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Civilizations in Crisis and Change Ottoman, Japan, China and Russia.

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1 Civilizations in Crisis and Change Ottoman, Japan, China and Russia

2 The Mongol invasions of the 13th and 14th centuries destroyed theoretical Muslim unity. The Abbasid and many regional dynasties were crushed. Three new Muslim dynasties arose to bring a new flowering to Islamic civilization. The greatest, the Ottoman Empire, reached its peak in the 17th century; to the east the Safavids ruled in Persia and Afghanistan, and the Mughals ruled much of India. Together the three empires possessed great military and political power; they also produced an artistic and cultural renaissance within Islam. They contributed to the spread of Islam to new regions.

3 All three dynasties originated from Turkic nomadic cultures; each possessed religious fervor and zeal for conversion. They built empires through military conquest based upon the effective use of firearms. Each was ruled by an absolute monarch and drew revenues from taxation of agrarian populations. There were differences. The Mughals ruled mostly non-Muslim peoples, the Safavids mostly Muslims, and the Ottomans a mixture of Muslims and Christians. The Safavids were Shi'a Muslims; the others were Sunni.

4 Until the 18 th century, the Ottoman Empire was one of the greatest empires in the world. It has left a lasting legacy in the Balkans and the Middle East.

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6 The gate of the Topkapi Palace, the oldest and largest of the remaining palaces in the world.

7 View from the Topkapi palace

8 It’s a huge palace - the outer wall surrounding it is 3 miles long.

9 A garden within the palace walls

10 Gold dishes (for eating sweetmeats)

11 Golden cradle

12 Jeweled Dagger Pictures2/topkapi_dagger_1746.jpg

13 Courtyard of the palace harem

14 Harem Hall

15 From Empire to Nation: Ottoman Retreat and the Birth of Turkey Ottoman decline can be attributed to weak rulers in a system dependent on effective leadership. With division at the top and the empires’ commercial economy threatened, European neighbors could take advantage of Ottoman weakness. Russian threats were only countered by Ottoman alliances with other Europeans nations. Serbian and Greek national uprising drove the Ottomans back in the Balkans.

16 Yet the empire survived, in spite of military defeat and territorial loss. This was in part due to European efforts to support the Ottomans against the Russians. Reforms within the empire only further divided the ruling elites. SELIM III attempted reforms, which were viewed as a threat to the Janissaries and other groups in power. MAHMUD II was more successful in pushing reform. Intentionally spurring the Janissaries to mutiny, Mahmud then suppressed them. His reforms followed Western precedents.

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18 Early Reforms Attempts to reform taxation, increase agricultural output, and reduce corruption Sultan Selim III (r ) remodeled army on European lines Janissaries revolt, kill new troops, imprison Sultan Sultan Mahmud II (r ) attempts same, has Janissaries massacred Also reforms schools, taxation, builds telegraph, postal service

19 Being the nucleus of all the standing forces of the empire and reflecting the increasing importance of infantry in combat, the Janissaries became the most important corps in terms of combat effort and remained so until the end of the seventeenth century

20 Tanzimat reforms The Tanzimat reforms-from 1839 to 1876, included Western-style universities, legal reforms, and establishment of newspapers. Opening the economy to foreigners adversely affected artisans. Pushing reforms against women’s seclusion, veiling, and polygamy had a limited impact.

21 Janissaries images/PLATE67CX.JPG

22 Janissary band

23 Ottoman Sipahi (cavalry)

24 Tanzimat (“Reorganization”) Era, Pace of reform accelerated Drafted new law codes Undermined power of traditional religious elite Fierce opposition from religious conservatives, bureaucracy Also opposition from radical Young Ottomans, who wanted constitutional government

25 The reform movements brought Western-educated Turks to question the role of the sultanate. Abdul Hamid attempted to establish autocratic rule, while still continuing reforms. The coup of 1908 brought the Young Turks- members of the Ottoman Society for Union and Progress-to power. The constitution-sent aside by Abdul Hamid –was reestablished, with the sultan a figurehead.

