Presentation on theme: "Cultures of East Asia Fall 2012"— Presentation transcript:
1Cultures of East Asia Fall 2012 World HistoryCultures of East AsiaFall 2012
2Chinese Empires Starting Points Map: East Asia Main Idea / Reading FocusSui and Tang DynastiesFaces of History: Wu ZhaoThe Song DynastyMap: Tang and Song Dynasties
3The Big PictureBeginning in the 500’s AD A series of dynasties reunified China and produced a prolonged golden age. The influence of China’s advanced civilization spread across East Asia. In Korea, kingdoms borrowed from Chinese culture and made it their own. In Japan, rulers borrowed from both China and Korea to produce a cultural flowering. In Southeast Asia, several kingdoms and empires thrived while borrowing from both India and China
4Theme: Migration and Diffusion During this presentation, you should note how Chinese and Indian cultures spread, or diffused, through trade, conquest, migration and religious missionaries to influence Japan, Korea and Southeast Asia. Nomadic Mongols then spread their culture through conquest as well.
6Chinese Empires Main Idea Reading Focus The Sui dynasty reunified China, after which the Tang and Song dynasties produced an age of prosperity and achievement.Reading FocusHow did the Sui and Tang dynasties reunify China?How did the Song dynasty strengthen China?What were some Tang and Song cultural achievements?How was this period a time of prosperity and social change?
7Sui and Tang Dynasties The Period of Disunion Civilization Thrived The Han dynasty ruled China from 206 BC to AD 220—more than 400 years. After the dynasty collapsed, military leaders split China into rival kingdoms. These events began a period of disorder and warfare that historians call the Period of Disunion.Nomads invaded northern China, formed own kingdomsMany northern Chinese fled south to region of Yangzi RiverA number of southern dynasties rose, fellThe Period of DisunionDespite these events, Chinese civilization thrived, developedNomadic invaders in north adopted aspects of Chinese civilizationNorthern Chinese immigrants’ culture blended with local cultures in south; arts, philosophy floweredCivilization ThrivedThe Period of Disunion lasted more than 350 years, ending when a northern ruler named Wendi reunified China, founding the Sui dynasty.
8Centralized Government The Sui DynastyWendi worked to build centralized governmentRestored order, created new legal code, reformed bureaucracyCreated policies to provide adult males with land, ensure availability of grainCentralized GovernmentGreatest accomplishment of Sui dynasty, completed during reign of Yangdi, Wendi’s son1,000 mile waterway linked northern, southern ChinaYangdi forced millions of peasants to work on canal; led to discontent, rebellion618, Yangdi assassinated, Sui dynasty endedGrand Canal
9The Tang Dynasty Period of Brilliance Tang dynasty ruled 618 to 907; Chinese influence spreadChina experienced period of brilliance, prosperity, cultural achievementGovernment, other institutions served as models across East AsiaBuilt on Sui FoundationsEstablished capital at Chang’an, Sui capitalSecond capital located at LuoyangGovernment control remained centralized, based on bureaucracy of officialsCivil ServiceTo obtain talented officials, Tang expanded civil service examination systemPeople had to pass written exams to work for governmentCreated flexible law code; model for law codes in Korea, Japan
10Foreign Affairs Expansion Tang expanded China, Chinese influence Regained western lands in Central Asia, gained influence over KoreaContact with Japan increased; Japanese scholars came to China to studyExpansion, increased contact with others grew foreign tradeExpansionMuch of expansion occurred during reign of Taizong, 626 to 649Taizong relied on talented ministers to help governIn addition to military conquests, Taizong had schools built to prepare students for civil service examsAfter his death, one of his sons became emperor
11New emperor was weak, sickly Wu ZhaoNew emperor was weak, sicklyEmperor’s wife, Wu Zhao gained powerFollowing death of husbandWu Zhao ruled through her sonsEventually became emperor herself—the only woman to do so in Chinese historyWu Zhao overthrown, 705Dynasty reached height under XuanzongDuring reign, 712 to 756, empire prospered
13Why is Empress Wu met with disdain by many Chinese historians? Question for thought!Why is Empress Wu met with disdain by many Chinese historians?
