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Thomas Jefferson’s America Mr. Phipps American History.

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1 Thomas Jefferson’s America Mr. Phipps American History

2 The Federalist Demise The Federalists, quickly losing touch with the changing demographics within the U.S., elect Thomas Jefferson, a spokesman for strict Constitutional interpretation and limited government.

3 The End of the Federalists The Alien and Sedition Acts – Instituted by John Adams, who refused to support France during the French Revolution – Bad politics, targeting Francophiles and French supporting Anti-Federalists – Used to imprison and deport those suspected of betraying national security – Excuse: to ensure national security by targeting those who spoke ill about the U.S. – Reason: to eliminate political opponents

4 The Mudslinging Begins: The Anti-Jefferson Campaign Thomas Jefferson – Accused of robbing a trust fund – Reneged on a promise to disburse the estate of a prominent Eastern European Revolutionary War hero (because of a clause to free slaves) – Had fathered numerous children with his slave, Sally Hemings, a clear indication of his hypocrisy Espouser of human rights Willing to have children Unwilling to emancipate slaves, even at the risk of facing total bankruptcy (TJ would be forced to sell his personal library to offset the expense, becoming the foundation for the Library of Congress) – Supported the separation of church and state (=athiesm)

5 The Election of 1800 Aaron Burr: Major political player, turned states like NY against the Federalists – Angered Alexander Hamilton Support in election derived from the opened territories in the West and the South, which granted universal white suffrage The Problem: Aaron Burr and TJ tied, swing votes favored TJ because he was perceived as more moderate

6 A So-Called Revolution Peaceful transition of political power, between political parties Indicated to the world, and the international community, the viability of the new U.S. government Proved that the Federalists had provided an established bureaucracy and brilliant leadership at the most critical time in America’s early life Suggested that the Federalists were increasingly out of touch with the realities of the new country

7 The New President Sloppy, ill-attired, a widower, often wore slippers to state meetings Uncomfortable with the pomp of the Federalist regime – Eliminated ranking at state dinners – Refused to attend State of the Union addresses – Used personal secretary to communicate with Congress Major “foodie”: first American to import pasta and French wine, had gained culinary appreciation while ambassador to France during the Revolution Master of informal politics

8 Jefferson’s Status Quo Repealed the Alien and Sedition Acts (technically, allowed them to lapse) Reduced naturalization requirements (from 14 years to 5 years) Repealed Hamilton’s excise tax, costing over a 1million in lost revenue Maintained the Hamilton’s basic financial structure Kept the structure of the Cabinet and much of the federal bureaucracy

9 The Marshall Court John Marshall – Nominated as Chief Justice to the Supreme Court by the Adams (Federalist) presidency – Had experience in the Revolutionary War – Supported the principles of a strong centralized government – Advocated for judicial activism: using the court to shape the political future of the United States by looking at context, precedent, values while judging – Considered the most lasting consequence of the Federalist party

10 Marbury v. Madison (1803) Established the principle of “judicial review” Judgment: – Marshall doesn’t attack the validity of Marbury’s appointment, but the Constitutional validity of the law granting the authority appoint him – Elevated the Supreme Court as the final arbitrator for ALL things Constitutional – Marbury kept his position, forcing the Anti-Federalists to impeach Samuel Chase for “high crimes and misdemeanors” as revenge – Impeachment failed in the Senate – Ended any retaliation against the courts, and ensured its stature as an equal, above political parties

11 Jefferson’s Foreign Policy Ideologically driven to narrowly interpret the Constitution, TJ was presented with numerous opportunities that challenged his politics. Advocating a flexible navy of gunboats and severely reduced army, Jefferson contended that the blessings of liberty were secured by a well-armed militia.

12 The Barbary Pirates The Dey of Algiers, North Africa – Had blackmailed, extorted, plundered, and forced tribute from British, Spanish, French, and American merchants – U.S. couldn’t afford tribute payments, war remained a cheaper alternative – Forced TJ to hastily construct a navy – 1801 began an informal, undeclared war against the Dey of Algiers and the Barbary Pirate Confederation, which would last over 4 years

13 Napoleon: The Louisiana Issue The Background: – Napoleon had purchased New Orleans from Spain, changing the warehousing contracts with the U.S. – Threatened U.S. commerce along the Mississippi River Basin, requiring diplomatic intervention – TJ sent James Monroe to Paris to buy New Orleans OR threaten to make an alliance with Britain

14 The Louisiana Purchase Napoleon: Had failed to conquer the sugar-rich West Indies Had become embroiled in a failed war with the ex slave Toussaint L’ Ouverteure in Santo Domingo Didn’t want the Americans allied with England Needed money for his conquests in Europe