26 The Young Turks Program  Pushed for reforms  basic democratic rights:  freedom of speech.  freedom of assembly.  freedom of the press.  Problem of nationalism within (heterogeneous empire).

27 Ottoman Economy Imports of cheap manufactured goods place stress on local artisans, urban riots result Export-dependent Ottoman economy increasingly relies on foreign loans By 1882 Ottomans unable to pay even interest on loans, forced to accept foreign administration of debts Capitulations: agreements that exempted Europeans from Ottoman law Extraterritoriality gives tax-free status to foreign banks, businesses

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29 Western Intrusions and the Crisis in the Arab Islamic Heartlands Arabs of the Ottoman Empire had some commonalities with the Turks, especially Islam, but were left undefended from European attacks. Napoleon’s invasion of Egypt in 1798 opened a new era in reforms between the Middle East and Europe. Their defeat by Napoleon was a shock, following as it did centuries of Mamluk military ascendancy. The conflict brought no lasting gains for France, but it was a watershed.

30 Muhammad Al Muhammad Ali emerged to lead Egypt following Napoleon’ s departure. He reformed the army along Western lines. Egyptian peasants were forced to grow export crops. His descendants-the Khedives-ruled Egypt until 1952.

31 Egypt and cotton Muhammad Ali’s reform made Egypt dependent on cotton exports and therefore at the mercy of European markets. European lenders gained control of cotton prices and then shares in the Suez Canal. Options proposed among Egyptians to solve the problem of weak sultans and khedives included jihad and more borrowing from the West.

32 Khedives These two approaches were and are essentially at odds. The financial problems of the khedives led to greater financial control of British and French bankers. British financial control began a new era.

33 Territorial Losses Russia takes territories in Caucasus, central Asia Nationalist uprisings drive Ottomans out of Balkans Napoleon’s unsuccessful attack on Egypt spurs local revolt against Ottomans under Muhammad Ali (r ) British support Ottomans only to avoid possible Russian expansion

34 Territorial losses of the Ottoman empire,

35 Qing Dynasty (Manchu or Manchurian)

36 Ming Collapse: 1664 CE Invading Manchu armies are resisted by Chinese forces for a while Chinese general decides to switch sides and allies with Manchu forces, surrendering all of Northern China Alternating explanations: Emperor had violated the General’s wife Emperor ordered general’s family killed, mistakenly believing the general was disloyal, and this drove the general to betrayal

37 New Manchurian Dynasty Manchu General enters Beijing and never leaves Declares himself Emperor Qing Dynasty Established 1664 CE “Manchu Dynasty”

38 The Last Dynasty: The Rise and Fall of the Qing Empire in China Manchu nomads, north of the Great Wall, were united by Nurhaci in the early 1600s. His banner armies were a powerful force. For decades, the Manchu learned from Chinese bureaucratic methods and employed scholar- officials. Called in to help put down a rebellion, they instead took Beijing. Under the dynastic name Qing, they ruled China. The Manchu elite ruled with few changes to court or bureaucratic procedure. They patronized traditional Chinese arts and Confucianism. Kangxi was himself an important Confucian scholar.

39 Qing Dynasty Emphasize Manchu Superiority Racial Purity Reserve Manchu homeland for Manchurians only No intermarriage All Chinese men must wear the Manchurian hair style: “que”

40 Minimal changes occurred in Chinese society under the Manchu, except possibly a decline in the status of women. Rural reforms attempted to bring more land into cultivation and restore the infrastructure of dikes, roads, and irrigation. These improvements were partially successful, yet did little to mitigate the power of landlords. Merchants did well under the Qing as exporters of tea and silk. These compradors linked China to the rest of the world.

41 Qing decline went along familiar lines. The examination system ceased to fill its role in bringing forward able administrators. Posts could be bought, and cheating was allowed. The abuses were troubling in a system based on Confucian education, intended to engender concern for the people of China.

