Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Lab #15 Muscles. Muscles of the Head and Neck The Axial Muscles Divisions based on location and function: –muscles of head and neck –muscles of vertebral.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Lab #15 Muscles. Muscles of the Head and Neck The Axial Muscles Divisions based on location and function: –muscles of head and neck –muscles of vertebral."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lab #15 Muscles

2 Muscles of the Head and Neck

3 The Axial Muscles Divisions based on location and function: –muscles of head and neck –muscles of vertebral column –oblique and rectus muscles –muscles of pelvic floor

4 6 Muscle Groups of the Head and Neck 1. Muscles of facial expression: –originate on skull 2. Extrinsic (outside) eye muscles: (don’t need to know)

5 6 Muscle Groups of the Head and Neck 3. Muscles of mastication: –move the mandible 4. Muscles of the tongue: –names end in glossus (FYI) 5. Muscles of the pharynx: –begin swallowing process (FYI) 6. Anterior muscles of the neck: –control position of larynx –depress the mandible –support tongue and pharynx

6 Muscles of Facial Expression Orbicularis oris: –constricts the mouth opening Buccinator: –moves food around the cheeks Corrugator supercilli – wrinkles forehead Orbicularis oculi – sphincter of eye

7 Others Zygomaticus – pull skin of mouth up and out when smiling Levator labii superiorus – raises upper lip Depressor labii inferiorus – “pouting” muscle

8 Muscles of the Epicranium (Scalp) Temporoparietalis Occipitofrontalis: –frontal and occipital bellies –separated by epicranial aponeurosis Platysma: –covers anterior surface of neck

9 Muscles of Facial Expression Figure 11–4a

10 Muscles of Facial Expression Figure 11–4b

11 Summary: Muscles of Facial Expression Table 11–2 (1 of 2)

12 Summary: Muscles of Facial Expression Table 11–2 (2 of 2)

13 3 Muscles of Mastication Masseter: –the strongest jaw muscle Temporalis: –helps lift the mandible Pterygoid muscles (FYI): –position mandible for chewing

14 Muscles of Mastication Figure 11–6

15 Summary: Muscles of Mastication Table 11–4

16 Muscles of the Tongue Figure 11–7 Don’t need to know any of these

17 Muscles of the Neck Digastric: –from chin to hyoid –also hyoid to mastoid Platysma: –covers anterior surface of neck Sternocleidomastoid: –from clavicle and sternum to mastoid

18 Anterior Muscles of the Neck Figure 11–9

19 Summary: Anterior Muscles of the Neck Table 11–7

20

21 Muscles of the chest and abdomen

22 Lab 19: Muscles of the chest and abdomen Remember: if it’s not on the list, you don’t have to locate it or write about it in the lab report

23 Muscles to know pectoralis major serratus anterior intercostals (external, internal) diaphragm rectus abdominus obliques (external, internal) transverse abdominus trapezius latissimus dorsi splenius capitus

24 Oblique and rectus muscles Lie within the body wall Generally: –obliques groups are lateral –rectus muscles lie on the anterior midline

25 Oblique and Rectus Muscles Oblique muscles: –compress underlying structures –rotate vertebral column Rectus muscles: –flex vertebral column –oppose erector spinae

26 Cervical Oblique Muscles FYI: Cervical region: –scalene muscles –flex the neck

27 Oblique and Rectus Muscles of the Thoracic region Figure 11–11a, b

28 Thoracic Oblique Muscles Thoracic region: –intercostal muscles (external and internal intercostals): respiratory movements of ribs –FYI: transversus thoracis: cross inner surface of ribs

29 Thoracic Rectus Group Diaphragmatic muscle or diaphragm: –divides thoracic and abdominal cavities –performs respiration

30 Oblique and Rectus Muscles of the Abdominopelvic region Figure 11–11a, c

31 Abdominopelvic Oblique Muscles Abdominopelvic region (same pattern as thoracic): –external oblique muscles –internal oblique muscles Transversus abdominis – deep to internals

32 Rectus Group -Abdominopelvic Rectus abdominis: –between xiphoid process and pubic symphysis –divided longitudinally by linea alba –divided transversely by tendinous inscriptions

33 Summary: Oblique and Rectus Muscles Table 11–9 (1 of 2)

34 Muscles that Position the Pectoral Girdle Figure 11–14b

35 Muscles that Position the Pectoral Girdle (1 of 3) Trapezius: –HUGE –superficial –covers back and neck to base of skull –inserts on clavicles and scapular spines