15 The Louisiana Territory Purchased for $15 million Solidified control over the entirety of the Mississippi River, including the port of New Orleans Doubled the size of the United States Got the other half of the riches river valley in North America Demonstrated diplomatic savvy After Lewis and Clarke expedition, proved the viability of an overland route to the Pacific

16 The World Wars Continue By selling Louisiana to the U.S., Napoleon provoked outright war with Britain, with the rest of Europe caught in the crossfire Battle of Trafalgar: Horatio Lord Nelson crushes the Spanish and French navy, securing British naval dominance Battle of Austerlitz: Napoleon destroys Austrian and Russian forces, securing land dominance

17 “Hey, Sailor!!!” British impressment of American sailors force undeclared war with Britain Over 6,000 sailors are forced into service The Chesapeake Incident: – Violation of American sovereignty – Ship fired upon in American coastal waters, in order to demand the return of 4 British sailors – Highlighted American inability to protect itself against even minor threats

18 Jefferson’s Response The Embargo Act of 1807 – Forbade American trade to any country – Completely halted the American economy, forcing merchants, producers, and farmers to lose business – Plan backfired: The British had other sources of raw materials, although none as cheap as the American colonies (esp. cotton) – New England threatened secession because of financial loss

19 Jefferson’s More Moderate Response The Non-Intercourse Acts – Rough compromise – Forbade trade only with Britain and France – Collapsed after 15 months, because it was more expensive (3x more) to monitor and regulate than to build a navy – The “long view” Could have been successful if maintained longer British merchants had rebelled against the lack of raw materials and had publicly protested British naval policy

20 The Second War for Independence Unable to enforce the terms of the Treaty of Paris, the American government was victimized by British harassment along the frontier, in the Atlantic, and along the Canadian border. A byproduct of a larger European dispute, the War of 1812 provided a much needed boost to American nationalism.

21 A Hotheaded Congress The 1812 Congress Reflected the new demographic changes within the U.S. Consisted of young men, originating from the South and the West, areas with the fastest growing population Population had doubled in 20 years – 1790 (pop. 3.9 mil.); 1810 (pop. 7.2 mil) – Largest growth in Kentucky, Ohio, and Tennessee: the Western “frontier” Henry Clay, of Kentucky, emerged as major political leader

22 The Demands The West and South: Wanted LAND, LIBERTY, and FREE TRADE Were outraged at the violation of American sovereignty by British impressment of sailors Were angered by the increasing threat of Indian incursions (incited by the British) along the frontier Were the spokespeople of a new American nationalism Included the largest, most vocal contingent of warhawks – New England had the fewest, as trade would be disrupted by war – New England, though, would make the most money during the war through war profiteering, smuggling, and black market trading with the English

23 The Indian Wars Desperate to maintain free access to land, Native Indians formed loose confederation to force white Americans from spreading Led by Tecumseh and the Prophet Began a domestic war that would set standard for Native-American relations for the rest of American history Indicated the level of savagery the U.S. would resort to in order to ensure domestic “safety”

24 Tecumseh’s Last Stand Battle of Tippecanoe (1811) – William Henry Harrison burns Shawnee villages to the ground – Complete rout Battle of Thames (1813) – Tecumseh, fighting alongside the British along the Great Lakes, is killed resulting in the splintering of the Native confederation Battle of Horseshoe Bend (1814) – Andrew Jackson crushed the last of Indian resistance – Forced relocation from Georgia to Florida

25 The Ending of an Era Momentum from Indian Wars used to declare war on England (1812) War vote won slim majority from Southern and Western delegates Showed how divided the country was Showed the power shift from New England to the West

26 A Bad War Outbreak of war was not caused by surge of nationalistic fervor, not backed by sound political ideology U.S. had no trained, standing army U.S. had only small fleet of “flexible response” mosquito gunboats U.S. had no military leadership, generals were mostly senile holdouts from the Revolution U.S. had poor strategy, especially the three- pronged invasion of Canada

27 A Three Pronged Attack Battle of Lake Erie (1813): Commodore Oliver Perry engaged the British and pushed them out of Lake Erie, said “We have met the enemy and they are ours.” Battle of Thames (1813): Wm. Henry Harrison took Detroit and killed Tecumseh Battle of Lake Champlain (1814): British pushed out of New York Burning of Washington, D.C. (1814): White House and Capitol Building burned, inspired Francis Scott Keyes to write “Star Spangled Banner” Battle of New Orleans (1815): Andrew Jackson’s largely unnecessary slaughter of British, over 2,000 killed Treaty of Ghent (1814): Formally ended the war, restored lost territories and retained existing borders