42 Again, public works in rural areas were abandoned. In the Shangdong peninsula, the Huanghe river was allowed to flood. Thousands died from famine and disease. Banditry, on the rise, signaled a weakening dynasty. Many expected that a new dynasty would now renew the historical cycle.

43 East Asia in the nineteenth century

44 New Barbarians The new “barbarians” threatening China could not be sinified and absorbed. In the 18th century, British merchants had turned to opium for export to China. British depended on the trade, but the Chinese saw it as a threat. As much as one percent of the Chinese were addicted, causing widespread social and administrative problems. Efforts to stop the trade began in the 1820s. In the 1830s Lin Zexu was sent to end the opium trade. To do so he confiscated opium, destroyed warehouses, and imposed a blockade. The resulting Opium War ended with Chinese defeat.

45 Opium Factory

46 China was forced to open its ports to foreign trade. Hong Kong was developed as a British outpost. British officials oversaw Chinese trade, and the government was forced to accept foreign ambassadors. Chinese defeat and growing foreign interference led to revolts. The Taiping Rebellion was led by Hong Xiuquan against the Qing. Although successful militarily, the movement fell apart, especially under British opposition. The Taiping Rebellion challenged not just the Qing government, but also the traditional order. The scholar-gentry thus rallied to the regime.Men such as Zeng Guofan led the self-strengthening movement against Western influence, while embracing Western technology.

47 Manchu attempts at reform were blocked by those resistant to change, such as the dowager empress Cixi.

48 Empress Dowager: Cixi – rules Royal concubine whose son becomes emperor at age 5 (first wife had no sons) Rules as regent over her son Staunchly conservative, traditional and backward- looking dictator

49 Cixi: The Empress Dowager Empress characterized as: DictatorialViciousReactionary Names 4-year old nephew as new emperor Continues as regent Both co-regents die …?

50 Cixi: The Empress Dowager 1898: Cixi, from her deathbed, orders emperor (nephew) poisoned He dies and she follows within a day China left with another 4-year-old emperor Movie recommendation: The Last Emperor (1987) tells the story of this little boy emperor’s life.

51 In 1901, the Boxer Rebellion tried to expel foreigners. It resulted in greater European control.

52 Boxers

53 Boxer Rebellion 1898 Millenarian Movement: Restore China to the Chinese Martial Arts (Shadow Boxing) could make them powerful and invulnerable to bullets even. Deeply anti-foreign. Telegraphs, steam engines, etc. were offending local gods and feng shui Killed Missionaries and Chinese Christians Anti Manchu

54 Numerous secret societies formed to end Qing rule, without success. Yet they spawned a succeeding generation of reformers, such as Sun Yat-sen. These revolutionaries targeted foreigners. In 1911, they forced the Manchu from power. The revolution ended the Qing dynasty. In 1905, the civil service exams had been discontinued, after 2,500 years.

55 Sun Yat-sen Chinese Nationalist Studies Marxism in France 3 People’s Principles People’s Nationalism People’s Democracy 3 branches like US with Checks and Balances Censorate (undercover investigator) Examination system People’s Livelihood Land Reform Emphasize collective nature of an economy Not really either capitalist or Socialist; vague

56 Qing Collapse: 1911 Qing Dynasty ends officially in 1911 Young emperor survives No single leader or government Warlord factionalism 1920s Communists and Nationalists emerge to contest leadership Both claim Sun Yat-sen as the father of their movement. Sun survives until 1925 but never really rules china

57 Multiple-Choice Questions 1. The decline of the Ottoman Empire in the 18th and 19th centuries can be traced to all of these reasons EXCEPT: (A) sultans who were weak or inept rulers. (B) frequent defeat of the Ottoman Empire and annexations of its land. (C) religious divisions within Islam. (D) decline in the productivity of peasants and artisans. (E) Christian and non-Turkish populations, who resented Turkish rule.