14The Age of Buddhism From India Buddhism first came to China from India during Han timesDuring Period of Disunion many Chinese turned to BuddhismTaught people could escape suffering, appealed to people in turmoilState ReligionUnder Tang rule, Buddhism became state religionBuddhist temples appeared across land, missionaries spread Buddhism400 to 845 in China, Age of Buddhism; ended when lost official favorTang Decline750s, decline began, government weak, nomadic invasions, rebellionsMilitary defeats lost Tang lands in Central Asia and the north907, emperor killed, Tang dynasty ended
15How did the Sui and Tang dynasties unite and expand China? SummarizeHow did the Sui and Tang dynasties unite and expand China?Answer(s): built centralized government; reformed laws and policies; built Grand Canal; Tang regained land in Central Asia and gained influence over neighboring states; increased contact with other peoples
16Government and Civil Service The Song DynastyChina split apart after Tang dynastyDid not reunify until 960 with Song dynastySong ruled for about 300 years, created achievement, prosperityUnder Song, Chinese civilization became most advanced in worldAfter Tang DynastySong established capital at Kaifeng, restored centralized government controlEnlarged government bureaucracy, reformed civil service examination systemNeo-Confucianism gained favor, emphasizing Confucian ethics, spiritual mattersGovernment and Civil Service
17Civil Service Exams Southern Song Extremely difficult to pass; those who did became scholar-officialsScholar-officials received good salary, were respectedCivil service exams became more open to ordinary peopleExams became pathway to gaining wealth, statusSouthern SongSong rulers never regained northern, western lands lost by TangTried to buy peace with threatening nomads by sending lavish gifts1120s, nomadic people, Jurchen, conquered northern China, founded Jin empireSong continued in south as Southern Song dynasty 150 more years
19How did the Song strengthen China’s government? CompareHow did the Song strengthen China’s government?Answer(s): established capital at Kaifeng and restored centralized government control, enlarged bureaucracy, reformed civil service exam
20Cultural Achievements The Tang and Song dynasties were periods of great cultural achievement. Art and literature flourished, and many inventions and advances occurred in science and technology.Tang period produced some of China’s greatest poetsDu Fu, Li Bo, two most famousPoems of Confucian ideals, joys of lifeLiterature and ArtReached new heightsWu Daozi, murals celebrating Buddhism, natureLandscapes of great beautySome used only black inkPaintingExquisite objects made from clayTang: pottery figurines, often to go in tombsSong: excelled at making porcelainAdmired, sought after worldwideArtisans
21Inventions and Innovations ArchitectureIndian Buddhist temples influenced design of Chinese pagodaFeatured roofs at each floor curving upwards at cornersInventionsDuring Tang, Song periods, China became a world leader in technology, scienceGunpowder major invention, used in fireworks, weaponsMagnetic CompassMajor Tang technical advanceUses Earth’s magnetic field to show directionRevolutionized sea travel, contributed to world explorationPrintingPaper, ink invented earlierTang period, developed woodblock printingText carved into wood, coated with ink, pressed on paper
22Moveable Type Paper Money Song dynasty invented another type of printing, moveable typeUses blocks on which letters, characters carvedBlocks rearranged, reused to print many thingsFaster than woodblock, spread to Europe, revolutionized printingPaper MoneyAnother Song inventionHad used bulky metal disks placed on stringsAs economy grew, lighter, more useful form of currency developedPaper money light, easy to use, quickly spread in use in China
24Identify Cause and Effect How did Chinese innovations affect world history?Answer(s): Gunpowder dramatically affected how wars were fought; the compass allowed for world navigation; printing innovations led to increased sharing of ideas.
