Presentation on theme: "Outdoor and Environmental Studies"— Presentation transcript:
1Outdoor and Environmental Studies UNIT 4 TAYLORS LAKES SECONDARY COLLEGEOUTCOME 1 REVISION 2013
2Unit 4- Sustainable Outdoor Environments In this unit students explore the sustainable use and management of outdoor environments. They examine the contemporary state of environments in Australia, consider the importance of healthy outdoor environments, and examine the issues in relation to the capacity of outdoor environments to support the future needs of the Australian population.
3Outcome 1- Healthy Outdoor Environments This area of study explores the contemporary state of environments in Australia and the importance of natural environments for individuals and society. Students examine the nature of sustainability and, using key indicators, evaluate the health of outdoor environments. They investigate current and potential impacts of damage to outdoor environments.
4Key KnowledgeUnderstandings and critiques of sustainability and sustainable developmentIndicators of healthy outdoor environments, including:Quality and adequacy of water, air and soilLevels of biodiversity, pest and introduced species
5Key Knowledge Continued… The contemporary state of outdoor environments in Australia, with reference to common themes used in State of the Environment reports.The importance of healthy outdoor environments for individual physical and emotional wellbeing, and for the future of society.The potential impact on society and outdoor environments of land degradation, introduced species, climate change, urbanisation and other significant threats.
6Key SkillsPlan for and reflect upon a range of practical sustainable outdoor experiences and analyse relevant information collected during these experiences.Identify definitions of sustainability and analyse the concept of sustainable development.Describe a range of different indicators that can be used to identify healthy outdoor environments.Evaluate the contemporary state of Australian outdoor environments.
7Key Skills Continued…Collect and interpret data on the contemporary state of a particular outdoor environment.Analyse the importance of healthy outdoor environments for individuals and society.Identify and predict the potential impact of significant threats on society and outdoor environments.
8Understandings and critiques of sustainability and sustainable development Sustainability- Sustainability is based on a simple principle: Everything that we need for our survival and well-being depends, either directly or indirectly, on our natural environment. Sustainability creates and maintains the conditions under which humans and nature can exist in productive harmony, that permit fulfilling the social, economic and other requirements of present and future generations.
10Understandings and critiques of sustainability and sustainable development continued… Textbook definition:“the practice of ensuring and equitable, healthy future for all people and natural environments”Sustainable Development - Brundtland Commission definition 1987:"Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. It contains within it two key concepts:the concept of needs, in particular the essential needs of the world's poor, to which overriding priority should be given; andthe idea of limitations imposed by the state of technology and social organization on the environment's ability to meet present and future needs.“
11Understandings and critiques of sustainability and sustainable development continued… Real world example that we studied in class-The Bed Zed Community- UK.Sustainable development of the wider Grampians area
12Key Knowledge Indicators of healthy outdoor environments, including: Quality and adequacy of water, air and soilLevels of biodiversity, pest and introduced species
13Quality and adequacy of water, air and soil Victoria Governments- State of the Environment Report 2008 andHow do we determine the Quality of the environment (Indicators)?Range a of tests to determine quality of environment.Benchmark- compare current to past statistics.Predict the future state of the environment.Quality of water-Types of testing- PH testing, turbidity, salinity, levels of biodiversity- fauna and flora.
14Quality and adequacy of water, air and soil continued… Quality of air-Type of tests- ozone testing, carbon dioxide, water vapor, visual test.Quality of soil-Type of tests- PH testing, worms, nutrients, levels of topsoil- erosion etc.
15Levels of biodiversity, pest and introduced species Biodiversity- is the variety of all life forms on earth - the different plants, animals and micro-organisms and the ecosystems of which they are a part.How do we determine the level of Biodiversity of a particular environment?Compare statistics- from past and presentLike environmentHow do we know whether or not the environment is healthy?Testing, comparing, visual etc.
16Levels of biodiversity, pest and introduced species continued… How do we determine the level (Indicators) of the impact of pest and introduced species.What is the difference between pest and introduced species.
17Key KnowledgeThe contemporary state of outdoor environments in Australia, with reference to common themes used in State of the Environment reports.State of Environmental reports-20112008Major Themes from the 2011 State of Environment Report-Biodiversity, Land, Inland waters and Atmosphere.
18Major Themes from the 2011 State of Environment Report Major Themes/Headlines from the State of Environment Report 211-Our environment is a national issue requiring national leadership and action at all levels-Coordination of all government departments.Effective environmental management requires adequate information-Long term studies are required to fully understand the challenges the Australian environment is facing.Earth is warming, and it is likely that we are already seeing the effects of climate change in Australia. As the driest inhabitable continent, Australia is particularly vulnerable to climate change-Change of temperature and rainfall distribution across Australia.
19Major Themes from the 2011 State of Environment Report continued… Early action by Australia to reduce emissions and to deploy targeted adaptation strategies will be less costly than delayed action-Reduction in the level of emissions is required ASAP.Ambient air quality and air pollution management in Australia’s urban centres are generally good, but the impact of urban air quality on health is still a matter of serious concern-Most of Australia’s air is fairly good quality, however near the Urban centres the quality of air is reducing.
