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Typology of Formosan Languages Claire Hsun-huei Chang Department of English National Chengchi University 【本著作除另有註明外,採取創用 CC 「姓名標示- 非商業性-相同方式分享」台灣 3.0 版授權釋出】

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Presentation on theme: "Typology of Formosan Languages Claire Hsun-huei Chang Department of English National Chengchi University 【本著作除另有註明外,採取創用 CC 「姓名標示- 非商業性-相同方式分享」台灣 3.0 版授權釋出】"— Presentation transcript:

1 Typology of Formosan Languages Claire Hsun-huei Chang Department of English National Chengchi University 【本著作除另有註明外,採取創用 CC 「姓名標示- 非商業性-相同方式分享」台灣 3.0 版授權釋出】 The “Work” under the Creative Commons Taiwan 3.0 License of “BY-NC-SA”.

2 Assumption: Language and culture Body parts typology An overview of Formosan Languages body parts in Formosan languages Color terms typology color terms in Formosan languages Discussion Conclusion

3 Language has shaped our societies into what they are today. Language can reflect culture, giving us a way of expressing our thoughts. Franz Boas, an American anthropological linguist, noted that language is used to classify our experiences with the world. Different people will classify the world differently, based on the languages they speak. There is much more linguistic diversity in the world than had been commonly thought by those who study primarily Indo-European languages. Franz Boas. (1940). Race, language, and culture.

4 Free online database of structural properties of languages book published by Oxford University Press A joint project by Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology and Max Planck Digital Library 141 maps 142 features 2650 languages

5 hand/arm finger/hand

6 Hand : from the tip of the finger to wrist Arm : wrist to shoulder

7 Type I : same term ( 228 ) Lonwolwol (Vanuatu) : va: Lonwolwol Czech : ruka Czech Gurma (Niger-Congo) : nu GurmaNiger-Congo Type II : different terms ( 389 ) English : hand // arm Ngawun (Australia ) marl 'hand‘, palkal 'arm' Chai (Nilo-Saharan; Ethiopia), síyó ‘hand’, múní ‘forearm’, yíró ‘upper arm’, no term for ‘arm’ ChaiNilo-Saharan Mixed type : same and different terms hand: ‘hand’ and ‘arm’ hand vs. arm

8 Bambara (Mande; Mali) : bolo 'hand and arm,' tègè, 'hand' (and also denoting 'palm' and 'foot'). Bambara Semai (Mon-Khmer; Malay Peninsula) : tek, ‘hand’ and ‘arm’, kengrit, ‘arm.’ SemaiMalay Jicarilla Apache (Athabaskan; New Mexico) gan, 'hand' and 'arm' l-lá ‘hand’, ganí ‘arm’ Jicarilla ApacheAthabaskan

9 &v2=cd00 &v2=cd00

10 Type I (same term): mostly near the equator, few away from the equator Type II (different terms) : mostly away from the equator, few close to the equator

11 Continent Type I ( same ) Type II ( Diff ) Australia (1)(1) V ( 59 ) South AmericaV EuropeV S Mexico/Central America V Africa/Asia/PacificV NCCU 張郇慧 整理

12 Broadly distributed Languages closer to the equator tend to show identity than their closely related sister languages located further from the equator

13 Witkowski and Brown (1985): latitude Witkowski and Brown (1985) Climate, clothing and polysemy : extensive wearing relates negatively to the occurrence of polysemy Witkowski, Stanley R. and Brown, Cecil H "Climate, Clothing, and Body-part Nomenclature"

14 Tailoring technique

15 finger : one of the five Hand : from the fingertips to the wrist

16 Type I : identical ( 72 ) Warlpiri (Pama-Nyungan; Northern Territory, Australia), rdaka WarlpiriPama-Nyungan Cahuilla (Uto-Aztecan; California), - ma-l CahuillaUto-Aztecan Kxoe (Khoisan; Namibia), cèú, KxoeKhoisan

17 hand/finger as a collection (Southern) Paakantyi (Pama-Nyungan; New South Wales, Australia), maraPaakantyiPama-Nyungan Mesa Grande Diegueño (Yuman; California), esally Mesa Grande DiegueñoYuman Pacoh (Mon-Khmer; Vietnam and Laos), ati Pacoh