25Prosperity and Society In addition to cultural achievements, the Tang and Song periods were a time of growth and prosperity.Chinese agriculture became more productiveNew irrigation techniquesNew variety of riceProduction of cotton, tea increasedIncreased food production contributed to population growthTang population 60 million, Song population 100 millionAgricultureImprovements in roads, canals increased trade within ChinaForeign trade expanded, mostly over land routes like Silk RoadsLate Tang: advances in sailing, shipbuilding helped sea tradeSong: merchants became important in society; money, banking began to developTrade
26City Life Society Women As farming, trade grew so did China’s cities China had largest cities in world at the timeTang capital, Chang’an, population more than 1 million, many culturesSong dynasty, several cities had million or more; sea trade caused port cities to boomDespite urban growth, most Chinese still lived, farmed in countrysidePower of aristocratic families declined during periodNew class developed, gentryIncluded scholar-officials, leading landownersMost still peasants, farmersPaid most of taxes, little schoolingSocietyStatus of women declined, most visibly in upper classesDesire for small, dainty feet led to custom of footbindingPainful process to keep feet from growing, deformed feet over timeSymbol of husband’s authorityWomen
27Draw ConclusionsHow did footbinding reflect changes in attitudes toward women in China?Answer(s): became symbol of husband's authority over wife; women's status declined
28The Mongol Empire Main Idea / Reading Focus The Mongols The Yuan DynastyMap: Mongol EmpireEnd of the Yuan DynastyFaces of History: Kublai Khan
29The Mongol Empire Main Idea Reading Focus The Mongols built a vast empire across much of Asia, founded the Yuan dynasty in China, and opened China and the region to greater foreign contacts and trade.Reading FocusHow did the nomadic Mongols build an empire?How did China change under the Mongol rulers of the Yuan dynasty?Why did the Yuan dynasty decline and finally end?
30The Mongols Nomads from the Steppe Fierce Warriors In the 1200s a nomadic people called the Mongols burst forth from Central Asia to create the largest land empire in history.Vast steppes, grasslands, stretch across north-central Eurasia, home to nomadic peoplesSteppes too dry for farmingNomads relied on herds of domesticated animalsOften traded; but also swept down on settlements, took what they wantedNomads from the SteppeLike Huns, Turks, the Mongols emerged as powerful nomadic people on Central Asian steppesHerded sheep, goatsSkilled with horsesAccustomed to living in harsh environment, competing for scarce resourcesTough people, fierce warriorsFierce Warriors
31The Universal Ruler Separate Clans Genghis Khan Campaign of Conquest Mongols divided into separate clans, each led by a khan, chiefKhans rose to power through military skills, ability to lead1100s, Temujin, powerful khan, began to conquer rivals, unite Mongol clansGenghis Khan1206, Temujin completed task, took name Genghis Khan, “Universal Ruler”Set out to build empire, organized Mongols into powerful military machineStrict discipline, demanded loyalty, rewarded those who pleased himCampaign of ConquestMongol forces began bloody campaign of conquest; highly mobile armiesEmployed brutality, psychological warfare; burned towns, killed inhabitantsSent agents ahead to instill fear; soon people surrendered without a fight
32The Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire Khanates Genghis Kahn led Mongols in conquering much of AsiaMongols learned art of siege warfare, gunpowder in fights against Chinese, TurksAt Genghis Kahn’s death, 1227, Mongols controlled much of northern China, Central AsiaSons, grandsons took up challenge of world conquestThe Mongol EmpireGenghis Kahn’s empire divided into four khanates, heir ruled each region; new Great Khan ruled over whole empireGrandsons resumed efforts to complete conquests of China, Korea, Persia1236, Golden Horde, or Tartars, began conquering Russia, Poland, HungaryKhanates
