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The Jewish Community By: Alissa Hartman. Ancient Jewish Culture The Jews have a 5,750 year history, tracing their origins to Biblical times. Evolving.

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Presentation on theme: "The Jewish Community By: Alissa Hartman. Ancient Jewish Culture The Jews have a 5,750 year history, tracing their origins to Biblical times. Evolving."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Jewish Community By: Alissa Hartman

2 Ancient Jewish Culture The Jews have a 5,750 year history, tracing their origins to Biblical times. Evolving out of a common religion, the Jewish people developed customs, culture, and an ethical system which identified them as Jews regardless of their individual religious attitudes. The ancient Jews were both conquerors and the conquered. But they were among only a handful of ancient peoples to survive, despite centuries of persecution, massacres, and their dispersion amongst all of the world's nations. Where other peoples assimilated, the Jews adopted some local customs and folkways, but held onto the basic tenets of their religion and culture. The Jews have a 5,750 year history, tracing their origins to Biblical times. Evolving out of a common religion, the Jewish people developed customs, culture, and an ethical system which identified them as Jews regardless of their individual religious attitudes. The ancient Jews were both conquerors and the conquered. But they were among only a handful of ancient peoples to survive, despite centuries of persecution, massacres, and their dispersion amongst all of the world's nations. Where other peoples assimilated, the Jews adopted some local customs and folkways, but held onto the basic tenets of their religion and culture.

3 Religious Beliefs Were Israelites Monotheists? Were Israelites Monotheists? They were originally polytheistic which is what upset Moses when he discovered them worshipping the golden calf instead of his preferred sky god who was jealous of any other gods. The idea of having only one god comes from Akhenaten the heretic Egyptian pharaoh who invented this form of worship. Yom Kippur is probably the most important holiday of the Jewish year. Yom Kippur is probably the most important holiday of the Jewish year. Passover meal – Seder Woman Praying Young Boy praying The Holy Torah

4 The Zealots The Zealots were apparently Pharisaic in their views, with the notable exception that they advocated and practiced armed resistance against the Roman occupation. This group sparked the revolt against Rome (66-70 C.E.), which had such disastrous consequences for the Jewish nation. The Zealots were apparently Pharisaic in their views, with the notable exception that they advocated and practiced armed resistance against the Roman occupation. This group sparked the revolt against Rome (66-70 C.E.), which had such disastrous consequences for the Jewish nation.

5 Post-70 C.E. Judaism The disastrous war of brought an end to the Sadducees, for the Temple, the foundation of their influence, was destroyed, never to be rebuilt. The Zealots, except for a resurgence in the second Jewish revolt of C.E., lost all credibility in their program of armed resistance against Rome. The covenanting community of Qumran disappeared in 68, as we have already noted. The Pharisees were left as the major group to survive the war and to give their stamp to historic Judaism, down to the present day, but especially to what today is called Orthodox Judaism. The disastrous war of brought an end to the Sadducees, for the Temple, the foundation of their influence, was destroyed, never to be rebuilt. The Zealots, except for a resurgence in the second Jewish revolt of C.E., lost all credibility in their program of armed resistance against Rome. The covenanting community of Qumran disappeared in 68, as we have already noted. The Pharisees were left as the major group to survive the war and to give their stamp to historic Judaism, down to the present day, but especially to what today is called Orthodox Judaism.

