$200 A period of economic innovation that was a result of colonization and exploration between the late 15 th and early 18 th centuries. Rise of joint stock companies and the growth of mercantilism occurred during this time. 4.2
$500 Economic theory which dominated 16 th -18 th c Western Europe, held that a country’s wealth was measured by the amount of gold and silver it possessed. Led to fierce contest for metal riches through exploration and colonialism. 4.5
$100 According to the New Advent Catholic Encyclopedia, he was the worst Pope. Known for his extreme decadence, and killing those who opposed him, he took indulgences to new “heights” to pay for his lifestyle and that of his children. 5.1
$100 Rodrigo Borgia, Pope Alexander VI. Rodrigo Borgia, Pope Alexander VI. Home
$200 Religious order created to strengthen support of the Church during the Counter-Reformation. Founded by Ignatius de Loyola (1534) the order of priests continue the commitment of good deeds to achieve salvation. Order is also known for it’s dedication to education. 5.2
$400 5.4 Summoned by Pope Paul III to define Catholic doctrine thwarting Protestant attacks on the Church. Doctrines were not reformed, but several corrupt practices were ended. Many of the reforms remained until late 1967.
$200 Calvinist belief that, at the beginning of time, God knew who would come to salvation through faith in Jesus and his death for all sinners. This concept remains a hot button among Protestant Christians. 6.2
$300 Luther’s revolutionary idea that every believer had the ability to read and interpret the Bible, that all people of faith were viewed by God as equals. Directly challenged the RCC position that this was only for priests. 6.3
$400 Luther’s central tenet that people are led to salvation only through inner faith in God. Directly challenged RCC teachings that a person’s adherence to rituals and good deeds earned them a place in Heaven based on their earthly works.. 6.4
$400 Justification through Faith Alone ScoresHome
$500 Luther’s list of complaints and reforms, including accusations against Johann Tetzel’s selling of indulgences. His protests spread through Europe quickly thanks to the printing press, igniting the Reformation. 6.5
More Reform Potpourri Explore & Colonize The Tudors English Civil War Between the Crowns $200 $400 $600 $800 $1000 Round 1 Final Jeopardy
$200 Edict of Nantes (1598) Edict of Nantes (1598) R1,1
$200 Signed by King Henry IV (FR) granting Huguenots limited political freedom, later revoked by Louis XIV in 1685 leading to massive emigration of the Huguenots to England and the Netherlands. Home
$400 Swiss leader of Protestantism and advocate of predestination who created theocracies in Swiss cantons. His ideas led to a large following in France, known collectively as the Huguenots. ScoresHome
$600 Monk commissioned by Pope Leo X to raise money for the RCC and was sent throughout northern Germany to sell indulgences (official absolution for sin). Outraged Luther and other critics of the church igniting the fire of reformation. ScoresHome
$1000 Political affiliation of Germanic and central European city states and principalities to perpetuate Latin Christendom. Did not include England or France. Emperors after the 14 th c were elected by seven electors representing the clergy and notable nouns. ScoresHome
$200 Agreement b/w Spain and Portugal to divide the Atlantic Ocean from north to south so the two nations would not compete for the same lands. Spain was to explore lands west of the line while Portugal explored the eastern region. ScoresHome
$800 Group of adventurous English sea captains who challenged Portuguese and Spanish sea trade supremacy and robbed foreign vessels of their valuables. Included: Sir Francis Drake, Sir John Hawkins, and Sir Walter Raleigh were among this ScoresHome
$1000 Portuguese navigator whose crew first circumnavigated the globe proving the world was round and the New World was not part of Asia. Credited for naming the Pacific Ocean b/c of it’s calm nature. ScoresHome
$200 R4,1 Last Tudor monarch, succeeding Mary I in 1558 and ruling until 1603. Lead the defeat of the Spanish Armada and developing England into a world power. Strengthened the English Protestant Church.
$600 Tudor King of England (1509-47). Established the Anglican Church, as the official Church of England, when the Pope refused to annul his first marriage to the niece of Queen Isabella of Spain. R4,3
$1000 ScoresHome Archbishop of Canterbury under Charles I (England) who tried to force the Scottish to use the English Book of Common Prayer. Later executed by Parliament during the English Civil War.
$200 Presented to James I of England by MPs in response to his absolutist tendencies. Held that King could not tax w/o Parliamentary consent, quarter troops in private homes during peacetime, declare martial law, or imprison a person w/o a definite charge. R5,1
$400 Supporters of Parliament including non-Anglican Protestants and Puritans, while the opposition also known as (Royalists) supported the King – largely Roman Catholics, Anglicans, and nobles. R5,2
$600 R5,3 Stuart son of James I, ruled England 1625-49. Had visions of being an absolute ruler and fought with Parliament over money, taking advantage of ancient taxes (i.e., ship tax) to avoid calling Parliament to meet. First European monarch to be beheaded by his own people.
$200 Hunting chalet remodeled by Louis XIV thirteen miles outside of Paris to move the seat of power in France as well as lessen the power of the nobility, forced to live here several months each year. Ultimately this abode consumed 60% of all taxes raised. R6,1
$400 Tsar of the Russia’s 1682-1725, brought Western ideas to Russia, improving the army, introducing technology and forcing new fashion styles on his people. Transformed Russia into a major world power. R6,2
$600 Chief minister to Louis XIII (son of Henry IV). He worked to establish absolute rule and weaken the nobles and Huguenots, while raising up middle class by employing them as Intendents. ScoresHome
$800 War fought by European powers after the death of the last Hapsburg ruler of Spain in 1700, which left the throne to Louis XIV’s grandson. Ended with the Treaty of Utrecht (1713). R6,4
$1000 English philosopher and other who argued that individuals have natural rights of life, political equality, and property that could not be violated by a political leader in a social contract. R6,5
Of those who ruled England, France, Prussia, and Russia, the five who were considered “politiques.”
Henry IV (France) Elizabeth I (England) Peter the Great (Russia) Catherine the Great (Russia) Frederick the Great (Prussia) Henry IV (France) Elizabeth I (England) Peter the Great (Russia) Catherine the Great (Russia) Frederick the Great (Prussia)