33Golden Horde stood ready to invade western Europe The Golden HordeGolden Horde stood ready to invade western EuropeGrandson Batu learned of Great Kahn’s death, suddenly turned backIndia, Western Europe escaped Mongol wrathMost of Eurasia devastatedMillions had died, entire cities annihilated
34The Mongol Peace Stability in Asia Mongols built empire with brutality, ruled peacefullyTolerated local beliefs, ways of life, allowed local rulers to stay in power as long as they paid tribute to MongolsSome Mongols adopted aspects of more civilized cultures; Mongols in Central Asia, Persia, adopted IslamStability in AsiaMongol Empire established peace, stability across AsiaSome historians call period Pax Mongolica, “Mongol Peace”Guarded trade routes across Asia, allowed trade to increase; people, goods, ideas flowed across AsiaSome believe Black Plague spread from Asia to Europe during period
35Identify Supporting Details How were the Mongols able to build a vast empire across much of Eurasia?Answer(s): army was skilled and well organized, rules promoted loyalty and obedience; tactics involved brutality and psychological warfare; built fear in those they conquered
36Kublai Kahn Rules China The Yuan DynastyGreat Kahn1260, Kublai Khan became Great Kahn of Mongol EmpireDetermined to complete conquest of China begun in 1235Southern SongMongols ruled northern ChinaSouthern Song dynasty ruled in south, fiercely resisted Mongols1279, Song defeated; Kublai Khan created Yuan dynastyKublai Kahn Rules ChinaAs emperor, Kublai Khan tried to gain loyalty of Chinese subjectsAdopted Chinese practices, gave dynasty Chinese nameNew CapitalKublai Khan moved capital to near what is now BeijingBuilt Chinese-style walled city, lavish palace, adopted Chinese court ceremonies
38Kublai Khan Rules China Mongol IdentityKublai Khan tried to rule as Chinese emperorBut took care to see Mongols not absorbed into Chinese cultureMongols lived apart from Chinese, had little in commonSeparationIndividual friendships between Mongols, Chinese discouragedMongols forbidden to marry ChineseDifferent laws, taxes for Chinese; could not own weapons, serve in militaryLimited PowerKublai Khan distrusted Chinese, limited powerChinese officials served at local level, could not hold high government postsMongols invited foreigners to hold government office
39Taxes to Trade Peace Foreign Trade Mongols burdened Chinese with heavy taxesLarge part of taxes supported public-works projectsChinese laborers built new roads, extended Grand CanalImprovements made shipping rice, other goods from southern China to northern China easier, more reliableMongols posted soldiers throughout China to keep peaceFeared rebellions, particularly in south where many Chinese remained loyal to Song dynastyPeaceForeign trade increasedPax Mongolica made land travel safer for merchantsSea trade improved; foreign merchants welcomed to China’s portsForeign Trade
40Europeans to China Marco Polo in China Accounts of China As a result of Kublai Khan’s foreign trade policies, many merchants, travelers and missionaries came to China. Most were from Southwest Asia and India. However a few came from Europe as well. One of the most famous of these Europeans was Marco Polo.Marco Polo, Italian trader visited Yuan courtKublai Kahn sent Polo on several missions; traveled in, around China for 17 years1295, Polo imprisoned in Venice, recounted tales to fellow prisonerMarco Polo in ChinaPolo’s tales published as bookBook fascinated many EuropeansPolo described grand palace, with walls covered in silver, goldNoted efficiency of postal system, use of paper moneyAwed by size, splendor of citiesAccounts of ChinaSome scholars question whether Polo reached China or just related stories he heard in his travels, but his tales increased interest in China.