58 2. The group that opposed most internal Ottoman reforms was the (A) university-educated students. (B) Christians. (C) merchants. (D) peasants. (E) ruling religious, political, and social elites.

59 3. Reforms under the late Ottoman sultans and Young Turk leaders (A) attempted to modernize Turkey without Westernizing. (B) sought Muslim solutions to internal problems. (C) emphasized westernization and copied Western models openly. (D) were opposed by most members of Turkish society. (E) had no effect.

60 4. The strategic importance of Egypt was changed by (A) Napoleon’s invasion in (B) the khedive’s conquest of the Middle East and defeat of the Ottoman Empire. (C) building the Suez Canal. (D) the conversion of a majority of Egyptians to Christianity. (E) building Alexandria and Cairo.

61 5. The Muslim Sudanese revolted under the Mahdi for all of these reasons EXCEPT: (A) opposition to the effort to end the slave trade. (B) the conquest of the Sudan by the British. (C) opposition to British influence in the area. (D) a desire to purge Islam ofWestern influences. (E) opposition to Egyptian rule in the area.

62 6. Although they were nomadic tribesmen from beyond the Great Wall, the Manchus, when they conquered China, (A) freely settled among the Chinese people. (B) reformed the Ming bureaucracy and removed local elites. (C) emancipated women and peasants. (D) retained the Ming emperors as nominal leaders. (E) retained the Confucian gentry-scholars and much of the political system.

63 7. Socially, the Manchu (Qing) rulers (A) encouraged innovative organizations such as unions. (B) reinforced much of the Confucian value system, including the family. (C) began to slowly emancipate women. (D) discouraged Manchu elites from adopting Chinese ways. (E) refused to reinstate the Confucian testing system.

64 8. All of these incidents were signs of the decline of the Qing Dynasty in China EXCEPT the: (A) breakdown of honesty on the Chinese bureaucratic exams. (B) diversion of taxes and revenues to enrich bureaucrats and their families. (C) rise of banditry. (D) rise of a wealthy group of merchants. (E) neglect of public works and utilities.

65 9. The most immediate result of the Opium War was (A) the partition of China between European nations. (B) the collapse of the Qing dynasty and its replacement. (C) the beginning of a powerful reform movement to strengthen China. (D) Korea was ceded to Japan. (E) China was forced to open its ports to European trade and grant European extraterritoriality.

66 10. In the last decades of the 19 th century, the Chinese inability to reform or modernize was largely due to (A) foreign pressures not to modernize at all. (B) constant rebellions and peasant revolts. (C) elites and the dowager empress, who would allow nothing to limit their authority. (D) the lack of an educated elite willing to lead or propose reform. (E) the lack of a prosperous merchant class.

67 Early Russia

68 Vasco da Gama's voyage to India had opened the way to the east for Europeans, but its initial impact was greater for Europe than for Asia. Europeans had little to offer Asians in exchange for their desired products. Asians were not interested in converting to Christianity, and their states were too strong to be conquered. Asians developed their civilizations according to their own diverse internal workings and the influences of neighboring states and peoples. Only the islands of southeast Asia were vulnerable to European naval power.

69 Themes in Russian History  Expansion by conquest.  Need for warm-water ports.  The necessity of a strong, central government.

70 Early Byzantine Influences: Orthodox Christianity

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72 Early Byzantine Influences: Cyrillic Alphabet

73 Michael Romanov (r )

74 Romanov Dynasty ( ) Romanov Family Crest

75 The Russian empire,

76 The Russian Empire in Decline Russia a massive, multi-cultural empire Only approximately half speak Russian, observe Russian Orthodox Christianity Romanov Tsars rule autocratic empire Powerful class of nobles exempt from taxation, military duty Exploitative serfdom

77 Russia’s Reforms and Industrial Advance In the wake of the French Revolution, Russia turned from following Western models. Alexander I supported the Holy Alliance in their defense of the religious and political order. Yet Russian intellectuals maintained ties to the West. Pushkin was one of many writers to embrace and enhance the Romantic style. The Decembrist Uprising of 1825 pushed Nicholas I further to the right. Restrictions on political freedom followed. The revolutions of 1830 and 1848 skipped Russia.