20Major Themes from the 2011 State of Environment Report continued… Pressures of past human activities and recent droughts are affecting our inland water systems.Most Northern and remote areas of Australia remain unaffected by Human Impact.However areas that have been inhabited by humans have been significantly changed e.g. Inland waterways.Meeting our water needs will be a critical challenge.As our population and demand increases so will the demand for water E.g. Desalination Plant, water management etc.
21Major Themes from the 2011 State of Environment Report continued… Australia’s land environment is threatened by widespread pressures.Invasive species, inappropriate fire patterns and grazing are having a significant impact on much of our land environment.Threats to our soil, including acidification, erosion and the loss of soil carbon, will increasingly affect Australia’s agriculture unless carefully managed.In 2001, it was estimated that soil acidity affected 50 million hectares of surface layers and 23 million hectares of subsoil layers, estimated to cost $1.585 billion per year in lost agricultural production.
22Major Themes from the 2011 State of Environment Report continued… The overall condition of the Australian marine environment is good, but integrated management will be key to the future conservation of our ocean resources.The ocean climate is changing and we will need to adapt.Increasing sea level, increased incidence and severity of extreme weather events, altered ocean currents, changing patterns of biodiversity, and changing productivity.
23Major Themes from the 2011 State of Environment Report continued… The Antarctic environment is showing clear signs of climate change, which is likely to have profound effects on Antarctic species and ecosystems.The East Antarctic Ice Sheet is losing ice at its coastal fringes—about 60 billion tonnes each year since 2006.Our unique biodiversity is in decline, and new approaches will be needed to prevent accelerating decline in many species.Australia is identified as one of the world’s ‘megadiverse’ countries. However, there have been major declines in many components of biodiversity since European settlement, and data on pressures suggest that many species continue to decline, despite promising investment to address these pressures.
24Major Themes from the 2011 State of Environment Report continued… Our unique biodiversity is in decline, and new approaches will be needed to prevent accelerating decline in many species.Australia’s built environment faces many pressures and consumes significant natural resources, although consumption may be slowing.The majority of Australians (87% in 2006) live in urban areas. An increasing need for urban space and buildings, increasing traffic congestion and increasing consumption are affecting the livability and environmental efficiency of the built environment.
25Major Themes from the 2011 State of Environment Report continued… Coastal regions bring together many of the issues affecting other parts of the environment, and coordinated management will be needed to mitigate pressures.
26Major Themes from the 2011 State of Environment Report continued… Australians cannot afford to see themselves as separate from the environment.The Australian environment is precious. Our ecosystems, biodiversity and heritage are vulnerable to the choices we make. At the same time, we depend on them for our survival and wellbeing. Our ecosystems, and the biodiversity they support, provide services that are fundamental to human life, such as regulation of the atmosphere, maintenance of soil fertility, food production, filtration of water, and pest control. The major future drivers of change—climate change, population growth, economic development and associated consumption of natural resources, as well as the pressures that these drivers place on the environment—will need to be managed carefully if our society is to achieve a sustainable relationship with the Australian environment.
27Key KnowledgeThe importance of healthy outdoor environments for individual physical and emotional wellbeing, and for the future of society.How does the Outdoors promote healthy wellbeing for humans?Recreation- Fun and exercisePhysicalMental- stress relief and relaxation.Fresh air.Linked to Topic 8- Importance of Healthy Outdoor Environments
28The importance of healthy outdoor environments for individual physical and emotional wellbeing, and for the future of society.Individuals-Places for recreation and adventure.Bushwalking - Organ Pipes NPCamping and Bushwalking - GrampiansCanoeing – Murray riverPlaces for inspiration and creativity.EducationAs above
29The importance of healthy outdoor environments for individual physical and emotional wellbeing, and for the future of society. Continued…Society-Resource-Fossil fuels, food production, primary industries etc.Scientific ResearchBrisbane Ranges- Impact of Cinnamon Fungus (prevention and or control)- Foot washing stations.Intrinsic valuesInternal- Wilderness environment that is preserved for future generations.Biodiversity-Brisbane Ranges
30Key KnowledgeThe potential impact on society and outdoor environments of land degradation, introduced species, climate change, urbanisation and other significant threats.
31Land degradationHabitats being cleared for farming and urban development.Clearing over the last 200 years has also destroyed many species.At least ½ of Victoria’s native vegetation has been cleared.
32Introduced speciesPest species compete with natural species for food and territory.Some pest species have no predators thus no competition for food or space.At least 90% of Native bush land in Melbourne is effected by weeds.The total cost of pest species in Victoria alone is $900 million per year.
33Climate changeAffects biodiversity as species cannot adapt fast enough for rising temperatures and a change in food source as a result.12% increase in greenhouse gas emissions since 1990.Australia are the 2nd highest emitters per capita in the world.Since 1961 global average sea level has risen by 10cm. Williamstown has registered 18cm sea level rise over the last 100 years.
34Urbanisation What is urbanisation? Clearing landBuilding houses, factories, infrastructure etc.What are the major threats of Urbanisation?Land degradationEmissionsExtinction of speciesHabitat lossPopulation increase
35Other Major Threats Unsustainable use of natural resources. Inappropriate fire regimes.Changes to the aquatic environment and water flows.More information on the above threats in Topic 9- Biodiversity.