41How did Mongol rule in the Yuan dynasty affect life for the Chinese? SummarizeHow did Mongol rule in the Yuan dynasty affect life for the Chinese?Answer(s): made the Chinese subordinate to the Mongols; limited their power
42End of the Yuan Dynasty Kublai Khan had set sights on conquering Japan The Yuan dynasty weakened during the last part of Kublai Khan’s reign. One cause was a number of military defeats. All of his invasions into Southeast Asia failed, and Mongol armies suffered huge losses.Kublai Khan had set sights on conquering JapanTried to invade Japan twiceDisastrous results each timeJapanFirst attempt: 900 ships attacked Japan, storm destroyed fleetSecond attempt: Khan sent larger fleet, severe storm again wiped out fleetAttacksAfter two fleets destroyed by storms, Mongols never attempted Japanese invasionJapanese called storms that saved them kamikaze, “divine wind”Kamikaze
43Military and Monetary Losses Huge military losses in Japan weakened Mongol forces that controlled, protected ChinaLarge amounts spent on public-works projects weakened economyWeaknesses, Chinese resentment of Mongols, left empire ripe for rebellionWeaknesses1294, Kublai Khan died, power struggles erupted; Khan’s successors lacked talent for leadershipFloods, rising taxes further increased discontent1300s, Chinese rebelled, defeated MongolsMongols fled to Manchuria, ending foreign rule in ChinaEnd of Dynasty
45Identify Cause and Effect What factors led to the end of the Yuan dynasty?Answer(s): military defeats and failed invasions; lack of good leadership; power struggles; Chinese discontent
46Japan and Korea Main Idea / Reading Focus Early Japanese Civilization Map: JapanForeign Influences on JapanThe Heian PeriodKoreaMap: Korea
47Japan and Korea Main Idea Reading Focus Geography and cultural borrowing from China shaped the early civilizations of Japan and Korea.Reading FocusWhat factors shaped early Japanese civilization?How did foreign influences shape life in early Japan?What characteristics defined Japan’s Heian period?What were the main events in the history of early Korea?
48Early Japanese Civilization The Japanese call their country Nippon, meaning “Land of the Rising Sun.” Japan sits on the eastern edge of the Pacific Ocean, at what feels like the origin of the sunrise in the east. This location and the geography of Japan has shaped life there since the earliest times.The nation of Japan consists of some 3,000 islandsLargest four islands form an archipelago, large island chainChain extends more than 1,500 miles and lies on Ring of Fire—zone of volcanoes, earthquakesThe LandJapan home to hundreds of volcanoes, many activeExperiences frequent earthquakesSubject to tsunamis, huge waves from underwater earthquakesTyphoons also strike late in summer, early autumnThe ElementsOnly a small part of Japan is suitable for farming. Most Japanese have always lived in the river valleys and coastal plains.
49Separated from Neighbors The SeaNearness of sea has also shaped development of JapanPeople never far from sea, even on larger islandsEarly Japanese turned to sea for food, transportationSea also protected, isolated Japan during much of historySeparated from NeighborsJapan separated from Korea by 100 miles of water, from China by 400 miles of water—large enough distances to prevent invasionsOnly successful invasion of Japan occurred in World War IIEarly Japanese developed own culture in relative isolationChina, Korea close enough to influence Japan’s culture later in time
50Early JapanMigrationScientists think first people to settle in Japan migrated from Asian mainlandEarly people hunters, gatherers; developed societies with distinct culturesOldest known Japanese culture, AinuAinuAinu’s origin unknown, did not resemble other East AsiansMore people migrated to Japan, Ainu driven onto northernmost islandCulture almost disappearedClansPeople on islands south of Ainu became the JapaneseClans developed, came to rule many villagesEach clan worshipped nature spirits, kami, believed to be their ancestors
