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Welsh athletic coaching conference

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1 Welsh athletic coaching conference
Cardiff on October 11, 2008 Roberto Bonomi - Scienze Motorie - Tor Vergata - Roma “General strength to specific/special strength training” “Development from young to advanced athlete regarding strength training” 1

2 The Italian Speed-School was born in the 1970s by Professor Vittori
The Italian Speed-School was born in the 1970s by Professor Vittori. The National School of Athletics of Formia was very popular among athletes, technical's and scientists and they put many questions to themselves regarding training, the bio-energy of muscles in every specialties, the technic-biomecamical-models, the rhythms and the distribution of the work. So big was the ferment as the wish for knowledge. The athletes were available and it was possible to test and speculate over the done experiences. Quite soon the interest in understanding how the nervous system works was developed. Today the biggest attention, at least by those who are interested in training, is payed on this aspect because we are sure that the biggest improvement can come from there. Roberto Bonomi

3 It is a physics greatness which gives the measure of a body movement
It is a physics greatness which gives the measure of a body movement. This is not an elementary quality of physics but a greatness or an indicator which represents the relation between the distance covered and the time that took to cover it and it is consequent to the effect of the application of strength. This is why our attention will be focused on the “strength” and the forms of its development What is speed? It is therefore necessary to go back to what causes these effects, so that training will contain means and structures to influences the growth. Speed is therefore to be seen as a complex of capacities and fitness which finds on several expressions of muscular strength its dynamism fundamental assumption. Roberto Bonomi

4 muscular strength technical running rhythmical running
The capacity to run fast is influenced by several factors as: muscular strength as the basic capacity to express the contract as the expression of special strength as the expression of specific strength technical running as the perfection of the tecnic as the block starts and relaxment rhythmical running as the optimal relation between the lenght and the frequency of passes, in function of the distance, and therefore of the speed Roberto Bonomi

5 The human body The human body, as we are concerned, is considered as a complex and dynamic system composed of a set of subsystems are functionally related to each other to create a single entity capable of reacting to external stimuli such as those produced by training. It is not always possible to determine with sufficient accuracy of the state at any given time nor the reaction caused by the load of training given, in fact, often loads perfectly identical may cause a different reaction depending on the conditions of the athlete when they application. E 'thus fundamental to know and distinguish (control teaching) how the various subsystems (core muscles, cardiovascular, respiratory etc.). React to external pressures in order to develop corresponding levels of functional capabilities. Roberto Bonomi

6 The functional capacity of the body
The passage of the one condition to another takes place through processes of self-both internal (muscle, organic, coordinative) and external (analysis and outcome of). The coach not directly directs the functions of the body, but direct the behavior of the athlete defining aspects of its activities with the aim of inducing the body to develop the necessary adaptations for change it accordance with the nature and intensity of the stimulus received. The necessary condition for that to happen is that the incentives themselves do not exceed, intensity and duration, capacity physiological systems of the regulators. The variations from adaptation that occur as a result of the stimuli are regular these type cumulative and continuing basis: remain, namely, for a relatively long time after stopping of training . Roberto Bonomi

7 Models of classification of human capabilities
essentially depend on factors related to the processes of energy Capacity conditional essentially depend functions and processes of motor coordination and regulation of action (S.N.C.) Capacity coordinative Roberto Bonomi

8 Tetanic and voluntary contraction
There exist studies carried out on athletes of different ages that have shown how the curve strength/time is modified when, through artificial stimulation, it is produced a tetanic contraction. In such studies it is evident that scantier qualification subjects produce bigger differences among the parameters deriving from the engagement of voluntary force and those regarding artificial stimulation. It can be inferred that a well organized long-term training improves the nervous mechanism of regulation of muscle’s contractile function which, in turn, allows to utilize, in form which are more or less complete or evident, the motor potential referred to a voluntary effort. Modifications curves "force-time" of a tetanic contraction caused artificially (A) and a voluntary contraction (B) Yury Verchoshansky 1988 Roberto Bonomi

9 Muscle strength “General Adaptation Syndrome” training adaptation
All these changes are accompanied by hormonal changes (Guezenec et al. 1986) that are related to both the type of work that the speed of execution (Woods et al. 1999). Furthermore, recovery times between the series, as the number of series carried out, are crucial for the creation of specific adjustments. Muscle strength training adaptation Hormonal Hans Selye has defined such behavior organic Gene Neural “General Adaptation Syndrome” Myofibrillar Mus e/o muscolo sincronizzazione Reclutamento unita motrice specific answers Sarcomerogenesis relation to the areas requested, will respond with a adaptation aspecific Roberto Bonomi that the report in equilibrium with the environment.