18 Type II : different ( 521 ) English (finger/hand), Tzotzil (c’obil ‘hand’/ bic’tal c’obil ‘little hand, fingers’ )Tzotzil Yapese (Austronesian; Micronesia), paaq ‘hand’ , bugul ii paaq ‘tip of the hand, fingers’, Choctaw (Muskogean; Mississippi), ibbak ‘hand’ , ibbak ushi ‘fingers, son of hand‘ YapeseAustronesianChoctawMuskogean ‘Fingers’ are derived from ‘hand’ for Type II languages.

19

20 Type I (identical) : Australia and North America ( except the Central and S. Mexico ), South America Type II (different) : around the world

21 Type I hand/finger identical languages (72) 46 (64%) traditional hunter-gatherers 18 (25%) mixed cultivation and foraging 8 (11%) full-fledge agriculture 90 % non-agricultural way of life

22 Navajo: Type I with agricultural way of life, showing a change of life from hunter-gatherers to agricultural

23 decoration : the use of ‘ring’ Material culture for farmers

24 Kunz (1917: 31) : Eskimos, no rings, not manufacturing rings Kunz (1917: 31) Kunz (1917: 17-18) no prehistoric finger rings in archeological excavations in North and South America Kunz (1917: 17-18) Rings are acquired by groups from Western source not natively manufactured. Kunz, George Frederick Rings for the Finger

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26 Major-divisions-of-the-Austronesian-languages Number of languages: 23 in Taiwan (out of a total of 1262 Austronesian languages) Major-divisions-of-the-Austronesian-languages Atayalic (2), Paiwanic (17), Tsouic (4), Yami/Tao (1) Language family : 3 branches out of 4 in Taiwan Language structures

27 Major divisions of the Austronesian languages, from Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.

28 Wiki kwami

29 原住民族分佈圖 from 行政院原住民委員會 Council of Indigenous Peoples, Executive Yuan.

30 Atayalic (2) Atayal Seediq Tsouic (4) Rukai Northern Rukai (1) Tsou (Cou) Southern Rukai (2) Kanakanabu Saaroa

31 Paiwanic (21) Amis, Nataoran 'Amis, Pangcah Bunun Basay Babuza; (Favorlang) Kavalan Qauqaut Siraiya Honya Ketangalan Luilang Kulun Papora/Papura; Camachat Paiwan Pyuma Pazih, Pazeh Kaxabu, Kahabu Saisiyat Thao Taokas

32 Center for Aboriginal Studies, National Chengchi University Language learning materials/textbooks: 9 levels, 42 languages ( 2006 ) 1000 word list (2009) Readers in Formosan Languages ( 原住民族語讀本 )

33 Type II, use of different terms Hand/elbow/arm/finger

34 Use of the number ‘five’ (lima) ( 18 ) Native vocabulary ( 17 ): [Ts’ou] emucu ( 3 ), [Atayal] qba ( 6 ), [Amis] kamay ( 5 ), [Truku] baga ( 3 ) No vocabulary ( 7 )

35 Ciku/hiku: borrowing ? Proto- (26) Native vocabulary : [Sakizaiya] batac, Derived from a base vocabulary : elbow = arm No vocabulary ( 10 ): Kavalan, Bunun, Tsou ( 3 ), Rukai ( 4 ), Atayal ( 1 )

36 Having a term for arm ( 30 ): Distinct vocabulary (23) : different from ‘hand’ Derived from word formation ( 7 ) : Paiwanic, Atayl, Teluku No vocabulary : 12

37 Having a term for fingers ( 37 ) Specific vocabulary ( 27 ) Derived through word formation (10) No term for fingers ( 5 )

38 Hand/elbow/arm/fingers 手 / 手肘 / 手臂 / 手指 All four ( 20 ) 3 terms ( 12 ) 2 terms ( 8 ) 1 term ( 2 )

39 Four terms arm/fingers using word formation : [Paiwanic] 3 different terms for arms : Amis patelaw ‘muscle’ ; kahong ‘shoulder’; fadangalan ‘arm’

40 3 terms ( 12 ) No ‘hand’ (3) No ‘arm’ (5) No ‘elbow’ (2) No ‘fingers’ (1)

41 2 terms ( 8 ) elbow/arm hand/fingers arm/fingers One term ( 2 ) hand

42 Similar to the world type No polysemy Diversified word formation

43 There are typological patterns in how languages name colors.

44 All languages have 2-11 basic terms English has red, orange, yellow, green, blue, purple, pink, brown, grey, black and white.