51Shinto Religion Religious beliefs developed into Shinto religion Shinto, “way of the kami”Shinto religion:Everything in nature has a kamiNo sacred text, formal structureShrines:Built to kami, ceremonies performed thereLocated in natural settings; red gateway, torii, marks entrance
52The Yamato Clan Powerful Clan Emperors Amaterasu, the sun goddess, was one of most revered kamiFirst Japanese emperor said to be grandson of sun goddessEmperor member of Yamato clan, which lived in rich farming region on island of HonshuDid not control all Japan, but Yamato chiefs began to call themselves emperors of JapanPowerful ClanIn time Japan’s emperors claimed to be living godsOther clans eventually gained power over the YamatoDid not remove Yamato emperor, but controlled himAs result, emperor often had no real authority, served as figurehead; this political system continued until 1900sEmperors
54Identify Supporting Details What geographic factors have influenced Japan’s history and culture?Answer(s): geologically active region; steep mountains, thick forests, limited but fertile farmland, islands surrounded by the sea
55Foreign Influences on Japan By the mid-500s, Japan had increased contact with its neighbors, Korea and China. Their cultures began to influence Japan.Korean traders, travelers brought foreign influences; most originated in ChinaKorean scribes introduced Chinese writing to JapanKorean monks introduced religion of BuddhismBuddhism influenced Japanese art, architectureKorean InfluencesPrince Shotoku helped spread Buddhism in JapanServed as regent to Japanese empress, his auntShotoku admired China, sent scholars to learn from ChineseKnowledge from missions to Tang dynasty changed Japan in many waysChinese Influences
56Government Influences Changes in JapanTang InfluencesChinese fashions, foods, tea became popular in JapanTang styles of art, music, dance, gardening also popularConfucian InfluencesJapanese adopted many Confucian ideas about familyWives should obey husbandsChildren should obey parentsGovernment InfluencesJapanese adopted Tang ideas, including stronger central government, bureaucracyAdopted law code similar to China’s, not civil service systemEnd of Influences800s, Tang dynasty declined, Japanese stopped sending missions to ChinaTransformed what they had learned, to create own culture, society
57How did Chinese influences affect Japan during this period? Find the Main IdeaHow did Chinese influences affect Japan during this period?Answer(s): gave Japan a written language; Buddhism spread from China to Japan; Chinese fashion and foods became popular; Japanese adopted some Chinese ideas about government
58Life in the Heian Period In 794 Japan’s emperor moved the capital to Heian, now called Kyoto. Many nobles moved to Heian, where they developed an elegant and stylish court society. At the Heian court, Japanese culture flowered.Heian nobles lived in beautiful palaces, enjoyed lives of privilegeSo removed from common people, many called selves “dwellers among the clouds”Life in the Heian PeriodRules governed all aspects of court behavior, dressElaborate silk gowns for womenProper way to write note, an art formEveryone expected to write poetryEtiquetteWomen enjoyed writing, reading fictional proseLady Murasaki Shikibu greatest writer; The Tale of Genji, world’s first full-length novel, describes court lifeWomen
59Fujiwara family controlled Japan for most of Heian period The FujiwarasFujiwara family controlled Japan for most of Heian periodMany Fujiwaras served as regentFujiwaras often married daughters to heirs of throneRich landowners with private armies eventually challenged Fujiwaras, Japan’s central government
60Why was the Heian period a golden age of culture in Japan? SummarizeWhy was the Heian period a golden age of culture in Japan?Answer(s): A court culture grew; writing and art flourished.
