2Complement in NPSome Post-head dependents are complements of the head noun rather than modifiers.Complements of N are typically PP or Clause which 'completes' the meaning of the head Noun.My interest in your proposalThe professor's study of refugeesThe lecturer's insistence on punctualityHis assertion that linguistics is funTheir claim that linguistics is hard
3Contrast between PP modifiers and PP complements Closer semantic and syntactic relationship between PP complement and headWhich small boy?The small boy with the large dogThe small boy in the gardenThe small boy on the fence*Which reliance? Reliance on what/who?Reliance on your ability/ on your uncle
4Contrast between PP modifiers and PP complements PP modifier may be headed by any prepositionWhich small boy?The small boy with the large dogThe small boy in the gardenThe small boy on the fencePP complement has restricted P (depending on head N)Interest in what?Interest in your proposal*Interest with/by/on your proposal
5VERB NOUNinsists on NP insistence on NPrelies on NP reliance on NPworries about NP worry about NPinterests oneself in NP interest in NPstudies NP student of NP / study of NPdislikes NP dislike of NPloves NP love of NP/ lover of NPRelationship between PP complement of N reflects relationship between corresponding verb and its complement.
6Only one complement; multiple modifiers The small boy [in the garden] [with his pet dog]The small boy [with his pet dog] [in the garden]*The student [of physics] [of theology].Complement precedes modifierThe student [of physics] [with his pet dog]*The student [with his pet dog] [of physics]
7Functions in Adjective Phrase (AdjP) HeadDependents:Prehead Modifier (PrHdMod)Posthead Complement (Comp)AdjPPrHdMod:AdvP Head:Adj Comp:PPso very improbably keen on that moviecrazy about that movie
8Functions in the Adverb Phrase (AdvP) head: Advdependents:prehead modifier: AdvPposthead complement: PP / clausemore carefully than Joso very quickly that he fell overquickly *than Jo/ that he fell overPrHdMod: Head: Comp:AdvP Adv PP/Clause
9Functions in the Preposition Phrase PP head: PPrehead modifier: AdvPPosthead complement: NP/PPPPPrHdMod:AdvP Head:P Comp:NPstraight though the intersectionalmost right into the crowdbarely in the water
10Summarizing functions of constituents of phrases: headdependentsTypes of dependents:preheaddeterminer (in NP only)modiferpostheadmodifiercomplement
11Functions in the Verb Phrase (VP) Head: VDependents:Pre-head modifier: AdvPPost-head modifier: AdvP/PP(Post-head) complement: NP/PP/AdvP/clause
12SSubject:NP Tense:AUX Predicate:VPhead:V PtHdMod:AdvPThe boy has run very quicklySSubject:NP Tense:AUX Predicate:VPPrHdMod:AdvP VThe boy has very quickly run
13Types of Complement in the VP Direct Object: NPIndirect Object: NPPrepositional Phrase Complement (PPC): PPSubject Predicative Complement (PCS): NP/AdjPObject Predicative Complement (PCO): NP/AdjPPost-head modifiers in VP are often referred to as adjuncts
14Direct Object (DO) Function in VP The direct object function is filled by NPThe dogs chased the cats.If the direct object is a pronoun, the pronoun is in Accusative case form.The dogs chased them. (*they)In basic sentences, the direct object NP comes immediately after the verb*The dogs chased [quickly] them.Exception: if there is also an indirect object NPThe boy bought [the girl] an icecream.
15Unlike PP complements in NPs and AdjPs the direct object (DO) NP is usually obligatory in English The boy discovered the treasure.The boy discovered it.*The boy discovered.The discovery of the treasureThe discovery
16Indirect Object (IO) function in VP Indirect object (IO) function is only filled by NPIO follows V and precedes DOI gave my brother [a new bicycle].The IO pronoun is Accusative (or Reflexive)Accusative IO I baked him a cakeReflexive IO I baked myself a cake
17Preposition Phrase Complement in VP (PPC) a PP may fill a complement function in a VPIt may be the only complementJohn relies on his friend.It may follow an NP (DO) complementJohn put [the book] on the table.As with PP complements in an NP or AdjP, the choice of preposition is restricted by the verb.relies on/*in/*from; believes in/*on/*about
18Subjective Predicative Complement (PCS) PCS is filled by NP or by AdjPPCS comes directly after the verbThe PCS describes an attribute or property of the referent of the subject NPCompare:The man saw a doctor. (DO)The man became a doctor. (PCS)*The man saw very clever. (DO)The man became very clever. (PCS)
19Another property of PCS If the PCS is a NP, it normally agrees with the subject NPThe gentleman is a lawyer.The gentlemen are lawyers.*The gentleman is lawyers.*The gentlemen are a lawyer.Only a limited set of verbs take an NP as PCS:be, become, seem, look, resemble...
20Tests to distinguish PCS from DO Test 1 - SubstitutionMarjorie looked a fright.PCS can be NP or AdjP.DO can only be NP.Can you replace the NP with an AdjP?Marjorie looked frightful /angry /very sad.Therefore - PCS.
21Tests to distinguish PCS from DO Test 2 - AgreementThe doctor seems a nice man.PCS must agree with the subject.DO does not agree with the subjectThe doctor saw a nice man/nice men.Can you make the NP plural?*The doctor seems nice men.Therefore - PCS.
22Objective Predicative Complement (PCO) Similar to PCS in many respects, but a PCO describes an attribute of the DO of a sentence.We consider him our leader.Subj Verb DO PCOThe PCO function is filled by NP or AdjP.We consider him very trustworthy.An NP in the PCO function agrees in number with the DO phrase.We consider them our leaders.
23Distinguish PCO construction from IO construction VP V NP NPWe consider him our leader. (DO PCO)We gave him our leader. (IO DO)Substitute AdjP for NP if PCOWe consider him very stong.Cannot substitute AdjP for NP if DO*We gave him very strong.
24Distinguish PCO construction from IO construction VP V NP NPWe consider him our leader. (DO PCO)We gave him our leader. (IO DO)DO NP and PCO NP agree in numberWe consider him our leader. (singular)We consider them our leaders. (plural)No number agreement between IO and DOWe gave him our leader/leaders.We gave them our leader/leaders.
25AdjunctsPost-head dependents which are not complements in a VP are adjunctsAdjuncts are never obligatoryAdjuncts modify some aspect of the possible reference of the VPDifferent types of phrases can act as an adjunct in a VP (XP is an abbreviation for an unspecified type of phrase)Adjuncts can be fronted to pre-Subject
26Sue slept very badly in the plane on Tuesday after the meeting I left very quickly. (AdvP)I left.Very quickly I left.I saw John on Tuesday. (PP)I saw John.On Tuesday I saw John.Mary left the following day. (NP)Mary left.The following day Mary left.Multiple adjunctsSue slept very badly in the plane on Tuesday after the meeting
27Complements cannot be omitted (except in special cases) I behave very badly. (COMP:AdvP)*I behave ___. (incomplete - opposite meaning)I put John on the ground. (COMP:PP)*I put John ___.Mary left her bag. (COMP:NP)*Mary left ____.Santa depends on Rudolph. (COMP:PP)*Santa depends ___.
28Complements precede adjuncts John read [the book] carefully/in the lounge*John read carefully/in the lounge [the book].Exception: 'Heavy' DO NP may follow an adjunct phraseJohn examined (very) carefully [every single document in the safe].
29Summary Every phrase has a head A phrase may have dependents Dependents may precede or follow the headDependents with a close semantic and syntactic relationship with the head are complementsIn some phrases (e.g., VP) complements may be obligatoryDependents which are freely added to a phrase to modify the head are adjuncts