45 Small set of possible color term systems There is an order of how basic color terms evolved. Berlin and Kay’s Implicational Hierarchy. purple pink orange grey white black red green yellow blue brown Brent Berlin and Paul Kay Basic Color Terms: Their Universality and Evolution.

46 Survey 110 languages in the world (Kay, Berlin, Merrifield, 1991; Kay et al 1997; Kay and Maffi,1999) Universal color categories Primary color: black, white, red/green, yellow/blue Composite color: Green/blue (grue) Black/green/blue, white/red/yellow, black/blue, black/yellow, yellow/green/blue, yellow/green Derived color : grey ( black-white ), pink ( white-red ), orange ( yellow-red ), purple ( blue-red ), brown ( yellow-black ) Kay, P., Berlin, B., & Merrifield, W. R. (1991). Biocultural implications of systems of color naming. Kay, P., & Maffi, L. (1999). Color appearance and the emergence and evolution of basic color lexicon. Kay, P., Berlin, B., Maffi, L., & Merrifield, W. R. (1997). Color naming across languages.

47 Fundamental colors: black, white, red, yellow, green and blue

48 Kay, P., & Maffi, L. (1999). Figure 3, Color appearance and the emergence and evolution of basic color lexicon.

49 3 ( 10 ) 3-4 ( 3 ) 4 ( 9 ) 4-5 ( 1 ) 5 ( 56 ) 5-6 ( 11 ) 6 ( 29 ) Languages with no written language Most languages have 5 colors Languages with less than 5 colors are distributed in tropical areas

50 3-4 ( 20 ) ( 26 ) ( 34 ) ( 14 ) ( 6 ) 9-10 ( 8 ) 11 ( 11 )

51 Green-Blue different : English ( 30 ) One term for green/blue ( grue )( 68 ) One term for black/green/blue ( 15 ) One term for black/blue, green a separate term ( 2 ) Yellow/green/blue share the same term ( 2 ) Yellow/Green share one term, blue a separate term ( 1 ) Others ( 2)

52 Red-Yellow contrast : 98 Red/yellow share one term : 15 Red vs. yellow/green/blue : 3 Red vs. yellow/green : 1 Others : 3

53 6 colors (white, black, green, blue, red, yellow) : 10 5 (white, black, green/blue, red/yellow) : 22 Green/blue different : 1 Green/blue same : 7 Green only : 12 Blue only : 2 4 (white/yellow, black, green/blue, red) : 9 1 (black): 1 0 : 1 (?)

54 Different vocabulary : 10 Green only : 16 Blue only : 5

55 Different vocabulary : 32 same : 0 Red vs. yellow/green/blue : 0 Red vs. yellow/green : 0 Red only : 7 Yellow only : 0 Others : 3

56 5-6 color terms Between stage III and IV; most languages entered stage IV, some into Stage V Clear evidence of Blue/green class in Formosan languages

57 Word formation of cultural vocabulary Retained vocabulary or borrowing

58 Distinct vocabulary Through metonymy or metaphor : [Saisiyat] ─ White ( ‘clean’ ), [Tao] ─ Yellow ( ‘like little chicken’ ), blue ( ‘like the soup of snail’ ), [Bunun] ─ green ( ‘bamboo snake, red-tail snake’ )

59 Independent vocabulary (non-analyzable) > analyzable vocabulary Simple vocabulary > derived vocabulary High-ranking basic words > low-ranking basic words (Wang & Wang 2004) high-ranking basic words: color (black, red, green, yellow, white), body parts (hand, feet) Feng Wang and William S.-Y. Wang. (2004). Basic Words and Language Evolution.

