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APPENDICULAR MUSCLES Muscles of girdles and appendages

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Presentation on theme: "APPENDICULAR MUSCLES Muscles of girdles and appendages"— Presentation transcript:

1 APPENDICULAR MUSCLES Muscles of girdles and appendages
Innervated by ventral ramus of spinal nerves

2 Key Point What is a girdle? What is a ramus/rami?


4 Appendicular Muscles - fish
Originated as extensions of hypaxials of body wall Paired fins are appendicular (from myotome) Median dorsal fins are NOT appendicular, from myotome of epaxials Median ventral fins are NOT appendicular, from myotome of hypaxials

5 Osteichthyes skeleton
Dorsal fins Caudal fin Pectoral fin Anal fin Pelvic fin

6 Appendicular Muscles - fish
Dorsal mass on paired fins are extensors or abductors Ventral mass on paired fins are flexors or adductors


8 Appendicular Muscles Tetrapod Pectoral Limb

9 Pectoral Limb Muscles Deltoid – arm abductor
Latissimus dorsi – limb retractor Teres Major Subcoracoscapularis >>Subscapularis





14 Pectoral Limb Muscles Triceps – forearm extensor
Forearm & hand extensors – LATERAL Cutaneous trunci = Cutaneous maximus



17 Key Points What is the function of cutaneous maximus? Do humans have this muscle?

18 Pectoral Limb Muscles Pectoralis – Humerus adductor, largest flight muscle that lowers wing Supracoracoideus – Elevates wing Supraspinatus Infraspinatus



21 Sternal keel Scapula Humerus Tendon Wing elevator muscle
(Supracoracoideus muscle) Wing depressor muscle (Pectoralis muscle) Sternal keel Copy and paste URL to link to original images at BIODIDAC



24 Pectoral Limb Muscles Coracobrachialis – Arm flexor


26 Pectoral Limb Muscles Biceps brachii – forearm flexor
Brachialis – forearm flexor Wrist and Digit Flexors - MEDIAL



29 Pectoral Limb Muscles See Vertebrate Muscle page

30 Key Points What are the most important flight muscles & what are their functions? Wrist & digit flexors are found on what side of the forearm? What about the extensors? Latissimus dorsi is similar among tetrapods. Where is it & what does it do? Deltoids are similar among tetrapods. What does it do? Name the three deltoids in the cat.

31 Pelvic Limb Muscles (Iliofemoralis) and Iliofibularis – thigh abductors Become Gluteus and Tensor fasciae latae in mammal



34 Key Points These muscles function as thigh (femur) abductors. What is thigh abduction?

35 Pelvic Limb Muscles Iliotibialis, (femorotibialis), Ambiens
Extend tibia, protract thigh Quadriceps Sartorius from Ambiens in reptiles





40 Key Points Name the quadriceps femoris muscles.

41 Pelvic Limb Muscles Puboischiofemoralis Internus – limb protractor
Iliacus, Psoas major in mammals Pectineus in mammals




45 Pelvic Limb Muscles Ankle and foot extensors course LATERALLY

46 Pelvic Limb Muscles Puboischiotibialis – thigh retractor, knee flexor
Gracilis in mammals




50 Pelvic Limb Muscles Pubotibialis and (Flexor Tibialis) – Thigh retractor and knee flexor Hamstrings Semimembranosus Semitendinosus Biceps femoris Adductor longus





55 Pelvic Limb Muscles Adductor femoris in reptiles & mammals
Ankle & foot flexors course MEDIALLY

56 Pelvic Limb Muscles See Vertebrate Muscles page

57 Key Points What is the action of Adductor femoris, based on its position? Which muscles are antagonists (works opposite) to the quadriceps? Based on its action, which muscle is a synergist (works similar) with the hamstrings? Name the hamstrings.

58 Branchiomeric Muscles
These muscles operate the pharyngeal arches Visceral in origin, not somatic, from hypomere Striated, voluntary Innervated by cranial nerves. What does innervate mean?

59 Key Points What is a cranial nerve?

60 Visceral Arch I Adductor mandibulae Closes jaw Temporalis Masseter





65 Visceral Arch I Intermandibularis Raises floor of mouth Mylohyoid
Anterior part of Digastric (Tensor tympani)



68 Visceral Arch I Look at Vertebrate Muscles page

69 Key Points What do you recall about Visceral Arch I that will make it easier to remember the muscles adductor mandibulae & intermandibularis

70 Visceral Arch II Levator hyomandibulae
Raises upper jaw in hyostylic suspension Stapedius


72 Visceral Arch II Dorsal hyoid constrictor = Levator hyoideus
Constricts pharyngeal cavity Stylohoid, which is deep to mylohyoid

73 Visceral Arch II Interhyoideus = ventral hyoid constrictor
Depressor mandibulae in all but mammals Digastric (posterior belly) Sphincter colli and Platysma in mammals




77 Visceral Arch II Look at Vertebrate Muscles page

78 Key Points What do you recall about Visceral Arch II that will make it easier to remember the muscles Levator hyomandibulae, Levator hyoideus, Interhyoideus.

79 Visceral Arch III Constrictors – compress pharynx
Levators – lift gills Adductors – close internal angles of gills Interarcuals – expands pharynx Swallowing muscles in tetrapods


81 Key Points What does the root arc- mean?

82 Visceral Arch IV - VI Constrictors Levators Adductors Interarcuals
Breathing & swallowing muscles

83 Visceral Arch IV - VI Cucullaris – raises posterior gill Trapezius
Sternomastoid Cleidomastoid





88 Key Points What does the root cleido- mean?
To what does the term mastoid refer?

89 Key Points There are three parts to the trapezius in cats. Name them in order from anterior to posterior.

90 Visceral Arches See Vertebrate Muscles page

91 Key Points Use the following list to categorize the list of muscles on the next slide Extrinsic Eye Muscle Hypobranchial/Tongue Muscle Epaxial Muscle Hypaxial Muscle Pectoral Muscle Pelvic Muscle Branchiomeric Muscle

92 Categorize these muscles
Interhyoideus Superior oblique Dorsalis trunci Biceps femoris Biceps brachii Longissimus Masseter Styloglossus Trapezius Teres major Deltoid Sartorius Rectus abdominis Medial rectus Temporalis

93 Electric Organs Incidence – found in more than 500 species
Derivation is primarily from muscle cells

94 Electric Organs Function Communication
Orientation with objects in environment Detection of prey Offense & defense


96 Electric Organs ELECTROPLAX is functional unit
It is a modified muscle cell It is multinucleate with numerous associated nerves & mitochondria It forms columns which together comprise the electric organ


98 Electric Organs Salt water eel can emit up to 50 V
Fresh water eel can emit up to 500 V

99 Key Points Are salt water eels safer to touch than fresh water eels?
Think about conduction of electricity in fresh vs. salt water

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