Get rid of old institutions holding you back Modernize the military Improve infrastructure RAILROADS! May need foreign investment Industrialize Take advantage of natural resources! May need foreign investment “Westernize” your government
Early reforms of Selim III (1789-1807) resisted by Janissaries Janissaries slaughtered by Mahmud II in 1826 Tanzimat Reforms Modernize military and bureaucracy University education focusing on math & science Western technology (telegraphs, railroads, etc.) Constitution of 1876 Industrialization slowed by climate, government monopolies, etc.
Reforms of Muhammad Ali Modernize the military Manufactured weapons Emphasize cotton production Financed by Britain bankers Built railroads Successors Suez Canal Led to British making Egypt a protectorate
Emancipation of serfs Helped create urban labor force Modernize military Trans-Siberian railroad Count Witte (1892-1903) Promoted industry & banking Encouraged foreign investment Heavy Industry 4 th in steel; 2 nd in oil
Modernized the military Depended upon British and French investment Built railroads Mining and Textiles Government regulated Merchants given additional freedoms No major political or social reforms
Abolish feudal order Daimyo and samurai class abolished Constitutional government Constitution of 1889 Established constitutional monarchy with legislature Suffrage limited—only 5% could vote in 1890
Japanese industrialization Modernize the military, infrastructure, communication, education, etc. Zaibatsu Combination of state initiative and private investment Consolidates economic power into the hands of a few powerful families Vertical monopolies Mitsubishi and Mitsui Many companies started by men of samurai origins
Started by Benito Juarez (1858-1872) Tried to limit power of landowners and Catholic church New liberal constitution Attempts at land reform fail 50% of rural population landless by 1910 Larger gap between creoles and mestizos/natives
Porfirio Diaz (1876-1910) Built railroads Integrates regional economy Improved banking system Focused on oil & mining Depended on foreign investment U.S. investment 30 million pesos in 1885 1 billion pesos in 1910
Conservatives Scholar-gentry Dowager Empress Cixi Religious Movements Taiping Rebellion (1850-1864) Caused by a myriad of problems Natural disasters, economic collapse, government corruption and the defeat in the Opium War, growing Anti-Manchu sentiment, etc. Led by Hong Xiuquan
Hong Xiuquan’s army was able to seize 44 Chinese cities including the Southern capital of Nanjing ( above)
Nationalism Boxer Rebellion (1898-1901) Anti-Imperialist movement Backed by Qing government Put down by Western powers Nationalist Party Led by Sun Yatsen Modeled after Western ideas Liberal government Nation-state Social Reforms
Conservatives European intervention Maximilian von Hapsburg Catholic Church Threaten to excommunicate anyone who follows La Reforma Landowners Radicals Middle class called for electoral reform Poor (mostly natives) form general uprising
Your consent to our cookies if you continue to use this website.