60 Heine et al person > thing > event > space > time > quality Body parts > space (hand  the direct the hand points to, temai [Japanese] ‘in front of the hand’, ‘you’ ) Body parts  person: shui-shou [water-hand, ‘sailor’], lao-shou [old-hand ‘skillful person’] Body parts  measure word :彈一手好琴 tan yi- shou haoqin [lit. play a good hand of piano] person  20 (Saisyat ) Heine, B. ; Claudi, U. ; Hunnemeyer, F. (1991). Grammaticalization.

61 change hands [pindah tangan] wash your hands of [cuci tangan] catch someone red-handed [tangkap basah ‘catch wet’] to give someone a hand on the gripping hand

62 People with skills 烏手 ‘mechanic’ 、運轉手 ‘driver’ 、頭手 ‘chef’ 、二手 ‘second chef’ person 助手 ‘helper’ ,下手 ‘subordinates’ Behavior, technique, degree 軟手、手頭重 / 輕、手腳快 / 慢、收腳洗手、鬥腳手 Others 伴手、手尾、有一手

63 牽手 ‘holding hands, get married’ 放手 ‘let go of hands, divorce’

64 Primary colors : black, white, red, blue/green ; used as adjectives to modify the following nouns (-ai) others : yellow ( ki iro )、 green (midori no) ; used as nouns in “X no Y” construction, not as a pre- nominal modifier

65 Language complexity: There is a great variation among basic vocabulary in Formosan Languages. Language evolution: Research in basic vocabulary can be used to examine how languages evolved; Comparing languages can uncover the path of cultural contact.

66 Typological patterns of body parts and color terms of Formosan Languages Cultural vocabulary Cultural contact Creation of new words Position of Formosan languages in the world Extended use of body parts and color terms

67 WorkLicensingAuthor/Source p.3Franz Boas. (1940). Race, language, and culture. The University of Chicago Press, Ltd., London. and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 50 by NTU OCW p.11 NCCU 張郇慧 整理 (2011) p.13 Witkowski, Stanley R. and Brown, Cecil H "Climate, Clothing, and Body-part Nomenclature“ and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 50 by GET

68 WorkLicensingAuthor/Source p.24 Kunz, George Frederick Rings for the Finger, p.17, 18, 31. J.B. Lippincott Company. and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 50 by NTU OCW p.27 Major divisions of the Austronesian languages, from Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. r-divisions-of-the-Austronesian-languages and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 50 by NTU OCW p.28 Wiki kwami (Original uploader was Kwamikagami at en.wikipedia) ng 2011/12/19 visited

69 WorkLicensingAuthor/Source p.29 原住民族分佈圖 from 行政院原住民委員會 Council of Indigenous Peoples, Executive Yuan. B80C8822F9 and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 50 by NTU OCW p.45 Brent Berlin and Paul Kay Basic Color Terms: Their Universality and Evolution. University of California Press. and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 50 by NTU OCW p.46 Kay, P., Berlin, B., & Merrifield, W. R. (1991). Biocultural implications of systems of color naming. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology, 1, and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 50 by NTU OCW

70 WorkLicensingAuthor/Source p.46 Kay, P., & Maffi, L. (1999). Color appearance and the emergence and evolution of basic color lexicon. American Anthropologist, 101, and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 50 by NTU OCW p.46 Kay, P., Berlin, B., Maffi, L., & Merrifield, W. R. (1997). Color naming across languages. In C. L. Hardin & L.Maffi (Eds.), Color categories in thought and language. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 50 by NTU OCW p.48 Kay, P., & Maffi, L. (1999). Figure 3, Color appearance and the emergence and evolution of basic color lexicon. American Anthropologist, 101, and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 50 by NTU OCW

71 WorkLicensingAuthor/Source p.59 Feng Wang and William S.-Y. Wang. (2004). Basic Words and Language Evolution. LANGUAGE AND LINGUISTICS 5.3: and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 50 by NTU OCW p.60 Heine, B. ; Claudi, U. ; Hunnemeyer, F. (1991). Grammaticalization. A conceptual framework, Chicago : University of Chicago Press. and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 50 by NTU OCW


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