Presentation on theme: "FORMOSAN LANGUAGES AND CULTURES Ch12-1. 【本著作除另有註明外，採取創用 CC 「姓名標示 －非商業性－相同方式分享」台灣 3.0 版授權釋出】 The “Work” under the Creative Commons Taiwan 3.0 License of."— Presentation transcript:
FORMOSAN LANGUAGES AND CULTURES Ch12-1. 【本著作除另有註明外，採取創用 CC 「姓名標示 －非商業性－相同方式分享」台灣 3.0 版授權釋出】 The “Work” under the Creative Commons Taiwan 3.0 License of “BY-NC-SA”. 授課老師：蘇以文 I-wen Su
Music of the Bunun Bunun‘s Fascinating Harmony: (Eight- part polyphony) 八部合音
Bunun‘s Eight-part polyphony The ancient Bunun tribe tradition of polyphonic choral singing: a song without words. 8 man form a tight circle, each one adding a sound based on nature, e.g. the buzzing of insects or the sound of leaves blowing in the wind, to create a unique harmony This tradition is one of the oldest and most primal kinds of musical expression still existing on Earth.
Songs by different tribes 太巴朗民謠 Tai-ba-lang Folksong 1996 年奧運大會的主題曲 Main theme of Olympic －－老人飲酒歌 Elders Drinking Song Trailer of Seediq Bale: Seediq Bale 賽德克‧巴萊 5 mins promo reel 七百個月亮 _ 勇士歌 ( 阿美族 ) Seven hundred moons – Song of Warrior (Amis) 七百個月亮 _ 可愛的情人 ( 泰雅族 ) Seven hundred moons – Lovely Lover (Atayal)
A Seediq Bale: A hero of the Tribe After the 1895 Treaty of Shimonoseki that ceded the island of Taiwan (aka Formosa) to Japan, there was immediate tension between the islanders and their new colonial masters. In spite of the many small rebellions, the brutal suppression of the Taiwanese Revolt in 1916 brought an uneasy peace. The aboriginal tribes of Taiwan were then deprived of their lands and their weapons, along with their traditions of head-hunting and face tattooing. The tattooing was an integral part of tribal cultures: in the Seediq tribes, when a young man was given his face- tattoo it signified that he had passed from boyhood to manhood and become a 'hero of the tribe' -- a Seediq Bale.
Introduction Formosan languages: ◦ languages of the indigenous peoples of Taiwan Taiwanese aborigines ◦ about 2% of the island's population ◦ Far fewer of the 2% can speak their ancestral language, after centuries of language shift Of the approximately 26 languages of the Taiwanese aborigines, at least ten are extinct, another four (perhaps five) are moribund, and several others are to some degree endangered.
Language Shift language transfer/replacement ◦ the process whereby a speech community of a language shifts to speaking another language ◦ most often across generations within a linguistic community. The process whereby a community of speakers of one language becomes bilingual in another language, and gradually shifts to the second language is called assimilation. When a linguistic community ceases to use their original language, language death is said to occur
Extinct Languages a language that no longer has any speakers, or that is no longer in current use. Extinct languages are sometimes contrasted with dead languages, which are still known and used in special contexts in written form, but not as ordinary spoken languages for everyday communication. Language extinction and language death are often equated.
Moribund Languages A languages is ◦ safe if children will probably be speaking them in 100 years, endangered if children will probably not be speaking them in 100 years ◦ "moribund" if children are not speaking them now 15-30% (or 900-1,800) of languages are estimated to become moribund (Krauss) Krauss, Michael E. (2007). "Keynote-Mass Language Extinction and Documentation: The Race Against Time".
Endangered Languages a language that is at risk of falling out of use If it loses all its native speakers, it becomes a dead language. If eventually no one speaks the language at all it becomes an "extinct language".
