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Chapter 19 Water Transportation Systems. Objectives Routes of water transportation. Modes of water transportation. Sea lanes used in trans oceanic transportation.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 19 Water Transportation Systems. Objectives Routes of water transportation. Modes of water transportation. Sea lanes used in trans oceanic transportation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 19 Water Transportation Systems

2 Objectives Routes of water transportation. Modes of water transportation. Sea lanes used in trans oceanic transportation.

3 History of Water Transportation Over 70% of the earth’s surface is covered with water. Water has made it possible to transport people and cargo over greater distances than by land vehicles. Boats are water vehicles less than 100 feet in length. Ships are over 100 feet in length. Some believe that water transportation was used over 50,000 years ago when the Aborigines settled in Australia. Ships have been essential to the exploration, settling, and development of our world. By the late 1700s, sailing ships were being constructed of iron and later steel rather than wood. In 1839 the first propeller driven ship was put in service. The popularity of ships for travel declined in the 1950s due to the speed and availability of air transportation. Cargo ships today use diesel engines instead of steam power used in earlier ships. Gasoline engines are used only in small recreational boats.

4 Water Routes The water must be deep enough and wide enough for the boat to travel through. The vessel can hit large rocks and sink or run aground in shallow waters. Sea lanes (Trade routes): Ships rarely collide at sea because they take regular routes when travelling across the ocean. The sea lanes are shown on navigation maps and charts. Inland waterways: Routes taken on canals, rivers, and lakes. Used for recreation as well as for moving cargo.

5 Purpose of Water Transportation Cargo transported by a vessel includes grain, oil, heavy equipment, iron ore, etc. Water transportation is more fuel efficient, economical, and inexpensive when carrying large amounts of cargo.

6 Modes of Water Transportation Passenger vessels are typically used to transport people recreationally. Cargo vessels transport goods between countries. Specialty vessels are built to handle unique situations, such as breaking ice in the polar regions or examining wreckages at the bottom of the ocean. Inland water transportation is transporting people or cargo on inland waterways including rivers, canals, and lakes. Transoceanic water transportation is transporting people or cargo across an ocean.

7 Inland Waterway Systems Barges: Barges are flat ships with blunt ends that carry very heavy loads (5 times their weight) of cargo – coal, ore, oil and grain. Towboats and tugboats: A towboat is designed to push barges. A tugboat is designed to pull barges. Tugboats are also used to pull ocean liners in and out of ports and help dock and undock other ocean going vessels. Hydrofoils: They are used to transport people and skim on the surface of the water. Hovercraft: A hovercraft is a vessel that rides on a cushion of air. Hovercrafts are used for many different applications including military, rescue, and recreation. Ferries: Ferries are vessels that move people and vehicles across narrow or small bodies of water. Commercial Fishing Boats: Trawlers use trawl nets dragged behind the boat. Liners have lines that can be operated mechanically or by fishermen. These boats have storage tanks onboard to carry the fish they catch. Cruisers: Boats that can be used for both inland or transoceanic pleasure trips.

8 Transoceanic Waterway Systems Ocean Liners: Cruise ships carry thousands of passengers. Most people travel on ocean liners for a relaxing vacation. Bulk cargo freighters: Designed to carry very large quantities of cargo. Carry goods such as coal, ore, grain, oil, sugar, cotton and cement. Tankers: Designed to carry liquids. Carry oil, petroleum products, chemicals, wine, and molasses. Large pumps and hoses are used for loading and unloading. Large ocean tankers can carry up to 2 million barrels of oil. Containerships: Containers are airtight, permanent, reusable, watertight and fitted with at least one door on the end. Container ships save time in loading and unloading of cargo. Military craft: Aircraft carriers carry fighter jets for the navy. Destroyers and cruisers can be used for surface combat, as well as antisubmarine and antiaircraft attacks. Amphibious vehicles are used for landing troops and combat vehicles on land. Submarines: Many military submarines are nuclear powered and can stay underwater for months at a time. Submersibles: Small craft designed to explore ship wrecks. Other transoceanic vessels: Icebreakers are used to clear frozen waters.

9 Summary Over 70% of the earth’s surface is covered with water. Boats are water vehicles less than 100 feet in length. Ships are over 100 feet in length. Sea lanes (Trade routes): Ships rarely collide at sea because they take regular routes when travelling across the ocean. Inland waterways: Routes taken on canals, rivers, and lakes. Water transportation is more fuel efficient, economical, and inexpensive when carrying large amounts of cargo. Barges: Barges are flat ships with blunt ends that carry very heavy loads (5 times their weight) of cargo – coal, ore, oil and grain. Towboats and tugboats: A towboat is designed to push barges. A tugboat is designed to pull barges. Tugboats are also used to pull ocean liners in and out of ports and help dock and undock other ocean going vessels. Containerships: Containers are airtight, permanent, reusable, watertight and fitted with at least one door on the end. Container ships save time in loading and unloading of cargo.

10 Home Work 1. What is the difference between boats and ships? 2. What is the difference between towboat and tugboat? 3. What is the advantage of containerships?


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