10 The base of the training
This ability of the body to respond with an increase of its energy availability and functional withstand any stress is also the “Basis of training” whose meaning is hardly complex summarized at a glance who seize all aspects that are a matter of educational, psychological, educational, bio-energy, technically. " (Vittori) Roberto Bonomi

11 The training of the young
The first thing to be remembered is whether to train a promising youth or of talent, she doesn't mean to train a "champion in grass." It would be a serious error to propose the contents of the trainings of a champion decreasing the quantities and the intensities of it to adjust it to the demands of a youth; it is necessary to have different quality and type of resources and exercises to choose from. Roberto Bonomi

12 The training of the young
The action of the educator should allow the younger use all its potentials that are a matter of: character temperamental intellectual volitive physical-organic This happens through the organization of a workout able to make the couple open and willing to accept the loads and commitments that such a “birth” demands. Roberto Bonomi

13 The strategy of training
The strategy of the juvenile activity includes the different forms of physical exercise that develop him with the intent to put the boy-athlete under the conditions to express, in competition, its talent, making him knowingly cross and responsibly the different tappes of its evolution, as I walk toward the most complete knowledge of himself, of its strong points and of the weak, physical and psychic sides, of its attitudes and availability to the learning and the volitive application. (Vittori) Roberto Bonomi

14 Physical activity youth
Physical activity youth in the long term should include principles and conduct educational start that gradually lead: from elementary to the complex from easy to difficult from general to the specific from the global to detail Roberto Bonomi

15 The transmission capacity
They are the strong pushes of general development in the juvenile age that, making more sensitive and I activate the process of transfer or transmission enlarged to compartments of the organism different from those solicited by the exercise, they engrave equally on the global growth of the abilities of output, without these need particularly articulated and specific interventions, aimed to singly solicit her. In the age of the development it is advisable to exploit these abilities of transmission of the organism while it will be being essential, when the pushes of growth he is growing weak or extinguishing entirely, to handle to qualify the training with the choice of the new, more direct, specific and sophisticated means more and more that, enriching the methodologies, they also produce effects of improvement in absence of the physical development. Roberto Bonomi

16 Lifting of the CG in the CMJ
The factors of growth Lifting of the CG in the CMJ Age (years) women men Altezza del CG (cm) On the growth ultrastructural muscle exercising an important action hormones   (tirossina, somatotropo hormone and testosterone) promoting the differentiation of tissues you can get significant improvements in the development of muscular strength only after the increase in production and release of testosterone (Komi, Hakkinen 1988; Prader 1975). Lifting the CG obtained during a jump with the countermovement by males and females, practicing sports and activities is presented to the various age (from Bosco, 1992) Roberto Bonomi

17 The factors of growth The operation directed to discover and to train the physical and psychic potentialities of the young, compared to age and to its development, introduces some complexities for the involvement of factors of growth. The physical growth especially those linked to muscular trophism, is age dependent, more than any other phenomenon of growth. This makes difficult to define the correct interventions to complete for discovering and to train the physical and psychic potentialities of the youth connected to his age and his development. Roberto Bonomi

18 Chronological age and biological age
The processes of adaptation of the skeletal muscles, included its strength in all of its expressions, but especially in those fast, they develop him and they consolidate as that it grows and neuro-endocrine activity is completed. Such trials have a chronological course, qualitatively and quantitatively different from subject to subject. It results, in fact, that young athletes of the same chronological age, especially in the inclusive period between 13 and 14 years, they show a great differentiation in their age of biological development with a range of variability that can be also of 3 to 4 years Roberto Bonomi

19 we must analyze the conditions clearly different subjects:
Subjets in normal development, accelerated delayed we must analyze the conditions clearly different subjects: normal development biologically accelerated biologically delayed Roberto Bonomi

20 The training of physical condition
In the band of inclusive age between the 12 and 15 years, the activity of training must be vast to involve all the neuro-muscular qualities, physics and organic that allow to the young to express themselves fully in the various specialities provided. “Run fast” it depends on a complex of fitness that they have in “muscular strength” the dynamic premise that animates her. The training of the strength must include the training to its development and its application in specific exercises of run that find, in the tests to high speed, the peak of the synthesis. Roberto Bonomi

21 The training of physical condition
The complex capabilities that affect the speed of the race consists of: the various manifestations of strength; maximum dynamic, explosive, explosive-elastic, explosive-elastic-reflected; the ability to make rapid steps of race; the ability to make broad steps of race; the ability to interpret the best compromise in the development of these two parameters, to achieve the highest possible speed of athlete; the ability to achieve more effective and profitable technique thing fast; the ability to decontraction, development of high speed, namely ease and fluency of movements; a low degree of muscle viscosity that the work force would risk compromising if it had not combined a massive exercise of “running” tending to restore the muscles to flow smoothly and quickly. Roberto Bonomi (Vittori)

