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Linguistics Lecture-12: X-bar Theory; Adjuncts and Complements Pushpak Bhattacharyya, CSE Department, IIT Bombay February 28th, 2009 (main text: Syntax.

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Presentation on theme: "Linguistics Lecture-12: X-bar Theory; Adjuncts and Complements Pushpak Bhattacharyya, CSE Department, IIT Bombay February 28th, 2009 (main text: Syntax."— Presentation transcript:

1 Linguistics Lecture-12: X-bar Theory; Adjuncts and Complements Pushpak Bhattacharyya, CSE Department, IIT Bombay February 28th, 2009 (main text: Syntax by Adrew Carnie, Blackwell Publication, 2002)

2 How deep should a tree be? Is there a principle in branching When should the constituent give rise to children? What is the hierarchy building principle?

3 Deeper trees needed for capturing sentence structure NP PPAP big The of poems with the blue cover [The big book of poems with the Blue cover] is on the table. book This wont do! Flat structure! PP

4 Other languages NP PPAP big The of poems with the blue cover [niil jilda vaalii kavita kii kitaab] book English NP PP AP niil jilda vaalii kavita kii kitaab PP badii Hindi PP

5 Other languages: contd NP PPAP big The of poems with the blue cover [niil malaat deovaa kavitar bai ti] book English NP PP AP niil malaat deovaa kavitar bai PP motaa Bengali PP ti

6 PPs are at the same level: flat with respect to the head word book NP PPAP big The of poems with the blue cover [The big book of poems with the Blue cover] is on the table. book No distinction in terms of dominance or c-command PP

7 Constituency test of Replacement runs into problems One-replacement: –I bought the big [book of poems with the blue cover] not the small [one] –One-replacement targets book of poems with the blue cover Another one-replacement: –I bought the big [book of poems] with the blue cover not the small [one] with the red cover –One-replacement targets book of poems

8 More deeply embedded structure NP PP AP big The of poems with the blue cover N1N1 N book PP N2N2 N3N3

9 To target N 1 I want [ NP this [ N big book of poems with the red cover] and not [ N that [ N one]]

10 Bar-level projections Add intermediate structures –NP (D) N –N (AP) N | N (PP) | N (PP) () indicates optionality

11 New rules produce this tree NP PP AP big The of poems with the blue cover N1N1 N book PP N2N2 N3N3 N-bar

12 As opposed to this tree NP PPAP big The of poems with the blue coverbook PP

13 V-bar What is the element in verbs corresponding to one-replacement for nouns do-so or did-so

14 As opposed to this tree NP PPAP big The of poems with the blue coverbook PP

15 I [eat beans with a fork] VP NP beans eat with a fork PP No constituent that groups together V and NP and excludes PP

16 Need for intermediate constituents I [eat beans] with a fork but Ram [does so] with a spoon V 2 NP beans eat with a fork PP VP V 1 V VP V V V (PP) V V (NP)

17 How to target V 1 I [eat beans with a fork], and Ram [does so] too. V 2 NP beans eat with a fork PP VP V 1 V VP V V V (PP) V V (NP)

18 Case of conjunction V 3 NP beans eat In the afternoon PP VP V 1 V V 4 NP coffee drink V V 2 Conj and

19 A-bar: adjectives A 3 A 4 blue Very AP bright A 5 A 6 green A 1 AP A 2 Conj and AP dull AP A A (AP) A A A (PP)

20 So-replacement for adjectives Ram is very serious about studies, but less so than Shyam

21 P-bar: prepositions P 2 NP the table right AP off P 3 NP the trash A 1 AP P 1 Conj and P P into PP P P P (PP) P P (NP) PP

22 So-replacement for Prepositions Ram is utterly in debt, but Shyam is only partly so.

23 Complements and Adjuncts or Arguments and Adjuncts

24 Rules in bar notation: Noun NP (D) N N (AP) N N N (PP)

25 Rules in bar notation: Verb VP V V V (PP) V V (NP)

26 Rules in bar notation: Adjective AP A A (AP) A A A (PP)

27 Rules in bar notation: Preposition PP P P P (PP) P P (NP)

28 Introducing the X factor Let X stand for any category N, V, A, P Let XP stand for NP, VP, AP and PP Let X stand for N, V, A and P

29 XP to X Collect the first level rules –NP (D) N –VP V –AP A –PP P And produce –XP (YP) X

30 X to X Collect the 2 nd level rules –N (AP) N or N (PP) –V V (PP) –A (AP) A –P P (PP) And produce –X (ZP) X or X (ZP)

31 X to X Collect the 3 rd level rules –N N (PP) –V V (NP) –A A (PP) –P P (NP) And produce –X X (WP)

32 Basic observations about X and X X X (WP) X X (ZP) X is called Head Phrases must have Heads: Headedness property Category of XP and X must match: Endocentricity

33 Basic observations about X and X X X (WP) X X (ZP) Sisters of X are complements –Roughly correspond to objects Sisters of X are Adjuncts –PPs and Adjectives are typical adjuncts We have adjunct rules and complement rules

34 Structural difference between complements and adjuncts X WP Complement X X ZP XP Adjunct

35 Complements and Adjuncts in NPs N PP of poems N N ZP NP with red cover book

36 Any number of Adjuncts N PP of poems N N ZP N with red cover book NP from Oxford Press


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