2 EcologyEcology – is the scientific study of the interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environments.
3 HabitatsThe place where an organism lives and that provides the things the organism needs is called its habitat!Food, water, and shelter.Biotic Factors – The living parts of an ecosystem.Animals, plants, fungi, bacteria.Abiotic Factors – The nonliving parts of an ecosystem.Water, Sunlight, Oxygen, Temperature, and soil.
4 OrganismThe smallest unit of ecological study.Wildebeest
5 PopulationsA population is a group of individual organisms of the same species living in a particular area.Herd of Wildebeest
6 Exponential GrowthOccurs when the population multiplies by a constant factor at constant time intervals.
7 Limiting Factors A factor that restricts the growth of a population. SpaceFood availabilityDisease
8 CommunityAll of the organisms inhabiting a particular area make up a community.
9 Ecosystem and Biosphere An ecosystem includes the abiotic and biotic factors in an area.The biosphere is the sum of all Earth’s ecosystems.
11 How do organisms get energy? Every organism requires energy to carry out life processes such as growing, moving, and reproducing.Producers (autotroph) – synthesize their own food through the process of photosynthesis.Consumers (heterotrophs) – obtain their energy by eating other organisms.Decomposers -
12 Types of Consumers Herbivore – eats plants. Omnivore – eats plants and animals.Carnivore – eats animals.
13 Food ChainsThe pathway of energy transfer form one organism to another is called a food chain.What would happen if one organism is overhunted and removed from the food chain?What is the source of all energy?
14 Food WebA pattern of feeding represented by interconnected and branching foodchains is called a food web.
15 Energy PyramidEmphasizes the energy loss from one organism to the next in a food chain. Only 10 % is passed on to the next level, the rest is lost to the ecosystem in the form of heat.
16 Types of Relationships among species! Predation – an interaction in which one organism eats another. There are two individuals that participate.Predator and PreyFox is a predator and the rabbit is the prey.
17 Symbiotic Relationships A symbiotic relationship is a close interaction between species in which one of the species lives in or on the other.Parasitism – one benefits and the other is harmed.Mutualism – both species benefitCommensalism – one benefits and the other is neither helped or harmed
19 Ecological Succession The process of community change is called ecological succession.What would happen if you left the field behind Heritage uncut for a couple of years?
20 Primary SuccessionWhen a community arises in a lifeless area that has no soil.Pioneer species are the first to colonize barren rock.Climax community takes hold several hundred or thousand years later. The forest has grown to its full capacity.
21 Secondary SuccessionWhen a disturbance damages an existing community but leaves the soil intact, the change that follows is called secondary succession.FiresLand cleared for farming, then abandoned.
22 The Carbon and Oxygen Cycle Carbon starts its cycle in the atmosphere as Carbon Dioxide.Plants take in the carbon dioxide and make organic compounds known as glucose.That glucose gets passed on to consumers through the food chain.They then release carbon dioxide back into the atmosphere through the process of cellular respiration.
25 Population GrowthAs the human population continues to grow, the environment will be negatively impacted by the following.Habitat destructionDeforestationAir PollutionAcid RainWater pollutionGlobal WarmingIntroduced SpeciesReduced BiodiversityOverexploitation
26 DeforestationThe clearing of forest for agriculture, lumber, and other uses also affects the carbon cycle by eliminating plants that absorb CO2 for photosynthesis.
28 Alternatives to Clear cutting Don’t cut down every single tree!!!!!!Selective Cutting
29 Greenhouse Effect They process by which atmospheric gases trap heat. Greenhouses trap heat.
30 Global Warming Effects of Global warming Rising sea levelsLarge effects on weatherLoss of SpeciesThe overall rise in Earth’s average temperature.Caused by increasing carbon levels in the atmosphere.What causes increased carbon levels in the atmosphere?DeforestationBurning of Fossil Fuels
32 Acid RainPrecipitation that carries acid to the Earth’s surface.Smokestacks and automobile exhaust pipes release nitrogen and sulfur compounds into the atmosphere. They then combine with water and form acid rain.Can lower pH of soil and aquatic ecosystems causing species to become extinct.Acid Rain
33 Water and Air Pollution Burning Fossil Fuels – Releases chemicals into the atmosphere.Fertilizers – end up in water supplies.
34 Introduced SpeciesStarlings and house sparrows are introduced species from Europe. They competed with the bluebird population drastically reducing its population.
35 SnakeheadsSnakeheads are very aggressive and are outcompeting all native fish populations. Examples include Bass, Pickerel,
36 Overexploitation The practice of overhunting. Elephants were hunted for their tusks
37 What can Humans do to reduce our negative impact on the environment? Selective cuttingMake our homes more energy efficientUse cars get higher gas mileageTougher regulations