22 The strength's training
The strength's training, in the years, it must suffer modification to conform to increases her ability of the youth tied to his growth and his qualification. This is possible using a great wealth of means able to influence each one determined ability to measure that the athlete evolves him and grows. Roberto Bonomi

23 Ages of 12/13 and 14/15 years In this band of age physical activity must have organized for: to know and to discover all the potential availabilities of the young physical-organic technical-abilitativa psico- temperamental training to increase their incidence on the performance of the athlete. Roberto Bonomi

24 The strength's training -12/13 years
The exercise of force, at this age, it is always carried out all year, as it must accompany the development of growth of young and must be addressed to all districts body so as to encourage an increase muscle balanced and harmonious . Particular attention should be placed in districts muscle of the lower limbs (foot, leg, thigh, pelvis and abdomen) is flessoria that estensoria that more closely affect us because responsible for propulsion. For this muscle, just for the task that it must perform, must be required dynamism and speed of execution, dynamism and speed that, instead, are less need for other sectors body. Roberto Bonomi

25 The strength's training -12/13 years
The exercises that you perform all dependants and more natural than others, in this age group, appear to be effective for the effects on expression fast estensoria strength of the lower limbs are: walks with folded up with and without jump fold up divaricated subsequent with jump It differs from the previous since the bent-legged divaricated you perform on the spot and on a limb at a time. We are running even with double spring, preparatory leap fold up divaricated alternated with leap The exercise almost similar to previous differs from that in single variant rhythmic dell'alternanza legs that are determined during the phase of air leap. You are running even with double spring. Roberto Bonomi

26 The strength's training -12/13 years
Other exercises that have great significance and will follow the couple throughout his journey of athlete, are: the horizontal jumps, alternated and later a frog jumps run-jumped To preserve the physical integrity of the young athlete, you must make the jumps on grassland shoes with rubber or even better with shoes triple jump because more protective. The contact on the ground must occur in jumps, with the whole plant, or with the metatarsal, jumped in the race. A contact with the tip of the foot would create damage to the Achilles tendon, you can also use a leather belt rigid make more solid the lumbar spine. Roberto Bonomi

27 The strength's training -12/13 years
The thing that is most interested in the technical diversity and dynamic alternating between jumps and run-jumped that usually in practice is difficult to achieve. The aims are to obtain answers for improvement on capacity different. The objective of jumps alternate is to improve their length, as this means having expressed more forcefully more quickly, and have been given to the body more quickly than in any leap leads him farther. In the run-jumped the goal is, to achieve the best compromise between the length of steps and the time taken to traverse the distance that was decided. (Vittori) Roberto Bonomi

28 Multi-balzi orizzontali e Corsa Balzata
They are treated together because too often their executions have not, as it should have, significant differences. Just look at the two drawings in hand to note how far are their configuration and because, above all, their different dynamisms that are not difficult to imagine if in the second value must be given not only the length of steps but also the time of route of the distance of 100 m. (Vittori) Alternate jumps (da Vittori) Run jumped (da Vittori) Roberto Bonomi

29 Alternate jumps Alternate jumps (da Vittori) In alternating jumps the trick which put attention concerns the support of the feet on the ground that must be done with the whole plant, without precedence of the heel but still less the tip of the foot that solicit dangerously “stretching “ the Achilles tendon . Roberto Bonomi

30 Run jumped Run jumped (da Vittori) In the run-jumped, instead, just to find a sufficient speed, the contact of the foot must be done with the metatarsal and with the ankle lie flat and compact, to support the heel that in no way should franare ground to prevent the rapid rebound. Roberto Bonomi

31 The strength's training -14/15 years
The strategies and objectives, in this age group, remain the same as the previous one and also the exercises that are used are the same but with the addition of an overload represented by heavy belts, whose weight can vary from 3-4 kg up 10 kg around so that we can more effectively stimulate the ability contractile muscle and his work recessive. Finally, to 15 years, you start to use the arm, which already previously had carried out exercises aimed at acquiring technical executive, without or with a slight additional load. Roberto Bonomi

32 The strength's training -14/15 years
The exercises to be used are those of classical lifted. The first exercises to learn are the two classic lifted lifting weights: the momentum and tear and partial passages as: pull back, without his arms, bringing the torso slightly curved, or pulled back and pulled chest with the rapid decline of arms, or shot in the chest, or, starting with the arm to perform chest thrusts in the upper arm, or leg bend or simultaneous with the divaricated. In this last case, it carries out once a leg and once in the other. These exercises are performed in the heating that takes place before the session dedicated to the force, to use constructively the time devoted to it. Even in this age group, the force still must be exercised during all periods of the year Roberto Bonomi