28 The Results New Englanders band together at Hartford Convention to demand compensation for lost money Demonstrated that the U.S. could resist, protect, and defend its territory Earned the reputation of Perry, MacDonough, Jackson, and Harrison Earned diplomatic respect Indicated the growing political strength of the west Forced the Indians to make treaties with the American government (rather than the British) Rush-Bagot Treaty: Created a mutually agreed demilitarized zone along Canadian border

29 The Era of Good Feelings Following the War of 1812, the United States began a period of unprecedented geographic growth, economic growth, and nationalism, the spirit of which was crushed by the Panic of 1819, the first great American recession.

30 The Era of Good Feelings Cultural Nationalism Intense flowering of uniquely American culture, literature, and art – James Fenimore Cooper: The Leatherstocking Tales, The Last of the Mohicans – Washington Irving: The Legend of Sleepy Hollow, The Tale of Rip Van Winkle – Themes: Conquering the Wilderness, Indians, Man v. Nature, the changing values of “modern” America, folk traditions Reconstruction of Washington, D.C. by Pierre L’Enfant, modified later by Benjamin Latrobe – In Greek Revival style, a nod to Greco-Roman republicanism

31 Economic Nationalism The American Plan: – Build a strong centralized banking system – Institute a protective tariff (Tariff of 1816) making imports more expensive than domestic goods – Revenue from tariff used to build roads, canals, and infrastructures – Routes would facilitate trade, communication, unify the country through flow of raw materials and manufactured goods, and promote new business growth – Logical progression of Hamilton’s financial system – Opposed by New England, who feared the drain of power and influence to the Qest

32 Judicial Nationalism McCullouch v. Maryland (1819): – Context: Maryland wanted to strike down a branch of the B.U.S. – Ruling: B.U.S. is under jurisdiction of the federal government (an implied power), government is the custodian of the law, speaks for the people, and is derived by consent of the governed Cohens v. Virginia (1821): – Ruling: Supreme Court can review lower courts decisions for Constitutionality Gibbons v. Ogden (1824): – Only Congress can regulate interstate trade, not individual states (like NY, which tried to form a monopoly on river rates) Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819): – Upholds the sanctity of contract law, even contracts that preexist the United States – Allowed for free enterprise, through contract negotiations

33 The End to Good Feelings The Panic of 1819 – Massive wave of bankruptcies, foreclosures, and unemployment – Caused by: Widespread over-speculation in western real estate Lack of solid currency High debt, with skyrocketing interest rates on credit B.U.S. forced repayment of debt and froze credit – First major American recession

34 Westward Expansion and Slavery Caused by: – The application of Missouri to the Union as a slave state, the first state in the Louisiana Territory – Agricultural expansion (tobacco and cotton) required fresh soil and a labor source to cultivate it – South challenged by the increased wealth and political power of the North – Popular sovereignty granted the right of people to decide slave status – Slave status upset the balance in Congress (11 Free States: 11 Slave States)

35 The Missouri Compromise Crafted by Henry Clay, Senator from Kentucky Admitted Missouri into the Union as a slave state Maintained balance in Congress by making Maine a free state Prohibited slavery north of the 36° 30”, the so- called Mason-Dixon Line

36 James Monroe’s Foreign Policy Fixed the northern border of the U.S. at the 49th Parallel Maintained joint custody and occupation of Oregon Shared fisheries of Newfoundland with Britain Allowed Gen. Andrew Jackson to rout outlaws, Indians, and Spaniards out of Florida – Spanish released control of Florida and Oregon to U.S. – U.S. promised to stay out of Spanish occupied Texas – Started the Trail of Tears: germ warfare and relocation program of Indians

37 Diplomatic Nationalism: The Monroe Doctrine Caused by: – Increased aggression by national super powers in Europe – Napoleonic Empire divided by Congress of Vienna, redrawing Europe Russia had pushed South into California (as far as San Francisco) British had consolidated trade monopoly

38 The Monroe Doctrine A statement to the Czar of Russia warning him, and the rest of European leaders, to stay out of the Western Hemisphere Pushed two points: – No European colonization in Western Hemisphere – No European intervention in Western Hemisphere politics (e.g., Latin American revolutions) The Results: – Never law – Mostly symbolic – Totally unenforceable – Remained a lasting statement of American foreign policy, that would be updated by the Roosevelt Corollary in 1902

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