define tissue and describe the types and functions of tissues found in the body. Define organs and list the major organs of the body and their key function.
©2005 Texas Trade and Industrial Education Cosmetology I: Cells, Tissues and Organs 4 Identify the Key Responsibility of Cells The cell is responsible for carrying on all life processes.
©2005 Texas Trade and Industrial Education Cosmetology I: Cells, Tissues and Organs 5 Describe Cells and their Structure Protoplasm: A colorless, jellylike substance in which food elements such as protein, fats, carbohydrates, mineral salts, and water are present. All cells are composed of protoplasm. Visualize as the white of a raw egg. Nucleus: The dense, active protoplasm found in the center of the cell. The nucleus plays an important part in cell reproduction and metabolism. Visualize as the yolk of a raw egg. Cytoplasm: All the protoplasm of a cell except for the nucleus. A watery fluid that contains food material necessary for growth, reproduction, and self-repair of the cell. Cell membrane: Encloses the protoplasm and permits soluble substances to enter and leave the cell.
©2005 Texas Trade and Industrial Education Cosmetology I: Cells, Tissues and Organs 6 Describe Cell Reproduction Cells reproduce, providing new cells for growth and replacement. Mitosis: The reproduction of cells by dividing into two identical cells called daughter cells. To reproduce, cells need food, oxygen, water, suitable temperatures, and the ability to eliminate waste products. Cells become impaired or destroyed in unfavorable conditions, including toxins (poisons) and disease.
©2005 Texas Trade and Industrial Education Cosmetology I: Cells, Tissues and Organs 7 Describe Cell Metabolism Metabolism: A chemical process whereby cells are nourished and carry out their activities. Two phases of metabolism: Anabolism and catabolism. Phases are carried out simultaneously and continually within cells. Anabolism: The process of building up larger molecules from smaller ones. The body stores water, food, and oxygen for use when needed for cell growth and repair. Catabolism: The breaking down of complex compounds within the cells to smaller ones. Catabolism releases energy that is stored by special molecules to be used in muscle contractions, body secretions, or heat production.
©2005 Texas Trade and Industrial Education Cosmetology I: Cells, Tissues and Organs 8 Define Tissue Tissue is a collection of similar cells that perform a particular function. Each tissue has a specific function and can be recognized by its characteristic appearance. Body tissues are composed of 60 to 90 percent water.
©2005 Texas Trade and Industrial Education Cosmetology I: Cells, Tissues and Organs 9 Describe the Five Types of Tissue and their Functions Connective tissue: Supports, protects, and binds together other tissues of the body. Examples include bone, cartilage, ligaments, tendons, fascia (separates muscles), and fat or adipose tissue. Epithelial tissue: A protective covering on body surfaces. Examples include skin, mucous membranes, heart lining, digestive and respiratory organs, and glands. Liquid tissue: Carries food, waste products, and hormones throughout the body. Examples include blood and lymph. Muscular tissue: Contracts and moves the various parts of the body. Nerve tissue: Carries messages to and from the brain and controls and coordinates all bodily functions. Nerve tissue is composed of special cells known as neurons, which make up the nerves, brain, and spinal cord.
©2005 Texas Trade and Industrial Education Cosmetology I: Cells, Tissues and Organs 10 Define Organ Organs are groups of tissues designed to perform a specific function.
©2005 Texas Trade and Industrial Education Cosmetology I: Cells, Tissues and Organs 11 List the Major Organs and Describe their Key Function Brain: Controls the body. Eyes: Control vision. Heart: Circulates blood. Kidneys: Excrete water and waste products. Lungs: Supply oxygen to the blood. Liver: Removes toxic products of digestion. Skin: Forms external protective covering of the body. Stomach and intestines: Digest food.
©2005 Texas Trade and Industrial Education Cosmetology I: Cells, Tissues and Organs 12 Summary Cosmetologists must understand body systems to enable them to distinguish between healthy and unhealthy skin and hair. Cosmetologists who have a solid understanding of the body systems will be viewed as professionals in their field.
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