4 Appendicular Muscles - fish Originated as extensions of hypaxials of body wallPaired fins are appendicular (from myotome)Median dorsal fins are NOT appendicular, from myotome of epaxialsMedian ventral fins are NOT appendicular, from myotome of hypaxials
5 Osteichthyes skeleton Dorsal finsCaudal finPectoral finAnal finPelvic fin
6 Appendicular Muscles - fish Dorsal mass on paired fins are extensors or abductorsVentral mass on paired fins are flexors or adductors
30 Key PointsWhat are the most important flight muscles & what are their functions?Wrist & digit flexors are found on what side of the forearm? What about the extensors?Latissimus dorsi is similar among tetrapods. Where is it & what does it do?Deltoids are similar among tetrapods. What does it do? Name the three deltoids in the cat.
31 Pelvic Limb Muscles(Iliofemoralis) and Iliofibularis – thigh abductorsBecome Gluteus and Tensor fasciae latae in mammal
57 Key PointsWhat is the action of Adductor femoris, based on its position?Which muscles are antagonists (works opposite) to the quadriceps?Based on its action, which muscle is a synergist (works similar) with the hamstrings?Name the hamstrings.
58 Branchiomeric Muscles These muscles operate the pharyngeal archesVisceral in origin, not somatic, from hypomereStriated, voluntaryInnervated by cranial nerves. What does innervate mean?
91 Key PointsUse the following list to categorize the list of muscles on the next slideExtrinsic Eye MuscleHypobranchial/Tongue MuscleEpaxial MuscleHypaxial MusclePectoral MusclePelvic MuscleBranchiomeric Muscle
96 Electric Organs ELECTROPLAX is functional unit It is a modified muscle cellIt is multinucleate with numerous associated nerves & mitochondriaIt forms columns which together comprise the electric organ