36 Muscles that Position the Pectoral Girdle (2 of 3) Rhomboid and levator scapulae: –deep to trapezius –attach to cervical and thoracic vertebrae –insert on scapular border

37 Muscles that Position the Pectoral Girdle (3 of 3) Serratus anterior: –on the chest –originates along ribs –inserts on anterior scapular margin –“serrated”

38 Summary: Muscles that Position the Pectoral Girdle Tables 11–11

39 Muscles that Move the Arm Figure 11–15b

40 Muscles that Move the Arm (1 of 3) Deltoid: –the major abductor of arm Supraspinatus: –assists deltoid Subscapularis and teres major: –produce medial rotation at shoulder

41 Muscles that Move the Arm (2 of 3) Infraspinatus: –produce lateral rotation at shoulder

42 Muscles that Move the Arm (3 of 3) Pectoralis major: –between anterior chest and greater tubercle of humerus –produces flexion at shoulder joint Latissimus dorsi: –between thoracic vertebrae and humerus –produces extension at shoulder joint

43 Shoulder flexion vs extension Pecs and portion of delts Lats and portion of delts

44 The Rotator Cuff Muscles involved in shoulder rotation –supraspinatus, subscapularis, infraspinatus, teres minor,and their tendons

45 Muscles that Position the Pectoral Girdle Rhomboid and levator scapulae: –deep to trapezius –attach to cervical and thoracic vertebrae –insert on scapular border Also saw trapezius and serratus anterior

46 Muscles of the shoulders, arm, and hand

47 Muscles to know supraspinatus infraspinatus subscapularis teres major rhomboid levator scapulae deltoid biceps brachii brachialis triceps brachii flexor carpi radialis flexor carpi ulnaris flexor digitorum sup. extensor carpi ulnaris extensor digitorum extensor carpi radialis brachioradialis

48 Muscles that Move the Arm Figure 11–15a

49 Muscles that Move the Arm Figure 11–15b

50 Muscles that Move the Arm (1 of 3) Deltoid: –the major abductor Supraspinatus: –assists deltoid Subscapularis and teres major: –produce medial rotation at shoulder

51 Muscles that Move the Arm (2 of 3) Infraspinatus: –produce lateral rotation at shoulder

52 Muscles that Move the Arm (3 of 3) Pectoralis major: –between anterior chest and greater tubercle of humerus –produces flexion at shoulder joint Latissimus dorsi: –between thoracic vertebrae and humerus –produces extension at shoulder joint

53 The Rotator Cuff Muscles involved in shoulder rotation –supraspinatus, subscapularis, infraspinatus, teres minor,and their tendons

54 Summary: Muscles that Move the Arm Table 11–12

55 Muscles that Position the Pectoral Girdle Rhomboid and levator scapulae: –deep to trapezius –attach to cervical and thoracic vertebrae –insert on scapular border

56 Muscles that Move the Forearm and Hand Originate on humerus and insert on forearm Exceptions: –the major flexor (biceps brachii) –the major extensor (triceps brachii)

57 Extensors and Flexors Extensors: –mainly on posterior and lateral surfaces of arm Flexors: –mainly on anterior and medial surfaces

58 Muscles that Move the Forearm and Hand Biceps brachii: –flexes elbow –stabilizes shoulder joint –originates on scapula and humerus –inserts on radial tuberosity

59 Muscles that Move the Forearm and Hand Triceps brachii: –extends elbow –originates on scapula (three spots) –inserts on olecranon Brachialis and brachioradialis: – assist in flexing elbow (synergists)

60 Muscles that Move the Forearm and Hand -Extensors Figure 11–16a

61 Muscles that Move the Forearm and Hand - Flexors Figure 11–16b

62 Muscles that Move the Forearm and Hand Flexor carpi ulnaris: –superficial –flexes wrist –adducts wrist

63 Muscles that Move the Forearm and Hand Flexor carpi radialis: –superficial –flexes wrist –abducts wrist

64 Muscles that Move the Forearm and Hand Extensor carpi radialis: –superficial –extends wrist –abducts wrist

65 Muscles that Move the Forearm and Hand Extensor carpi ulnaris: –superficial –extends wrist –adducts wrist

66 Figure 11–16a

67 Figure 11–16b

68 Summary: Muscles that Move the Forearm and Hand Table 11–13 (1 of 2)

69 Muscles of the Pelvis, Leg and Foot

70 Muscles to know psoas major iliacus gluteus maximus gluteus medius sartorius quadriceps femoris (4) gracilus adductor longus biceps femoris semitendinosis semimembranosus tibialis anterior ext hallucis longus ext digitorum longus fibularis (peroneus) longus gastrocnemius soleus flexor hallucis longus flexor digitorum longus