Significance of Formosan Languages Taiwan may be the place of origin of the entire Austronesian language family Formosan languages form 9 of the 10 principal branches of the Austronesian language family (Robert Blust), while the one remaining principal branch contains nearly 1,200 Malayo-Polynesian languages found outside of Taiwan. a broad consensus has coalesced: ◦ the Austronesian langs originated in Taiwan ◦ a theory strengthened by recent studies in human population genetics Blust, Robert (1999). "Subgrouping, circularity and extinction: some issues in Austronesian comparative".
The current linguistic situation All Formosan languages are slowly being replaced by the culturally dominant Standard Chinese. The Republic of China government started recently an aboriginal re-appreciation program that included the reintroduction of Formosan first language in Taiwanese schools. The results of this initiative have been disappointing, though.
Formosan Languages (Ch & Eng) Formosan Languages (Ch & Eng) Wiki Bstlee
Lexical evidence by Li Cognates Genetic relationship Family tree
Cognates words that have a common etymological origin Loanwords from another language are usually not meant by the term e.g. the English word king is not considered a true cognate of Dutch koning or German König. Cognates within the same language are called doublets shirt (< OE sċyrte) and skirt (loaned< Old Norse skyrta) are doublets, both of which derive from the Proto-Germanic *skurtjōn-.
Genetic Relationship the (GENEALOGICAL) relationship, established through use of the comparative method of linguistic analysis, between languages that are members of the same language family (languages that possess genetic ties with one another) Two languages are genetically related if one is descended from the other or if both are descended from a common ancestor. Italian, descended from Latin, is genetically related to Latin. Spanish, also descended from Latin, is therefore genetically related to Italian.
Li, Paul Jen-kuei, Classification of Formosan languages: Lexical evidence. BIHP 61.4:813-848. (1990)
Copyright Declaration WorkLicensingAuthor/Source Wiki kwami http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Formosan_languages.png 2011/11/30 visited Wiki Bstlee http://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Formosan_Distribution_01. png 2011/11/30 visited Li, Paul Jen-kuei, Classification of Formosan languages: Lexical evidence. BIHP 61.4:813-848. (1990) and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 50 by NTU OCW Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/cleverclaire1983/288049265/ 2011/11/30 visited 28
Copyright Declaration WorkLicensingAuthor/Source Wiki CenkX http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Saisiat_pastaai.jpg 2011/11/30 visited 布農族 - 人物 from 國立臺灣史前文化博物館 Digital Museum of Taiwan Indigenous People (2008) http://www.dmtip.gov.tw/Aborigines/Photo.aspx?CategoryID =5&ClassID=16&TypeID=28&RaceID=3&PhotoID=792 and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 50 by NTU OCW 布農族 - 人物 from 國立臺灣史前文化博物館 Digital Museum of Taiwan Indigenous People (2008) http://www.dmtip.gov.tw/Aborigines/Photo.aspx?CategoryID =5&ClassID=16&TypeID=28&RaceID=3&PhotoID=801 and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 50 by NTU OCW 29
Copyright Declaration WorkLicensingAuthor/Source Wiki user: A-giâu http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Tsou_youth_of_Taiwan_%2 8pre-1945%29.jpg 2011/11/30 visited Flickr Max Chang http://www.flickr.com/photos/max_chang/3477291366/ 2011/11/30 visited p.11 Krauss, Michael E. (2007). "Keynote-Mass Language Extinction and Documentation: The Race Against Time". In Miyaoka, Osahito; Sakiyama, Osamu; Krauss, Michael E.. The Vanishing Languages of the Pacific Rim (illustrated ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 3–24 and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 50 by NTU OCW 30
Copyright Declaration WorkLicensingAuthor/Source p.13 Blust, Robert (1999). "Subgrouping, circularity and extinction: some issues in Austronesian comparative". In Zeitoun, E.; Li, P.J.K. Selected papers from the Eighth International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics. Taipei: Academia Sinica. pp. 31–94. and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 50 by NTU OCW 31