6 Synagogue Life in the Diaspora In the same way as for Jews in Palestine, loyalty to the Law was the central feature of Hellenistic Judaism. Their religious life centered almost exclusively on the synagogue, except for pilgrims who were able to visit the Temple in Jerusalem for the great festivals. Yet Jews of the dispersion were more in tune with Greek culture than their brothers and sisters in Palestine. One of the great Jewish thinkers, Philo of Alexandria, sought to interpret the Law in a way compatible with Greek philosophy (or, put differently, the explication of philosophy employing the categories of Torah, in allegorical fashion). The response of their gentile neighbors was varied. The Jews were regarded with contempt by some, and on occasion were the victims of persecution. By others, they were shown respect because of the lofty monotheism and the noble ethics of Jewish teaching. There were some gentiles who sought admission to the Jewish community. These were received on condition that they follow the requirements of the Law; that they submit to the rite of circumcision; that they receive a ceremonial washing; and that where possible they offer sacrifice in the Temple. Such converts were called “proselytes.” Other gentiles, called “God-fearers,” were unwilling to submit to the ritual requirements for proselytes, but they were attracted to the religious and ethical teachings of Judaism, and were welcomed to the worship of the synagogue. It was among these God-fearers that Christianity frequently received a sympathetic hearing, as the proclamation of the Christian message spread outside of Palestine. In the same way as for Jews in Palestine, loyalty to the Law was the central feature of Hellenistic Judaism. Their religious life centered almost exclusively on the synagogue, except for pilgrims who were able to visit the Temple in Jerusalem for the great festivals. Yet Jews of the dispersion were more in tune with Greek culture than their brothers and sisters in Palestine. One of the great Jewish thinkers, Philo of Alexandria, sought to interpret the Law in a way compatible with Greek philosophy (or, put differently, the explication of philosophy employing the categories of Torah, in allegorical fashion). The response of their gentile neighbors was varied. The Jews were regarded with contempt by some, and on occasion were the victims of persecution. By others, they were shown respect because of the lofty monotheism and the noble ethics of Jewish teaching. There were some gentiles who sought admission to the Jewish community. These were received on condition that they follow the requirements of the Law; that they submit to the rite of circumcision; that they receive a ceremonial washing; and that where possible they offer sacrifice in the Temple. Such converts were called “proselytes.” Other gentiles, called “God-fearers,” were unwilling to submit to the ritual requirements for proselytes, but they were attracted to the religious and ethical teachings of Judaism, and were welcomed to the worship of the synagogue. It was among these God-fearers that Christianity frequently received a sympathetic hearing, as the proclamation of the Christian message spread outside of Palestine.

7 How are Jews Different From Israelites? Throughout the Torah Jews are called Israelites. That's because they are direct descendants of Jacob, whom G-d named Israel. Jews were called by that name until just after King Solomon's time when the tribe of Judah chose a separate king then most of the other tribes, which left the Jewish nation (then known as the Israelites) with a country split in two, or rather - two countries. Years passed and Nebuchadnezzar came with his Assyrian army, and defeated the Kingdom of Israel. He hadn't hit Judah yet. He exiled the 10 tribes (now called the 'lost tribes'), and the only ones who survived were from Judah. Over the years that was shortened to 'Jew'. Truthfully, they are the same thing today, as most surviving Jews (not counting the Bene Israel in India and Ethiopia and the like) are from the tribe of Judah, Benjamin or Levi. Throughout the Torah Jews are called Israelites. That's because they are direct descendants of Jacob, whom G-d named Israel. Jews were called by that name until just after King Solomon's time when the tribe of Judah chose a separate king then most of the other tribes, which left the Jewish nation (then known as the Israelites) with a country split in two, or rather - two countries. Years passed and Nebuchadnezzar came with his Assyrian army, and defeated the Kingdom of Israel. He hadn't hit Judah yet. He exiled the 10 tribes (now called the 'lost tribes'), and the only ones who survived were from Judah. Over the years that was shortened to 'Jew'. Truthfully, they are the same thing today, as most surviving Jews (not counting the Bene Israel in India and Ethiopia and the like) are from the tribe of Judah, Benjamin or Levi.