78 At the same time, Russia expanded its territory. A Polish national uprising in 1830– 1831 was brutally suppressed. Pushing south, Russia took Ottoman lands and supported Greek independence. Russian industrialization did not keep pace with the West. Peasant labor service was increased to meet demands for grain exports, and the grain trade did have a positive effect on industrialization.

79 The Crimean War The Crimean War—from 1854 to 1856—pitted Russia against the Ottoman Empire. France and Britain, fearful of expanding Russian power, supported the Ottomans. Russian leaders saw the advantage industrialization had given Western powers, and Alexander II pushed for reform. Serfdom was a key issue, and reforming the institution was clearly necessary. The emancipation of the serfs, in 1861, was carefully planned to maintain tsarist control. The serfs received lands, but had to pay redemption fees. Peasant revolts actually increased because of disappointment at the limitations of the reforms.

80 Crimean War: The “Sick Man of Europe”!

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82 The tsar set up zemstvos, which gave some political experience to more Russians. The army was reformed and recruitment expanded. Literacy and demands for popular fiction increased. Women’s roles broadened. Industrialization was part of these changes. The trans-Siberian railroad linked western Russia to the Pacific, additionally stimulating the coal and iron industries. Industrialization picked up, especially in Moscow, St. Petersburg, and Polish towns. Sergei Witte, the minister of finance from 1892 to 1903, modernized the Russian economy. Foreign control increased, and Russia became a debtor nation. While the volume of manufactures was large, Russia was still only partly industrialized.

83 Russia’s Time Zones

84 Protest and Revolution in Russia Minority nationals raised concerns in Russia, but were secondary to the dislocations caused by industrialization. Calls for reform developed along two lines. Liberal reforms were sought by businesspeople and professionals. The intelligentsia and student groups called for more radical reform, but remained isolated. Lastly, anarchists aimed to end all government. Failing to find popular support, they turned to violence. Alexander II responded by withdrawing support for reform. He was assassinated in Repressive measures followed, including anti-Semitic policies, and pogroms. Marxism took hold by the 1890s.

85 The Pendulum of Russian History Pro-West For Progress & Change Encourage New Ideas, Technologies, etc. Anti-West Isolationist Xenophobic Ultra-Conservative  Most Tsars  Russian Orthodox Church  Military  Boyars  peasants  A few Tsars  Intellectual elites  Merchants/businessmen  Young members of the middle class. REFORM-MINDED LEADER DEMAGOGUE

86 Lenin Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, Lenin, adapted Marx’s ideas to Russian conditions. His version of Marxism was adopted by the Bolsheviks. Dissatisfaction grew among workers, who unionized and organized strikes. These different currents of unrest made revolution in Russia likely. Russia made gains against the Ottoman Empire in the late 19th century. Aiding the Serbian and Bulgarian independence movements added to Russian pride.

87 A Brief History … The people that followed Marx’s thinking were called Socialists. The Socialists split into two groups. The milder group wanted to bring about communism slowly by passing new laws. The other group (we’ll call them Communists) stuck to Marx’s original idea of a major worker revolt. The Communists were a small extremist group compared to the total number of Socialists. They formed a political party called the Bolshevik Party, which was led by a man named Nikolai Lenin.

88 However, the Russo-Japanese War broke out in 1904, when Russia threatened Japan’s regional control. The Russian defeat led to the Russian Revolution in 1905.

89 Topography of Russia

90 The tsars created the duma to satisfy liberals. The Stolypin reforms eased the peasants’ redemption payments. Kulaks, peasant entrepreneurs, bought land to develop. The duma’s power was steadily weakened, and the Russian government turned its attention to the Balkans.

91 Rich Soil of the Steppes Chernozen Soil

92 Similar patterns existed in other eastern European nations. Some chose parliamentary governments, some monarchies. Eastern Europe experienced a period of cultural flowering, with new pride in Slavic culture.

