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新生講座 8.Reading Critically : Be a critical reader 共同教育中心 李維晏老師 【本著作除另有註明外,採取創用 CC 「姓名標示- 非商業性-相同方式分享」臺灣 3.0 版授權釋出】創用 CC 「姓名標示- 非商業性-相同方式分享」臺灣 3.0 版.

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Presentation on theme: "新生講座 8.Reading Critically : Be a critical reader 共同教育中心 李維晏老師 【本著作除另有註明外,採取創用 CC 「姓名標示- 非商業性-相同方式分享」臺灣 3.0 版授權釋出】創用 CC 「姓名標示- 非商業性-相同方式分享」臺灣 3.0 版."— Presentation transcript:

1 新生講座 8.Reading Critically : Be a critical reader 共同教育中心 李維晏老師 【本著作除另有註明外,採取創用 CC 「姓名標示- 非商業性-相同方式分享」臺灣 3.0 版授權釋出】創用 CC 「姓名標示- 非商業性-相同方式分享」臺灣 3.0 版

2 2 Critical Thinking Problem Identified  Hypothesis Formulated  Data Gathered  Hypothesis Tested  Conclusion Drawn Ask appropriate questions  Gather relevant information  Efficiently Process information  Logically reason relationships  Draw reliable conclusions/ generalizations 2

3 3 Critical Thinking & Critical Reading Ask appropriate questions  Gather relevant information  Efficiently Process information  Logically reason relationships  Draw reliable conclusions/ generalizations 3 “Children must be taught how to think, not what to think.” ~Margaret Mead~

4 4 Sample Reading Things NOT to Say to American Indian Coworkers a. Hey, Chief. b. What’s your favorite movie? c. How old are you? d. Have you gained some weight recently?

5 5 Sample Reading Things NOT to Say to American Indian Coworkers Questions : What  Why  Who  Where  When  How

6 6 Sample Reading Things NOT to Say to American Indian Coworkers 1. How Indian are you? 2. Hey, Chief. 3. Squaw. 4. Hold down the fort. 5. Don’t you get everything for free? 6. Do you live in a teepee? 7. That’s a nice costume. 8. I’m part Cherokee. 9. Indian-giver. 10. You guys just need to stop living in the past! Ref. [3] [4] [5]

7 7 Sample Reading Things NOT to Say to American Indian Coworkers Hold down the fort In a general context, “hold down the fort” simply refers to leaving someone in charge. But when said in reference to American Indians, it may be interpreted to mean “watch out for the Indians.” “Historically, forts in America were built to hold back the Indians,” says Waters, “this implies that Indians are always on the ‘war path.’” Ref. [3]

8 8 Squaw While there are different opinions as to the exact meaning and origin of the word “squaw,” that doesn’t give you free license to use it with American Indians, male or female. The word is believed to have come from the Algonquian Indian term for “woman,” but it began taking on derogatory meanings as early as the 19th century, and many now see it as a reference to a woman’s sexual organs. “Squaw, with most Indian males and females, is offensive,” says Waters. Ref. [3]

9 9 Reading Strategies & Procedures Things NOT to Say to American Indian Coworkers a. Hey, Chief. b. What’s your favorite movie? c. How old are you? d. Have you gained some weight recently? Skimming 1: (1)Read the title, sub-titles (2)Guess the main ideas

10 10 Skimming 1: (3) Read the guiding questions (4) Make predictions Questions : What  Why  Who  Where  When  How

11 11 Reading Strategies & Procedures 1. How Indian are you? 2. Hey, Chief. 3. Squaw. 4. Hold down the fort. 5. Don’t you get everything for free? 6. Do you live in a teepee? 7. That’s a nice costume. 8. I’m part Cherokee. 9. Indian-giver. 10. You guys just need to stop living in the past! Ref. [3] [4] [5] Skimming 2 : (1)Read the 1 st & 2 nd sentences and the last sentence of each mini-section. (2)Confirm the main idea(s) (3)Identify questions/ problems

12 12 Reading Strategies & Procedures Hold down the fort In a general context, “hold down the fort” simply refers to leaving someone in charge. But when said in reference to American Indians, it may be interpreted to mean “watch out for the Indians.” “Historically, forts in America were built to hold back the Indians,” says Waters, “this implies that Indians are always on the ‘war path.’” Ref. [3] Scanning: (1)Read carefully. (2)Answer the Wh- Qs.