8 How are Jews similar to Israelites? 1. Both are religion-based regimes, rooted in ancient Mesopotamian mumbo jumbo; 1. Both are religion-based regimes, rooted in ancient Mesopotamian mumbo jumbo; 2. Both have large population of non-believers, who suffer in the hands of the more radical, vocal and organized zealots; 2. Both have large population of non-believers, who suffer in the hands of the more radical, vocal and organized zealots; 3. Both pursue a systematic suppression of ethnic and religious minorities; 3. Both pursue a systematic suppression of ethnic and religious minorities; 4. Both have notorious secret services that are often accused of cruel acts of torture and murder; 4. Both have notorious secret services that are often accused of cruel acts of torture and murder; 5. Both have aspiration to lead the world, as a group of ‘chosen people’, with whom god has made a special covenant; 5. Both have aspiration to lead the world, as a group of ‘chosen people’, with whom god has made a special covenant; 6. Both await the emergence of a messiah who will transform the whole world into a mono-religious “paradise”; 6. Both await the emergence of a messiah who will transform the whole world into a mono-religious “paradise”; 7. Both have parliamentary systems, but ones that disenfranchise large portions of their population; 7. Both have parliamentary systems, but ones that disenfranchise large portions of their population; 8. In both countries, the leaders claim to be holier-than-thou, but are often revealed as rotten corrupts; 8. In both countries, the leaders claim to be holier-than-thou, but are often revealed as rotten corrupts; 9. Non-believers in both countries are harassed, e.g. women with revealing clothes, or men thought to break religious laws (drinking in Iran, driving on a Saturday in Israel); 9. Non-believers in both countries are harassed, e.g. women with revealing clothes, or men thought to break religious laws (drinking in Iran, driving on a Saturday in Israel); 10. Both have clandestine nuclear programs, which have either resulted in weapons of mass destruction or are on their way to it. 10. Both have clandestine nuclear programs, which have either resulted in weapons of mass destruction or are on their way to it.

9 The Names of different Jews Ashkenazim Ashkenazim Sephardic Sephardic Chassidic, Chassidic, Orthodox, Orthodox, Conservative, Conservative, Reform, Reform, Reconstructionist Reconstructionist Renewal, Renewal, Humanistic, Humanistic, Karaite Sephardic, Karaite Sephardic, Ashkenazic, Ashkenazic, Mizrahi, Mizrahi, Beta Israel, Beta Israel, Kaifeng. Kaifeng.

10 The Names of different jews (Cont. ) Sub-groups: Sub-groups: Modern Orthodox Liberal, Modern Orthodox Liberal, Modern Orthodox Modern Orthodox Machmir, Machmir, Yeshivish Modern, Yeshivish Modern, Yeshivish Black Hat, Yeshivish Black Hat, Hassidish, Hassidish, Carlebachian, Carlebachian, Shomer Mitzvot Shomer Mitzvot

