Presentation on theme: "APPENDICULAR MUSCLES Muscles of girdles and appendages Innervated by ventral ramus of spinal nerves."— Presentation transcript:
APPENDICULAR MUSCLES Muscles of girdles and appendages Innervated by ventral ramus of spinal nerves
Key Point What is a girdle? What is a ramus/rami?
Appendicular Muscles - fish Originated as extensions of hypaxials of body wall Paired fins are appendicular (from myotome) Median dorsal fins are NOT appendicular, from myotome of epaxials Median ventral fins are NOT appendicular, from myotome of hypaxials
Osteichthyes skeleton Pelvic fin Pectoral fin Caudal fin Dorsal fins Anal fin
Appendicular Muscles - fish Dorsal mass on paired fins are extensors or abductors Ventral mass on paired fins are flexors or adductors
Appendicular Muscles Tetrapod Pectoral Limb
Pectoral Limb Muscles Deltoid – arm abductor Latissimus dorsi – limb retractor Teres Major Subcoracoscapularis >>Subscapularis
Pectoral Limb Muscles Triceps – forearm extensor Forearm & hand extensors – LATERAL Cutaneous trunci = Cutaneous maximus
Key Points What is the function of cutaneous maximus? Do humans have this muscle?
Pectoral Limb Muscles See Vertebrate Muscle page
Key Points What are the most important flight muscles & what are their functions? Wrist & digit flexors are found on what side of the forearm? What about the extensors? Latissimus dorsi is similar among tetrapods. Where is it & what does it do? Deltoids are similar among tetrapods. What does it do? Name the three deltoids in the cat.
Pelvic Limb Muscles (Iliofemoralis) and Iliofibularis – thigh abductors Become Gluteus and Tensor fasciae latae in mammal
Key Points These muscles function as thigh (femur) abductors. What is thigh abduction?
Pelvic Limb Muscles Iliotibialis, (femorotibialis), Ambiens Extend tibia, protract thigh Quadriceps Sartorius from Ambiens in reptiles
Key Points Name the quadriceps femoris muscles.
Pelvic Limb Muscles Puboischiofemoralis Internus – limb protractor Iliacus, Psoas major in mammals Pectineus in mammals
Pelvic Limb Muscles Ankle and foot extensors course LATERALLY
Pelvic Limb Muscles See Vertebrate Muscles page
Key Points What is the action of Adductor femoris, based on its position? Which muscles are antagonists (works opposite) to the quadriceps? Based on its action, which muscle is a synergist (works similar) with the hamstrings? Name the hamstrings.
Branchiomeric Muscles These muscles operate the pharyngeal arches Visceral in origin, not somatic, from hypomere Striated, voluntary Innervated by cranial nerves. What does innervate mean?
Key Points What is a cranial nerve?
Visceral Arch I Adductor mandibulae Closes jaw Temporalis Masseter
Visceral Arch I Intermandibularis Raises floor of mouth Mylohyoid Anterior part of Digastric (Tensor tympani)
Visceral Arch I Look at Vertebrate Muscles page
Key Points What do you recall about Visceral Arch I that will make it easier to remember the muscles adductor mandibulae & intermandibularis
Visceral Arch II Levator hyomandibulae Raises upper jaw in hyostylic suspension Stapedius
Visceral Arch II Dorsal hyoid constrictor = Levator hyoideus Constricts pharyngeal cavity Stylohoid, which is deep to mylohyoid
Visceral Arch II Interhyoideus = ventral hyoid constrictor Depressor mandibulae in all but mammals Digastric (posterior belly) Sphincter colli and Platysma in mammals
Visceral Arch II Look at Vertebrate Muscles page
Key Points What do you recall about Visceral Arch II that will make it easier to remember the muscles Levator hyomandibulae, Levator hyoideus, Interhyoideus.
Visceral Arch III Constrictors – compress pharynx Levators – lift gills Adductors – close internal angles of gills Interarcuals – expands pharynx Swallowing muscles in tetrapods
Key Points What does the root arc- mean?
Visceral Arch IV - VI Constrictors Levators Adductors Interarcuals Breathing & swallowing muscles
Visceral Arch IV - VI Cucullaris – raises posterior gill Trapezius Sternomastoid Cleidomastoid
Key Points What does the root cleido- mean? To what does the term mastoid refer?
Key Points There are three parts to the trapezius in cats. Name them in order from anterior to posterior.
Visceral Arches See Vertebrate Muscles page
Key Points Use the following list to categorize the list of muscles on the next slide Extrinsic Eye Muscle Hypobranchial/Tongue Muscle Epaxial Muscle Hypaxial Muscle Pectoral Muscle Pelvic Muscle Branchiomeric Muscle
Categorize these muscles Interhyoideus Superior oblique Dorsalis trunci Biceps femoris Biceps brachii Longissimus Masseter Styloglossus Trapezius Teres major Deltoid Sartorius Rectus abdominis Medial rectus Temporalis
Electric Organs Incidence – found in more than 500 species Derivation is primarily from muscle cells
Electric Organs Function Communication Orientation with objects in environment Detection of prey Offense & defense
Electric Organs ELECTROPLAX is functional unit It is a modified muscle cell It is multinucleate with numerous associated nerves & mitochondria It forms columns which together comprise the electric organ
Electric Organs Salt water eel can emit up to 50 V Fresh water eel can emit up to 500 V
Key Points Are salt water eels safer to touch than fresh water eels? Think about conduction of electricity in fresh vs. salt water