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INTD 51 sustainable environments construction methods.

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Presentation on theme: "INTD 51 sustainable environments construction methods."— Presentation transcript:

1 INTD 51 sustainable environments construction methods

2 the choice of construction methods will affect a project’s environmental impact the way materials are combined & fixed together can contribute to climate change, resource depletion, waste, health issues & water scarcity EXAMPLES: construction that does not work with strengths of materials used is wasteful poorly thought-out construction not using standard modules wastes off-cuts & energy others?

3 approaching sustainable construction prime considerations: enhancing thermal performance minimizing energy use on-site using materials effectively designing out waste promoting health limiting water use on site consider modern methods as well as traditional techniques the approach for construction should suit project type—temporary, flexible, long-term

4 approaching sustainable construction temporary—constructed with a view to deconstruction: avoid binding mixed materials; simple joints—avoid adhesive; ensure ease of transport, install & dismantling flexible—reconfigurable furniture/shelving, movable partitions; robust construction to avoid damage from frequent modifications long-term—durable construction; easily-replaced components; strong mechanical connectors instead of adhesives

5 reduce appropriate construction methods can help reduce raw materials, waste, energy & water use and air pollution insulation exposed thermal mass efficient structures honest materials lightweight partition construction prefab doorsets, staircases, bathroom & kitchen pods design to suit standard modules (gypsum)

6 reuse keep all or part of existing building upgrade/update thermal performance reuse basic construction source reclaimed construction materials

7 recycle attachment method must be considered—ensure materials can be easily dismantled into component parts for recycling

8 a building is the relationship of its many parts a building is the result of: meeting a need the design process the application of current technology material & construction methods actual construction process

9 the design of a building involves the utilization of space and all the factors that go with it: cost physical requirements psychological requirements activities expected to occur use of materials energy efficiency economic utilization of space grand-experiment-part-1-the-building

10 as space considerations are studied a variety of concepts are explored: relationship between spaces and activities reasonable distances of travel traffic flow safety and comfort accessibility services such as stairs, elevators, restrooms, facilities and security color, texture & decoration building codes

11 decisions about the type of structural frame are based on many factors: cost availability load-carrying capability appearance ease of erection usable life & span

12 foundation and walls material used for foundation and walls must resist compressive and horizontal forces compressive forces—due to weight of floors, building contents, and roof

13 foundation and walls horizontal forces—due to wind, subsurface water, soil, and earthquakes

14 foundation and walls must rest on a “footing”—a base that resists the vertical forces imposed on it by the wall

15 columns slender, vertical support used to carry the weight of materials placed above it

16 columns subject to the same vertical compressive forces and horizontal forces as walls

17 columns spacing between columns is regulated by their capacity to carry the imposed load & the capacity of the horizontal member to carry required loads

18 columns columns can be masonry, steel, wood, or concrete

19 arches curved structural construction that spans an opening between two points two types: block & rigid

20 arches block—brick and stone carry only the forces that cause the stones to compress tightly together usually made from wedge-shaped blocks called voussoirs

21 arches rigid— concrete, steel or laminated wood made from continuous curved, rigid material

22 beams structural member used to carry transverse loads typically supported by the foundation, piers or columns

23 beams can be fabricated from concrete, wood or steel

24 trusses structural unit composed of assembled members that utilize a triangular arrangement to produce a rigid framework

25 trusses structural unit composed of assembled members that utilize a triangular arrangement to produce a rigid framework made from wood or steel

26 trusses commonly used to form structure for floors and roofs span long distances

27 structural frames wood frame metal light frame heavy timber frame solid masonry pre-engineered steel frame cast-in-place concrete pre-cast concrete tilt-up construction tension fabric structure

28 structural frames wood frame most commonly used for residential work typically enclosed with brick, wood, hardboard, plywood, vinyl, or aluminum siding

29 structural frames metal light frame finding increasing use in residential construction widely used in commercial construction acceptance is increasing as quality wood supply decreases

30 structural frames heavy timber frame often called post-and-beam use solid wood or laminated wood columns and beams

31 structural frames solid masonry find some use in residential construction extensive use in small commercial buildings

32 structural frames solid masonry the exterior wall encloses the structure and supports the floor and roof

33 structural frames solid masonry

34 structural frames pre-engineered steel frame used for small commercial buildings multi-story buildings use steel girders which are supported by steel columns

35 structural frames pre-engineered steel frame use steel columns with various types of trusses, joists and beams

36 structural frames cast-in-place concrete takes various forms

37 structural frames cast-in-place concrete takes various forms the structural frame is formed

38 structural frames cast-in-place concrete takes various forms the structural frame is formed reinforcing steel is placed in the form

39 structural frames cast-in-place concrete the concrete is poured the forms are stripped off when concrete sets

40 structural frames pre-cast concrete cast in a plant under carefully controlled conditions shipped to a construction site lifted into place with a crane

41 structural frames tilt-up construction structural wall panels are cast in a horizontal position then tilted into position with a crane

42 structural frames tension fabric structure unusual structure used to enclose large areas specialty fabric is supported by steel cables, posts, rigid arches and beams

43 enclosing walls must provide access into the building and for the admission of natural light and ventilation materials used for enclosures include clay, glass, plastic, concrete, stone, metal & wood

44 enclosing walls clay products include brick and tile strong and highly weather resistant

45 enclosing walls concrete products include stucco and various pre- cast concrete wall panels

46 enclosing walls stone wall panels or veneers are used extensively to finish exterior walls

47 enclosing walls glass products are used in windows and curtain wall panels

48 enclosing walls plastic wall panels are used in the same manner as glass but are much lighter than glass

49 enclosing walls metal wall panels are available in aluminum alloy, galvanized, or aluminum steel spandrels

50 enclosing walls wood enclosure products include solid wood siding, plywood and hardboard are available in a variety of designs and textures finished by staining or painting

51 ceiling construction typically attach gypsum board/sheetrock to rafters

52 ceiling construction accoustical properties

53 ceiling construction architectural details

54 window types


56 energy efficiency low-e double paned high solar gain

57 door types




61 stair construction



64 binder assignment: Section 7—Construction Techniques Create an overview of the elements of your structure and how they will be constructed. Include an image and description for each of the following categories: Floor construction, Finish flooring/Floor coverings Wall construction, Wall finishes/wall coverings Ceiling construction, Ceiling finishes Window types Door types Stair construction

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