11 Other religions impact on the Jewish society Jews in Rome Jews had lived in Rome since the second century BC. Julius Caesar and Augustus supported laws that allowed Jews protection to worship as they chose. Synagogues were classified as colleges to get around Roman laws banning secret societies and the temples were allowed to collect the yearly tax paid by all Jewish men for temple maintenance. There had been upsets: Jews had been banished from Rome in 139 BC, again in 19 AD and during the reign of Claudius. However, they were soon allowed to return and continue their independent existence under Roman law. The temple in Jerusalem Although each Jewish community worshipped at its own synagogue, the temple in Jerusalem remained the spiritual center of their worship. The temple had been rebuilt three times. The first was when it had been destroyed in 587 BC by Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylonia. The second was when it had been plundered and wrecked by Judaea’s foreign rulers. The third time, it had been rebuilt by Herod the Great in 20 BC. It had several gates and chambers, some of which were open only to men, some only to women, while others were reserved for priests. The temple was the meeting place of the Jewish Council, called the Sanhedrin. It also held Jewish holy scriptures and documents. Outside was the temple square – this was a marketplace, where pilgrims could buy sacrificial animals and convert foreign currency into temple coins. Rebellion in Judaea Although Judaea was ruled by the Romans, the governors there had practiced the same kind of religious tolerance as was shown to Jews in Rome [expert]. However, Roman tactlessness and inefficiency, along with famine and internal squabbles, led to a rise in Jewish discontent. In 66 AD, this discontent exploded into open rebellion. Four years later, the Roman army had crushed the revolt, but had also destroyed the temple. The sacred treasures were seized and shown off in a procession through the streets of Rome. Destruction of the temple The destruction of the temple fundamentally changed the nature of Judaism. Taxes that were once paid to the temple were now paid to Rome, and the Jewish tradition of worshipping in the temple was over. With only the Western Wall remaining of the temple in Jerusalem, the local synagogues now became the new centers of the Jewish religion Jews in Rome Jews had lived in Rome since the second century BC. Julius Caesar and Augustus supported laws that allowed Jews protection to worship as they chose. Synagogues were classified as colleges to get around Roman laws banning secret societies and the temples were allowed to collect the yearly tax paid by all Jewish men for temple maintenance. There had been upsets: Jews had been banished from Rome in 139 BC, again in 19 AD and during the reign of Claudius. However, they were soon allowed to return and continue their independent existence under Roman law. The temple in Jerusalem Although each Jewish community worshipped at its own synagogue, the temple in Jerusalem remained the spiritual center of their worship. The temple had been rebuilt three times. The first was when it had been destroyed in 587 BC by Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylonia. The second was when it had been plundered and wrecked by Judaea’s foreign rulers. The third time, it had been rebuilt by Herod the Great in 20 BC. It had several gates and chambers, some of which were open only to men, some only to women, while others were reserved for priests. The temple was the meeting place of the Jewish Council, called the Sanhedrin. It also held Jewish holy scriptures and documents. Outside was the temple square – this was a marketplace, where pilgrims could buy sacrificial animals and convert foreign currency into temple coins. Rebellion in Judaea Although Judaea was ruled by the Romans, the governors there had practiced the same kind of religious tolerance as was shown to Jews in Rome [expert]. However, Roman tactlessness and inefficiency, along with famine and internal squabbles, led to a rise in Jewish discontent. In 66 AD, this discontent exploded into open rebellion. Four years later, the Roman army had crushed the revolt, but had also destroyed the temple. The sacred treasures were seized and shown off in a procession through the streets of Rome. Destruction of the temple The destruction of the temple fundamentally changed the nature of Judaism. Taxes that were once paid to the temple were now paid to Rome, and the Jewish tradition of worshipping in the temple was over. With only the Western Wall remaining of the temple in Jerusalem, the local synagogues now became the new centers of the Jewish religion The Holocaust The Holocaust was the systematic, bureaucratic, state-sponsored persecution and murder of approximately six million Jews by the Nazi regime and its collaborators. "Holocaust" is a word of Greek origin meaning "sacrifice by fire." The Nazis, who came to power in Germany in January 1933, believed that Germans were "racially superior" and that the Jews, deemed "inferior," were an alien threat to the so-called German racial community. During the era of the Holocaust, German authorities also targeted other groups because of their perceived "racial inferiority": Roma (Gypsies), the disabled, and some of the Slavic peoples (Poles, Russians, and others). Other groups were persecuted on political, ideological, and behavioral grounds, among them Communists, Socialists, Jehovah's Witnesses, and homosexuals. The Holocaust The Holocaust was the systematic, bureaucratic, state-sponsored persecution and murder of approximately six million Jews by the Nazi regime and its collaborators. "Holocaust" is a word of Greek origin meaning "sacrifice by fire." The Nazis, who came to power in Germany in January 1933, believed that Germans were "racially superior" and that the Jews, deemed "inferior," were an alien threat to the so-called German racial community. During the era of the Holocaust, German authorities also targeted other groups because of their perceived "racial inferiority": Roma (Gypsies), the disabled, and some of the Slavic peoples (Poles, Russians, and others). Other groups were persecuted on political, ideological, and behavioral grounds, among them Communists, Socialists, Jehovah's Witnesses, and homosexuals.

