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Let’s Make Lasagna: An edible investigation into the Apicus

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Presentation on theme: "Let’s Make Lasagna: An edible investigation into the Apicus"— Presentation transcript:

1 Let’s Make Lasagna: An edible investigation into the Apicus
Wendi Bigelow AET 541 Dawn Tittle

2 Obviously Lasagna must be Italian!
The Dispute of Origins Obviously Lasagna must be Italian! Lasagna origins in the first cookery book believed to be published in Britain (during the reign of Richard II in the 14th Century), British researchers declare the dish, widely believed to be Italian, as their own. Perhaps the Romans brought the recipe during their conquests. “The old Roman food connoisseur Apicio cooked something like lasagna stuffed with meat whereas the poet Horace ate it cooked in a leek and chickpea broth. (Esposito, 2011)” Italian cooking is a very old art. Apicius, an ancient roman gourmet, is credited as the author of the oldest cookbook dating back to the 5th century B.C. “The Apicius”. “but the most famous of the Romans gourmands was Apicius, who reduced eating to a system and delivered lectures on the various modes of pleasing the papered tastes. (Hackwood, 1911)”

3 Beginning preparation “for pleasing the pampered tastes” with Lasagna
Collect the necessary tools. Garlic and Garlic press Large mixing bowl Speaker notes for storyboard. This planning session is an instruction on how to make lasagna. This is a popular inexpensive meal. Many variations in the recipe exist. This particular recipe was inherited and passed down through the generations. Original there were fresh herbs and sauce made from tomatoes out of the garden. Hopefully, there will be an opportunity to explore the history of the herbs used while making this dish. Pre-training In the above slide there will be a graphic as a pre-training showing each tool used with the name of the kitchen tool. For example: A lasagna pan, a garlic press, etc. The contiguity principal is used and the names of each piece of equipment will be placed next to the image (Clark & Mayer, 2008). In Clark and Mayer, 2008 it is recommended not to separate graphics from the words describing the graphics. This concept supports the use of the contiguity principal, this application will allow learners to make sense of the graphic. Segmentation This presentation is segmented into sections or chunks. The object is to teach the students how to make this popular meal without looking up a recipe. This dish is easy to make and not only makes a good everyday meal but is used for entertaining large crowds. In the first slide a photo shows what kitchen equipment is necessary. The purpose of this graphic is for the student’s pre-training to gather all materials needed for the project. The other objective in play is for the student to recognize similar equipment that can be substituted in place of what is suggested. The pre-training will be building on what the student already knows about cooking. Defining terms graphically in this training will meet the needs of alternative learning styles within the audience. This will offer each participant the opportunity for problem solving. Personalization The presentation is designed to be user friendly. The tone to avoid in this presentation is the typical cooking shows where the “sage on the stage” demonstrates the “how to” in cooking a meal. This presentation is designed with the thought of making this dish connect in long term memory. Many years ago women valued their prized recipes to the extent that they would even leave out ingredients so the meal could not be copied by someone else. How well they could cook sometimes was an aspect to “catch a man for marriage.” Today women have many other choices in life than marriage; consequently there is no need for such silliness. During a recession, many people are out of work or living on reduced incomes, the knowledge to prepare satisfying meals for families can be a lost art for some people. Pasta Lasagna pan

4 Ingredients for Lasagna Worked example that contains personalization
6 Eggs 2 large jars of spaghetti sauce 1 package of lasagna pasta Herbs: “BOGO” Basil 1/2 teaspoon Oregano 1 teaspoon Garlic teaspoon Onions ½ - 1 cup 1 pound of hamburger or Italian sausage (optional) 1 15 oz. container of ricotta cheese 1 pound of mozzarella cheese (shredded) Parmesan cheese Worked example that contains personalization This slide will have the recipe ingredients broken down into a worked example. This will enable the learner to remember the recipe, and they will not need to look this up each time the dish is made. To remember the herbs used in lasagna easily, the mnemonic of BOGO is used. This is a frequently used phrase in marketing for “buy one get one” only here it means “Basil, Oregano, Garlic, Onions.” These are the four main herbs used in most Italian dishes. Although the use of herbs in Italian cooking varies from one region of Italy to another. Basically speaking, these four herbs are present in almost all Italian food. These are also easily grown in any herb garden, ready for use and add flavor to large family meals.

5 Mixing our filling Use a nice size bowl, something you can get your hands into and stir with your hands. Combine the mozzarella cheese (should be shredded) and the ricotta cheese with six eggs add 1/2 teaspoon of Basil, 1 teaspoon of Oregano, and 1 teaspoon of chopped Garlic to the filling Mix up the ingredients above with your hands, the mixture becomes the texture of wet dough. You will be able to spread this easily over the uncooked noodles. What is important to remember about this dish, this is an every day meal, like cornbread and soup beans. You cannot make a mistake. While you are putting together these ingredients, I am explaining how I do this but how do you like your lasagna. Do you like it with meat? Then brown hamburger with onions and sprinkle this into the sauce. Place the oregano and basil in the filling mixture continue to mix with your hands. 5

6 Simplicity within the Sauce.
Tomato Sauce The oldest cookbook very well may be by Apicius, but that is not to say that he was the first epicure. That was Archestratus, a Sicilian Greek whose fourth-century BC poem on gastronomy survives only in the sixty or so fragments preserved in the Deipnosophists of Athenaeus. In reading them, one is struck by his emphasis on simplicity and insistence that a delicate fish be sprinkled only with a little salt and basted with olive oil, "for it contains the height of pleasure within itself" (Athenaeus, 321d). Simplicity within the Sauce. "for it contains the height of pleasure within itself" (Athenaeus, 321d). Sauce or “Gravy” 2 15 oz cans of tomato sauce 1 8 oz can of tomato paste 1 teaspoon of chopped garlic 1 cup of chopped onion Let sauce simmer until it thickens Or use a couple of large (16 oz) jars of your favorite spaghetti sauce.