93 Japan: Transformation Without Revolution Japan’s shogunate ruled in the early 19th century, with few changes. Shrinking revenues weakened the power of the shoguns after Developments in intellectual life included the terakoya, or public schools, leading to literacy rates of 40% for men and 15% for women. Nationalist leanings led to the celebration of Shintoism and Japanese culture. At the same time, Dutch studies continued in spite of bans on Western reading. Controlled by monopolies, commerce boomed. Slowing economic growth after 1850 and riots in rural areas led to a climate where change was welcome.

94 The arrival of Matthew Perry in 1853 threatened Japanese isolation. By 1856, two Japanese ports were open to U.S. commerce. The emperor was pressured to open the country further. Samurai were especially keen, hoping that the change would dislodge the shogun. The samurai began using American firearms in 1866 and defeated the shogun’s troops. Reform came with the installation of a new emperor— Mutsuhito—called Meiji.

95 What Did the U. S. Want??  Coaling stations.  More trading partners.  A haven for ship-wrecked sailors.

96 Perry’s “Black Ships”

97 The Meiji government replaced the daimyo system with prefects. Samurai were sent to Europe and the United States to learn, turning the group into a force for change. The reforms of 1873– 1876 ended samurai privileges and introduced conscription.

98 Japan Learns a Lesson! I n 1862, just before the start of the Meiji period, Tokugawa sent officials and scholars to China to study the situation there. A Japanese recorded in his diary from Shanghai… The Chinese have become servants to the foreigners. Sovereignty may belong to China but in fact it's no more than a colony of Great Britain and France.

99 China’s “Unequal Treaties”  After the Opium War of , Japan was convinced that it had to Open Up to the West.

100 The Shi-shi (“Men of High Purpose”)  Highly idealistic samurai who felt that the arrival of Westerners was an attack on the traditional values of Japan.  They believed that:  Japan was sacred ground.  The emperor, now a figurehead in Kyoto, was a God.  Were furious at the Shogun for signing treaties with the West without the Emperor’s consent.  Their slogan  Revere the Emperor, Expel the Barbarians!

101 The Meiji Revolt  A powerful group of samurai overthrow the Shogun.  Sakamoto Ryoma, the hero.  He helped Japan emerge from feudalism into a unified modern state.

102 The Shogunate Is Overthrown!  The last Shogun.  Tokugawa Yoshinobu.

103 The Emperor Is “Restored” to Power MEIJI  “Enlightened Rule”

104 Iwasaki Yataro is an example of a samurai who changed his stripes. Founding Mitsubishi in 1868, he built railroads and steamer lines. Political parties emerged. A new constitution in 1889 included a diet, modeled on the German legislature. Japan was successful in borrowing from the West while maintaining much of its traditional structure. Reforms continued with an overhaul of the army and navy. Priority was given to industrialization. Internal tariffs and guilds were ended to clear the way for aunified economy. The government was closely involved in the process of industrialization. Western models were adapted to Japanese conditions.

105 At the same time, entrepreneurs from all levels of society played an important role in the changes. Industrial conglomerations, zaibatsu, emerged. Industrialization was well advanced by Still dependent on imports, however, the country lagged behind the West. Cottage industry and sweatshops were common. Japanese society experienced change as a result of economic and industrial change. Population growth was an important issue. Public education was offered to all, focusing on the sciences and technology. Rapid Westernization in the 1870s was replaced by more attention to Japanese values and social structure. Western lifestyles, clothes, and measures were adopted. Women’s roles saw little change. Shintoism gained ground.

106 Modernization by “Selective Borrowing”  Popular board game.  Start by leaving Japan & studying in various Western capitals.  End by returning to Japan and becoming a prominent government official.

107 European Goods  Europe began to “loom large” in the thinking of many Japanese.  New slogan: Japanese Spirit; Western Technology!