12 Other religions impact on the Jewish society ( cont. ) Between 1933 and 1945, Nazi Germany established about 20,000 camps to imprison its many millions of victims. These camps were used for a range of purposes including forced-labor camps, transit camps which served as temporary way stations, and extermination camps built primarily or exclusively for mass murder. From its rise to power in 1933, the Nazi regime built a series of detention facilities to imprison and eliminate so- called "enemies of the state." Most prisoners in the early concentration camps were German Communists, Socialists, Social Democrats, Roma (Gypsies), Jehovah's Witnesses, homosexuals, and persons accused of "asocial" or socially deviant behavior. These facilities were called “concentration camps” because those imprisoned there were physically “concentrated” in one location. Between 1933 and 1945, Nazi Germany established about 20,000 camps to imprison its many millions of victims. These camps were used for a range of purposes including forced-labor camps, transit camps which served as temporary way stations, and extermination camps built primarily or exclusively for mass murder. From its rise to power in 1933, the Nazi regime built a series of detention facilities to imprison and eliminate so- called "enemies of the state." Most prisoners in the early concentration camps were German Communists, Socialists, Social Democrats, Roma (Gypsies), Jehovah's Witnesses, homosexuals, and persons accused of "asocial" or socially deviant behavior. These facilities were called “concentration camps” because those imprisoned there were physically “concentrated” in one location. After Germany's annexation of Austria in March 1938, the Nazis arrested German and Austrian Jews and imprisoned them in the Dachau, Buchenwald, and Sachsenhausen concentration camps, all located in Germany. After the violent Kristallnacht ("Night of Broken Glass") pogroms in November 1938, the Nazis conducted mass arrests of adult male Jews and incarcerated them in camps for brief periods. After Germany's annexation of Austria in March 1938, the Nazis arrested German and Austrian Jews and imprisoned them in the Dachau, Buchenwald, and Sachsenhausen concentration camps, all located in Germany. After the violent Kristallnacht ("Night of Broken Glass") pogroms in November 1938, the Nazis conducted mass arrests of adult male Jews and incarcerated them in camps for brief periods. Jewish Concentra tion Comp Shirt

13 Judaism Judaism is one of the oldest religions still existing today. It began as the religion of the small nation of the Hebrews, and through thousands of years of suffering, persecution, dispersion, and occasional victory, has continued to be a profoundly influential religion and culture. Today, 14 million people identify themselves as Jewish. Modern Judaism is a complex phenomenon that incorporates both a nation and a religion, and often combines strict adherence to ritual laws with a more liberal attitude towards religious belief. Follow a link below to learn more about Judaism. Judaism is one of the oldest religions still existing today. It began as the religion of the small nation of the Hebrews, and through thousands of years of suffering, persecution, dispersion, and occasional victory, has continued to be a profoundly influential religion and culture. Today, 14 million people identify themselves as Jewish. Modern Judaism is a complex phenomenon that incorporates both a nation and a religion, and often combines strict adherence to ritual laws with a more liberal attitude towards religious belief. Follow a link below to learn more about Judaism.

14 Timeline 586 BCE: Babylonians Conquer Jerusalem 586 BCE: Babylonians Conquer Jerusalem 539 BCE:Cyrus, King of Persia, Conquered Babylonian Empire. 539 BCE:Cyrus, King of Persia, Conquered Babylonian Empire BCE: Daruis I, Persian Ruler after Cyrus BCE: Daruis I, Persian Ruler after Cyrus 515 BCE: Temple Rebuilt 515 BCE: Temple Rebuilt -During this time there were two distinct groups in the Jewish population: -During this time there were two distinct groups in the Jewish population: Am HaAretz: Remained in the land Am HaAretz: Remained in the land B'nai HaG'olah: Upper class, exiled B'nai HaG'olah: Upper class, exiled 458 BCE: Ezra appointed governor of Judah 444 BCE: Nechemia appointed governor of Judah 458 BCE: Ezra appointed governor of Judah 444 BCE: Nechemia appointed governor of Judah (521 BCE: Egyptian law codes compiled and translated) (521 BCE: Egyptian law codes compiled and translated) In the historical record, there is a 250 year gap...( BCE) In the historical record, there is a 250 year gap...( BCE) Hellenistic Period: BCE Hellenistic Period: BCE 332 BCE: Persian Empire Fell to Alexander the Great. 332 BCE: Persian Empire Fell to Alexander the Great.

15 Work sited History.htm History.htm History.htm History.htm =g-s3g1g-s3g2g-s1&aql=&oq=Judda =g-s3g1g-s3g2g-s1&aql=&oq=Judda =g-s3g1g-s3g2g-s1&aql=&oq=Judda =g-s3g1g-s3g2g-s1&aql=&oq=Judda


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