61Korea Korean Peninsula Juts from East Asian mainland, China to southwest, Japan to eastLocation made Korea bridge for passage of people, culture, ideasAlso left region open to invasionGeographyMuch of peninsula covered by rugged mountains, limits land for agricultureMountain ranges run north and south along east coastMain population centers in west; land flattens to plainsEarly KoreaFirst Koreans nomadic peoples from northeastern Asia; formed clansDeveloped own culture; but influenced by China’s Han dynasty, 108 BCAdopted Confucianism, Chinese writing, political, agricultural methods
63Silla The Koryo Dynasty Society, Culture After China’s Han dynasty, three rival kingdoms controlled Korea600s, rulers of one kingdom, Silla, allied with China, conquered restSilla then turned on Chinese; ruled all Korea by 670Agreed to pay tribute to China to ensure harmony, good willEmbraced many aspects of Chinese civilization, promoted Buddhism, created central government, bureaucracy based on Tang model935, rebels defeated Silla Kingdom, founded Koryo dynasty, which lasted until 1392Continued to adopt Chinese ideas, worked for distinct Korean featuresCivil service exam like China’s but only nobles could take testThe Koryo DynastySociety divided between powerful nobility and the rest of the peopleCulture thrived, artisans created pottery covered with celadon glazeImproved on Chinese woodblock printing, created moveable typePrinted Buddhist textsSociety, Culture
641200s, Mongols of Yuan China invaded, occupied Korea Mongol Occupation1200s, Mongols of Yuan China invaded, occupied KoreaForced Koryo’s rulers to pay immense tributes, enslaved many KoreansTook artisans to ChinaForced men to serve in Yuan military1300s, Yuan dynasty weakenedKoreans rebelled against Yuan1392, Korean general founded new dynasty
65What were the major events and periods in early Korean history? SequenceWhat were the major events and periods in early Korean history?Answer(s): period of Han dynasty influence; period when Silla kingdom allied with Chinese; Koryo dynasty
66Civilizations of Southeast Asia Main Idea / Reading FocusInfluences on Southeast AsiaMap: Southeast Asian KingdomsEarly Kingdoms and EmpiresVisual Study Guide / Quick FactsVideo: The Impact of Chinese Culture on Japan
67Civilizations of Southeast Asia Main IdeaThe early civilizations of Southeast Asia were influenced by geography and the cultures of India and China.Reading FocusWhat factors influenced early civilizations in the region of Southeast Asia?What early kingdoms and empires developed in Southeast Asia?
68Influences on Southeast Asia India and China shaped the development of civilization in the region of Southeast Asia. Geography and trade also played important roles.Southeast Asia divided in two parts—mainland Southeast Asia, and island Southeast AsiaMainland—modern nations of Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, part of MalaysiaIsland—Sumatra, Borneo, Java, rest of Malaysia, Brunei, East Timor, Indonesia, Philippines, SingaporeTwo Parts of Southeast AsiaSeveral rivers flow south on mainlandValleys, deltas of rivers supported farming, home to early civilizationsSeparating rivers, rugged mountains, limited contact among peopleIslands surrounded by seas, straits; provided sources of food, travel, served as trade routesGeography
70TradeSoutheast Asia waterways, main trade routes between India, ChinaTwo most important: Malacca Strait between Malay Peninsula, Sumatra; Sunda Strait, between Sumatra, JavaControl of these, other important trade routes, brought wealth, powerWindsMonsoons, seasonal winds, shaped tradeWinds blow northeast in summer, southwest in winterShips relied on monsoons to sail from place to place, often had to wait in port until winds shifted to resume voyageMany Southeast Asian port cities became important economic centers
71Sea Trade in Southeast Asia By AD 100s, Indian merchants had begun prosperous sea trade with Southeast AsiaOverland trade routes through Central Asia more dangerous after fall of Han dynasty, 220Seaborne trade between China, India increasedTraders passed through Southeast Asia; exchanged goods for local products
72Traders and Missionaries India and ChinaChinese, Indian traders influenced Southeast AsiaIndian influence spread through trade, missionariesIndian missionaries introduced Hinduism, Buddhism; many kingdoms adopted the religions, built temples in Indian styleEventually Indians brought Islam; remains strong todayTraders and MissionariesIndian ideas on writing, science, government, art spread to Southeast AsiaAncient Indian language, Sanskrit, came into wide useChinese influences spread by conquest, trade, migrationChina controlled northern Vietnam at different times, strongly influenced that regionOther Influences
