# Properties of X-bar Complements, Adjuncts, & Specifiers.

## Presentation on theme: "Properties of X-bar Complements, Adjuncts, & Specifiers."— Presentation transcript:

Properties of X-bar Complements, Adjuncts, & Specifiers.

X-bar theory Specifier Rule: XP  (YP) X’ Adjunct Rule: X’  (ZP) X’ or X’  X’ (ZP) Complement Rule: X’  X (WP)

Predictions? Propose three different kinds of modifiers:  specifiers  complements  adjuncts Is this valid? Are there really three different kinds? Do they have different properties

Formal Definitions Adjunct: Daughter of X’, sister to X’ X’ X’ ZP X’  (ZP) X’ or X’  X’ (ZP) Complement: Daughter of X’, sister to X X’ X WP X’  X (WP) XP YP X’ XP  (YP) X’ Specifier: Daughter of XP, sister to X’

NP D N’ APN’ N’PP N PP the big of poems with the red cover from Blackwell book head specifier maximal projection adjuncts complement N, N’, … NP are called the projections of N

The book of poems NP D N’ N PP of poems the book The book from Blackwell NP D N’ N’ PP from Blackwell the book N ! quick way to distinguish complements and adjuncts in NPs (doesn’t work for other categories). Complements of N are marked with the preposition ‘of’. All other prepositions mark adjuncts. (This is not fool-proof!)

Complements always closest to head The book [of poems] [by Burns] head complement adjunct *The book [by Burns] [of Poems] head adjunct complement NP DN’ N’PP NPP the of poems book by burns since complements are sister to head

Only one complement, multiple adjuncts X’  (ZP) X’ or X’  X’ (ZP) Iterative X’  X (WP) not iterative the book of poems with the red cover from Blackwell in the bath *the book of essays of poems from Blackwell

Adjuncts can be reordered The book of poems from Blackwell with the red cover on the bus. The book of poems with the red cover from Blackwell on the bus. The book of poems with the red cover on the bus from Blackwell. ?The book of poems on the bus with the red cover from Blackwell. ?The book of poems on the bus from Blackwell with the red cover. ?The book of poems from Blackwell on the bus with the red cover. *The book from Blackwell of poems with the red cover on the bus *The book from Blackwell with the red cover of poems on the bus *The book from Blackwell with the red cover on the bus of poems (etc.)

Conjunction The conjunction rule: X n  X n Conj X n  The red and blue house*The red and cat Complements can be conjoined with complements:  The book of poems and of essays Adjuncts can be conjoined with adjuncts  The book with the red cover and with a blue spine Complements cannot be conjoined with adjuncts  *The book of poems and with the red cover

One replacement One Replacement: replace N’ with one. NP DN’ N’PP NPP the of poems book from Blackwell can be replaced by one can NOT be replaced by one therefore an adjunct can follow ‘one’ but complements cannot!

One replacement The book from Blackwell not the [ N’ one] from Oxford *The book of poems not the one of essays  (There is a dialectal difference about the acceptability of this last sentence)

Telling complements from adjuncts You should be able to list an example or two of these on the exam

Interesting ambiguity The English teacher  Teacher from England (adjunct reading)  Teacher of the English language (complement) NP D N’ AP N the English teacher NP D N’ AP N’ the English teacher N

Interesting ambiguity The Spanish English teacher  (can only have language teacher reading) The English teacher of Spanish  (can only have nationality reading) The Math and English teacher  (can only have the language reading) The Canadian and English teacher  (can only have the nationality reading) The English one  (can only have the nationality reading)

An easy mistake to make! When you have only one PP modifier or AP modifier, be very careful to see if it is a complement or adjunct. If it is an adjunct it must be a sister to the X’ level!!!!! NP D N’ AP N’ the big banana N this N’ is CRUCIAL!! NP D N’ AP N the big banana

The complement/adjunct distinction in VPs John [ VP often eats apples with a fork] adjunct head complement adjunct In VPs, the direct object is always the complement. Other things require thought. For example the verbs give and put take two complements a NP and PP.  I gave the apple to John (both are complements)  I put the book on the table

I loved the policeman intensely with all my heart VP V’ V’ PP V’ AP V NP loved intensely with all my heart the policeman complement adjuncts

Adverbial NPs He read faithfully every day.  What does the tree look look like? Is “faithfully” an adjunct?  * He read faithfully his syntax book. What can we conclude about how “every day” and “his syntax book”? Complements come closer to the head than adjuncts

Only 1 occurrence of each complement  *I loved the policeman the fireman Reordering  I loved the policeman with all my heart intensely  I loved the policeman intensely with all my heart  *I loved intensely the policeman with all my heart  *I loved intensely with all my heart the policeman Conjunction  I loved the policeman and the fireman  I loved the policeman intensely and with all my heart  *I loved the policemand and intensely

Do so replacement Susan loved the policemen intensely with all her heart but/and  Mary did so with her brain!  Mary did so mildly with her brain  *Mary did so the fireman

APs and PPs??? Evidence is much weaker.  very afraid of tigers adjunct head complement  very in love with himself adjunct head complement ???? a man in love with all his heart ? a man in love with all his heart with himself We will assume the distinction exists here

Specifiers The only element we have seen in specifiers so far is the determiner. In the next chapter, we’ll argue that even these aren’t real specifiers. Instead, we’ll argue the specifier is where subjects are generated. More on this later. For now, understand the definition (sister to X’, daughter of XP), and put determiners there.

Summary Specifier: sister to X’, daughter of XP Adjunct: sister to X’, daughter of X’ Complement: sister to X, daughter of X’ X-bar theory predicts differences in behavior between complements and adjuncts  only one complement, multiple adjuncts  complement must be closest to head  adjuncts can be reordered  conjunction  *One/did so + complement

Summary Complement/Adjunct distinction hold of pre- head material too. The C/A distinction can capture ambiguity There is strong evidence for the C/A distinction in NPs and VPs The evidence for APs and PPs is weaker We are leaving specifiers aside for the moment as something to be dealt with later.