108 The Japanese Became Obsessed with Western Styles Civilization and Enlightenment!

109 Foreign policy was adapted to Japan’s increasing involvement in the global economy. The Sino-Japanese War gave Japan a quick victory over China, and hegemony in Korea. Forced by European powers toabandon territory it had taken in mainland China, Japan turned its eyes to Russian lands. The Russo-JapaneseWar of 1904 was another Japanese victory, and Korea was annexed in 1910.

110 Urbanization and industrialization resulted in strains in Japanese society. Politics reflected the tensions, with assassinations and frequent dismissal of the Diet. Among intellectuals, questions were rife about Japanese culture’s survival. Their government’s response was to promote nationalism. The country thus avoided the revolutionary turmoil that affected China and Russia.

111 Multiple-Choice Questions 1. Nineteenth-century ruling elites in Russia embraced which philosophy and ideas? (A) autocratic government, Orthodox religion, and extreme nationalism (B) liberalism, including the emancipation of serfs and British-style democracy (C) socialism, with land reform for peasants and protections for workers (D) Bolshevism, or a worker-led revolution and abolition of private property (E) constitutional monarchy, with an elected parliament and limitations on the ruler’s Powers

112 2. In Russia, the supporters of westernization and radical ideas were often (A) nobles. (B) the Russian Orthodox clergy. (C) peasants. (D) intellectuals and university-educated students. (E) ethnic minorities, especially the Jews Catholics, and Muslims.

113 3. Russia’s 19th-century underdevelopment was most dramatically revealed by (A) the French Revolution’s impact on Russia. (B) Napoleon’s invasion of Russia, which nearly succeeded. (C) the 1825 Decembrist Revolution. (D) the Crimean War. (E) the Russo-Japanese War.

114 4. Despite the emancipation of the serfs in Russia, (A) serfdom persisted in many parts of the country. (B) Russian aristocrats opposed the emancipation. (C) few numbers of workers joined the factories or industrial workforce. (D) slavery persisted in Russia (E) Russia was careful to preserve imperial and aristocratic power and influence.

115 5. All of these influences led to the 1905 revolutions EXCEPT: (A) businessmen and professionals pressuring the government for political rights. (B) students agitating among the peasants. (C) anarchist assassinations and agitations among peasants and workers. (D) Count Witte’s social and economic policies. (E) the spread of Marxism and socialism among workers and intellectuals.

116 6. Prior to the arrival of the American fleet and Commodore Perry, Japan (A) was dominated by a Buddhist and Shinto religious hierarchy. (B) had not developed a literate and educated population. (C) was in self-imposed isolation. (D) lacked a centralized, effective government. (E) knew little of Western developments or ideas.

117 7. Which of these statements is a FACT about the policies of the Meiji restoration? (A) Political power was centralized, and the Emperor’s authority was restored. (B) Feudalism was retained, although it was limited. (C) The samurai retained some of its rights and privileges. (D) The samurai and educated Confucian elite staffed the state bureaucracy. (E) The Diet obtained rights and powers similar to the British parliament.

118 8. All of these social and cultural changes were the results of the Japanese Industrial Revolution EXCEPT: (A) the secularization of Japanese society. (B) massive population growth due to better nutrition and medical provisions. (C) a universal educational system. (D) the explosive growth of towns as rural populations migrated to cities. (E) an increased emphasis on technological and scientific education.

119 9. As a way to smooth over strains within Japanese society caused by the Industrial Revolution, the government (A) granted extensive rights and benefits to workers, women, and peasants (B) established a social welfare and retirement system. (C) tolerated unions and radical groups if they worked with the government. (D) gave the Japanese Parliament (Diet) powers over ministers and government. (E) supported Japanese nationalism and foreign expansion.

120 10. The nation that threatened Japanese colonial aspirations most in the late 19th and early 20th centuries was (A) Great Britain. (B) Russia. (C) China. (D) Korea. (E) the United States.

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122 Former Soviet Region Compared in Latitude & Area with the United States

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