73Identify Cause and Effect How did trade influence Southeast Asia?Answer(s): Ports became the economic centers of Southeast Asia; Indian and Chinese influence spread to Southeast Asia through trade
74Early Kingdoms and Empires Small but PowerfulSeveral early kingdoms, empires arose in Southeast AsiaMost small, a few quite powerfulBlended influences from India, China to create own unique societies, culturesThe Pagan KingdomAD 800s, Burmans established kingdom of Pagan, in what is now MyanmarLocated in fertile Irrawaddy River valley, ideal for rice farmingFirst king, Anawrahta, ruled 1044 to 1077, conquered surrounding areasConquests1057, Anawrahta united much of what is now Myanmar under his ruleConquests provided Pagan with access to trading portsAnawrahta’s kingdom prospered
75The Pagan KingdomAnawrahta, successors supported Theravada Buddhism, built thousands of Buddhist templesPagan became center of Buddhist learning1287, Kublai Khan’s Mongols demanded tribute from Pagan; king refused and attacked; was crushedOne of king’s own sons killed him, then agreed to pay tribute to the MongolsPagan survived, but lost powerToday Myanmar people consider Pagan classical age of history, culture
76The Khmer Empire Indian Influence Rich from Rice Powerful Khmer empire arose southeast of Pagan, in what is now CambodiaEarly 800s, Khmer people began to conquer kingdoms around them, build great empireEmpire reached height between 850 and 1250, controlled much of Southeast Asian mainlandExpensive building projects, invaders contributed to empire’s declineKhmer Empire reflected strong Indian influenceAdopted Hindu, Buddhist beliefs, ruled as godsEmpire’s capital city, Angkor, symbolized shape of Hindu universe, temple at its centerIndian InfluenceBuilt vast temple complexes; Angkor Wat ruins still standEmpire grew prosperous from rice farmingBuilt irrigation system covering 12.5 million acres, grew several crops per yearRich from Rice
77Trading Kingdoms Trading Kingdoms Sailendra Srivijaya Control Reduced Several developed on islands of Southeast AsiaKingdom of Sailendra on Java flourished, 750 to 850Relied on agriculture, tradeSailendraAdopted Mahayana Buddhism, known for impressive Buddhist art, architectureBorobudur monument with terraced levels most famousSrivijayaWealthy empire on Sumatra, flourished 600s to 1200sGained wealth from control of overseas trade through Malacca, Sunda straitsAlso Buddhist learning centerControl Reduced1025, empire attacked by Indian kingdomEmpire survived, but weakenedControl of trade reducedIslam spread; Muslims came to dominate trade in region
78Vietnam Chinese Rule Traditional Customs While most of Southeast Asia was strongly influenced by India, Vietnam was strongly influenced by China. In 111 BC the Han dynasty of China conquered the kingdom of Nam Viet, in what is now northern Vietnam. They ruled the region off and on for the next 1,000 years.Chinese forced Vietnamese to adopt Chinese language, clothing, hairstylesConfucianism, Daoism influenced Vietnamese societyAdopted Chinese government features, including bureaucracyChinese RuleVietnam embraced Buddhism, but still maintained traditional customsContinued to worship nature spirits alongside other belief systemsChinese rule shaped life in early Vietnam, but people determined to preserve own culture, identityTraditional CustomsIn hopes of regaining their independence, the Vietnamese sometimes rebelled when Chinese rule grew weak.
79Rebellion in Vietnam Rebellion AD 39, one of most famous Vietnamese rebellions took placeTwo sisters, Trung Trac, Trung Nhi raised army, briefly drove Chinese outChinese soon regained control; sisters remain heroes in Vietnam todayIndependenceEarly 900s, fall of China’s Tang dynasty provided Vietnamese another chance at independence; this time successful939, established independent kingdom in what is now northern VietnamDai VietRulers of Dai Viet sent tribute to China, but remained independentChinese failed in attempts to reconquer Vietnam; 1285, Mongols invaded; Dai Viet prince Tran Quoc Toan defeated them, became a hero
80ContrastHow did the development of early Vietnam differ from the development of kingdoms and empires in the rest of Southeast Asia?Answer(s): was ruled by China; influenced by China rather than India