71 Muscles of the Pelvis and Lower Limbs Pelvic girdle is tightly bound to axial skeleton: –permits little movement –has few muscles

72 Muscles that Position the Lower Limbs 1.Muscles that move the thigh 2.Muscles that move the leg 3.Muscles that move the foot and toes

73 Generally… Muscles that are lateral are abductors Muscles that are medial are adductors flexors are on inner surface of joint extensors are on outer surface of joint Note: in legs and feet, look at each joint individually (cf. arms)

74 Muscles that Move the Thigh Gluteal muscles Lateral rotators Adductors Iliopsoas group

75 Muscles of hip and thigh psoas major iliacus gluteus maximus gluteus medius adductor longus

76 Gluteal Muscles (1 of 2) Cover lateral surfaces of ilia Gluteus maximus: –largest, most posterior gluteal muscle –produces extension and lateral rotation at hip –Originates on illiac crest, etc., inserts on illiotibial tract and femur

77 Gluteal Muscles (2 of 2) Gluteus medius and [gluteus minimus]: –originate anterior to gluteus maximus –insert on trochanter of femur

78 Muscles that Move the Thigh Figure 11–19a, b

79 Muscles that Move the Thigh Figure 11–19c, d

80 Adductors Adductor longus: –hip flexion and adduction Gracilis (UPPER LEG): –hip flexion and adduction

81 Iliopsoas group 2 hip flexors insert on the same tendon: –psoas major originates on lumbar vetebrae, inserts on femur –iliacus originates on illium/fossa

82 Summary: Muscles that Move the Thigh Table 11–16 (1 of 2)

83 Summary: Muscles that Move the Thigh Table 11–16 (2 of 2)

84 Muscles that Move the Leg Flexors of the knee: –originate on the pelvic girdle –generally: hamstrings Extensors of the knee: –originate on the femoral surface –insert on the patella –generally: quads

85 Flexors of the Knee Biceps femoris Semimembranosus Semitendinosus Sartorius: –originates superior to the acetabulum –long, ribbon-like muscle –traverses the quads and wraps around to the back of the knee

86 Hamstrings Made up of: –biceps femoris (long and short heads) –semimembranosus –semitendinosus All are knee flexors

87 Muscles that Move the Leg Figure 11–20a

88 Extensors of the Knee 4 muscles of the quadriceps femoris: –3 vastus muscles: vastus lateralis vastus medialis vastus intermedius –rectus femoris muscle

89 Muscles that Move the Leg Figure 11–20b, c

90 Summary: Muscles that Move the Leg Table 11–17 (1 of 2)

91 Summary: Muscles that Move the Leg Table 11–17 (2 of 2)

92 Muscles that Move the Foot and Toes Extrinsic muscles that move the foot and toes include: –muscles that produce extension at the ankle (Plantar flexion) –muscles that produce flexion at the ankle –muscles that produce extension at the toes –muscles that produce flexion at the toes

93 Muscles that Produce Extension at the Ankle (Plantar flexion) Calf muscles Large posterior calf muscles, both insert on Achilles): Gastrocnemius Soleus Fibularis longus

94 Muscles that Move the Foot and Toes Figure 11–21a, b

95 Muscles that Move the Foot and Toes Figure 11–21c, d

96 The Achilles Tendon The calcaneal tendon (Achilles tendon): –shared by the gastrocnemius and soleus

97 Muscles that Produce Flexion at the Ankle Tibialis anterior: –opposes the gastrocnemius

98 Muscles that Move the Foot and Toes Figure 11–21a, b

99 Muscles that Move the Foot and Toes Figure 11–21c, d

100 Muscles that Produce Extension at the Toes Extensor digitorum longus Extensor hallucis longus Toe extensors are on top of foot Note: there are no muscles in toes themselves (only tendons)

101 The Intrinsic Muscles of the Foot Figure 11–22a

102 Muscles that Produce Flexion at the Toes Flexor digitorum longus Flexor hallucis longus: –oppose the extensors Toe flexors are on bottom of foot

103 The Intrinsic Muscles of the Foot Figure 11–22b, c

104 Summary: Muscles that Move the Foot and Toes Table 11–18

105 Lab 15 This is a huge lab (it covers ~3-4 labs worth of material) Due on day of practical (11/22)


Download ppt "Lab #15 Muscles. Muscles of the Head and Neck The Axial Muscles Divisions based on location and function: –muscles of head and neck –muscles of vertebral."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google