13 13 Reading Strategies & Procedures Squaw While there are different opinions as to the exact meaning and origin of the word “squaw,” that doesn’t give you free license to use it with American Indians, male or female. The word is believed to have come from the Algonquian Indian term for “woman,” but it began taking on derogatory meanings as early as the 19th century, and many now see it as a reference to a woman’s sexual organs. “Squaw, with most Indian males and females, is offensive,” says Waters. Ref. [3] Inferring: (1)Associate details. (2)Recover the meaning from context.

14 14 Reading Strategies & Procedures Things NOT to Say to American Indian Coworkers 1. How Indian are you? 2. Hey, Chief. 3. Squaw. 4. Hold down the fort. 5. Don’t you get everything for free? 6. Do you live in a teepee? 7. That’s a nice costume. 8. I’m part Cherokee. 9. Indian-giver. 10. You guys just need to stop living in the past! Ref. [3] [4] [5] Summarizing & Note-Taking

15 15 Critical Reading Reading Critical Reading Active-ness Investigation Reflection Passive-ness Comprehension Extension

16 16 Be a Critical Reader  Onion Peeling Concept Biased 、 Distorted 、 Prejudiced Objectivity 、 Integrity Fair-mindedness Ref. [6]

17 17 Factor 1: Knowledge Factor 2: Ability

18 18 Factor 3: Personal Backgrounds Ref. [7] Video : Selective attention test Daniel Simons and Christopher Chabris (1999)

19 19 Factor 4: The Completeness of the material Video : Guardian TV Ad Newspapers Point Of View Skinhead

20 20 Sample Reading Things NOT to Say to American Indian Coworkers 1. How Indian are you? 2. Hey, Chief. 3. Squaw. 4. Hold down the fort. 5. Don’t you get everything for free? 6. Do you live in a teepee? 7. That’s a nice costume. 8. I’m part Cherokee. 9. Indian-giver. 10. You guys just need to stop living in the past!

21 21 Useful Information & HW  Being a critical individual:  Find 3 useful resources for training reading skills.  Share your findings.  Useful resources will be introduced by the teacher next week.

22 22 Study Hard, Play Harder! USEFUL RESOURCE Edward M. Glaser (1941). An Experiment in the Development of Critical Thinking. New York, Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University.ISBN ISBN Reynolds, Martin. (2011). Critical thinking and systems thinking: towards a critical literacy for systems thinking in practice“, p Facione, PA. (2011). “Critical Thinking: What It is and Why it Counts”.

23 23 版權聲明 頁碼作品版權標示來源 / 作者 2 wikicommons/LadyofHats 本著作以創用 CC0 釋出,屬於公眾領域作品。 3 “Children must be taught how to think, not what to think.” Goodreads/Margaret Mead ( ) https://www.goodreads.com/author/quotes/61107.Margaret_Mead 依據著作權法第 46 、 52 、 65 條合理使用。 7,12 Hold down the fort……war path Things Not to Say to American Indian Coworkers/Diversityinc/Rick Waters 依據著作權法第 46 、 52 、 65 條合理使用。 8,13 Squaw While…… Waters Things Not to Say to American Indian Coworkers/Diversityinc/Rick Waters 依據著作權法第 46 、 52 、 65 條合理使用。

24 24 版權聲明 頁碼作品版權標示來源 / 作者 16 wikicommons / Donovan Govan. 本著作以創用 CC BY-SA 授權釋出 17 Wikicommons / Nobuyuki Kayahara 本著作以創用 CC BY-SA 授權釋出。 2, 3 Ask …...ge neralizatio ns Shafersman, S. D. (1991). An introduction to critical thinking. Retrieved 依據著作權法第 46 、 52 、 65 條合理使用。 15 Reading… …Reflectio n 台大李維晏老師 本著作以創用 CC BY-NC-SA 授權釋出。 16 Biased…… mindedne ss 台大李維晏老師 本著作以創用 CC BY-NC-SA 授權釋出。


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