7 Layering Lasagna First layer
Spread sauce over the bottom of the lasagna pan. Pasta Filling Sauce Parmesan cheese Second layer Parmesan Cheese The Craft of Layering Lasagna Continue layering until all the filling is gone! Layering process is very simple. It is easy to spread filling over the uncooked noodles, Then easier to spread the sauce over the filling. Sprinkle the sauce with parmesan cheese and start all over again. 7

8 Audio: Extraneous Audio
Baking Lasagna Preheat the oven to degrees Bake the Lasagna for 45 minutes to 1 hour covered with aluminum foil over the pan. Finish baking for 15 minutes uncovered Bon Appétit ! Audio: Extraneous Audio The use of extraneous audio in this slide is from music in the You tube and also with the recap of how to put together the lasagna ingredients. Typically an e-learning designer will use little extraneous audio so that the learner will not be distracted. Research has shown that sound effects and background music do not necessarily produce higher achievement results in e-learning situations. In this storyboard the use of extraneous audio is near the end of the training session. It is used to lighten the mood, and marks the beginning point where the learner will experience variations and hopefully develop their own variation of lasagna dependent on their own tastes.

9 Traditional recipe blog
Now we are all expert lasagna bakers, try some creativity with the Lasagna Guy! ! Lasagna Blog with ingredient variations !

10 Speaker notes: Learner Control
To finish our meal: An ancient Italian desert from the Apicus; a taste of the 5th Century B.C. DULCIA DOMESTICA (House made Dessert) (Apic. 7, 13, 1) Ingredients: g fresh or dried dates50g coarsely ground nuts or stone-pine kernels a little bit salt honey, or red wine with honey (to stew) Instructions: Take the stones out of the dates and fill them with nuts or stone-pine kernels. Sprinkle a bit of salt on the filled dates and stew them in salt honey or honey-sweetened red wine. The dates have to be cooked in on low heat until their paring starts to come off (approximately 5-10 minutes). Note:-----You may also fill some dates with ground pepper. (I wonder how this might taste - but that's a suggestion made in the original recipe.) Speaker notes: Learner Control This presentation is designed to give the learner control over creativity. It is not designed to be a rigid process for measuring and mixing when cooking. The learner control is from two types, “pacing” and “access to learner support” (Clark and Mayer, 2008). In pacing the learner controls the quantity of material they cover and how quickly the curriculum is reviewed. In this storyboard the learner is in full control of this aspect. The learner also has many choices for what practice session and what recipe will be developed. They are encouraged to use creativity when making their lasagna dinner. With access to learner support the participant can choose to use the videos or YouTube's provided or simply read the directions for baking lasagna. The storyboard uses instructional components like links and additional references are at the users control and not the default of the lesson design. Links to additional information have been purposely used sparingly so the learner does not waste time going from link to link in the presentation. Each link inserted into the presentation goes directly to what the instructor wants the student to see in relationship to the materials at hand. The action of placing the link closely to the text is to decrease cognitive load for the learner. Learner control can lead to the development of understanding the curriculum better and enable far transfer skills to be more productive. This storyboard/presentation is designed with the concept to not only teach a basic skill but to encourage the participant to develop a basic knowledge of the history of an ethnic dish and how variations are used to create variety. Flexibility is one of the far transfer skills that would hopefully be acquired through this training. Another far transfer skill is in the use of problem solving. If the cook does not have one ingredient perhaps something else will suffice. Only with learner control can these skills be achieved satisfactorily. Basically though the presentation is about near transfer skills and offering the learner to walk away with the skill of making an ethnic dish without a recipe from memory. Clark, R. C., & Mayer, R. E. (2008). E-Learning and the science of instruction: Proven guidelines for consumer and designer of multimedia learning. (2nd ed.) San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer.

11 Feedback wiki Each student will bake the lasagna and photograph a slice to be placed on the home page of “The Lasagna Wiki” at: On the wiki page titled “comments” each participant is to comment on their cooking experience, discuss variations used, and if they tried the ancient desert. The instructor will be able to answer questions and give feedback in the wiki for each student.

12 References (June 15, 2011). How to Make Lasagna [Video podcast]. Retrieved from Batali, M. (December 27). My Lasagna Recipe. Retrieved from Clark, R. C., & Mayer, R. E. (2008). E-Learning and the science of instruction: Proven guidelines for consumer and designer of multimedia learning. (2nd ed.) San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer. Esposito, T. (May 3, 2011). The History of Lasagna. Retrieved from Hackwood, F. W. (1911). Good Cheer: The romance of food and feasting. London: T. Fisher Unwin. (2009, August). Layering the Lasagna. Retrieved from Pantke, M. (July ). Antique Roman Dishes. Retrieved from Stilo, A. (November 3, 2011). Apicius. Retrieved from

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