33 Gli esercizi delle alzate classiche
tirata schiena a braccia distese - tirata schiena -tirata braccia – girata - spinta in alto dal petto esercizio di strappo Roberto Bonomi

34 Lo strappo It 'an exercise to show very high dynamism and great difficulty executive who intended to move an arm from the ground right above our heads at once, that is with continuity. The execution provides a quick succession of speeches muscle departing from legs and arms reaching affecting all the muscles of the pelvis, trunk and girdle-humeral. Roberto Bonomi

35 Lo strappo Stimulates rapid activation of the central nervous system that translates into: ability to coordinate general coordination and inter and intramuscular ability to synchronize explosive concentric contraction eccentric contraction It can be run with accosciata total, half and ¼ and an athlete should raise at least equal to overload their body weight. Roberto Bonomi

36 Lo slancio It is an exercise that reflects the issues of the wrench, but differs because it is performed in two stages: one shot in the chest and the other thrust (momentum) arm high with divaricata sold and legs. The load to be lifted should be at least 60% higher than the tear. Roberto Bonomi

37 Le tirate Roberto Bonomi

38 Le spinte Roberto Bonomi

39 the physical condition the specific technique of the athlete
Ages of 16/17 and 18/19 years In this period, gradually, the activity of training loses significance of investigation and assume more and more organic structure of a program specifically aimed at learning and growth: the physical condition the specific technique of the athlete Roberto Bonomi

40 The strength's training -16/17 years
The methodological changes, the previous strategies are: the increased loads used in the exercises lifted classic that now are included in heating; growth of overload for the years to force fast extensor muscles of the lower limbs, the use of the arm with light loads to adjust to the increased ability to force the young, without compromising the dynamic expression. and finally entering, the true 17 years of age than those exercises that will also fundamental for the development of force: the squat, or folding-extension seed semi squat, bend or semi-extension, with higher load, but fast execution; Roberto Bonomi

41 The strength's training -16/17 years
During this time, finally, to facilitate the use in cyclic ability of strength gained from previous years are included in the sprint uphill on 30/40/50m for the sprinter and 80/100m for the 400isti with a slope of 12% approx. repeating 8 / 10 times with breaks varying from 3 '/ 4' to 6 '/ 8' for longer distances. Roberto Bonomi

42 The strength's training -18/19 years
And in recent years that the attitude of training teaching must change to take a more rigorous, more incisive, to organize new quality content specific to support, with a direct impact, individual capacity, previously involved globally. The exercises with overload used in the training of muscles anti-gravitational (or drafters) of limbs hell, considered the prototype of the various expressions of power are, in addition to the two already mentioned in the previous chapter, the squat and ½ squat, even the other two, the half squat jump from firm and ½ squat jump continuous or countermovement. (Vittori) Roberto Bonomi

43 Thanks for your attention
Cardiff on October 11, 2008 Thanks for your attention Roberto Bonomi “Sometimes I wonder how it happened that I was to formulate the theory of relativity. The reason, I believe, is that an adult does not ever stop to think about problems of space and time, because these are things that he thought Childs. But my intellectual development was late, and consequently I began to question on space and time when I was already an adult. “ A. Einstein metodo

44 The muscle tissue is one of the most adaptable human body
It is in its structure that in its function, fits the requests received and, in response to stressful stimuli, produces predictable changes Roberto Bonomi

45 The changes in muscle function of age
20 30 70 Its size and physiology, you change quickly during childhood and reaches its maximum between 20 and 30 years of age and after gradually loses, over the years, its functional capacity da Tihanyi - modificato

46 Type of muscle contraction

47 The muscular contraction
The classification of different types of muscular contraction made as a function of maximum force finds: in first place, the eccentric muscular work in second place, the isometric muscular work in third place, the concentric muscular work As a function of the regulation’s activity of the nervous central system, instead, the dominant role is represented by the regime of concentric muscular work Hence it appears evident that to obtain better results, it is advisable that the regimes of work are combined, that is the concentric regime load has to be integrated by an eccentric regime load. Roberto Bonomi

48 The adaptive answers It has to be kept in mind that the percentage dominance of a regime over the other shifts the effect of the work either on the front of the force or on the front of the speed of movements. With the increase of the speed of muscular contraction the developed force decreases, even if the engagement is maximal, which means that such type of work doesn’t affect much the construction of maximum force, which allows instead to perform the work in a low speed with elevated load. Initially the organism reacts to motor stimuli typical of a sport activity with a reaction of adaptation of all its systems, and this can be enough for obtaining the first sport results. Subsequently, however, the adaptive transformations take on an extremely selective direction, determined by the specificity of movements of the event’s exercise and by the specificity of the external stimuli that go with it. In these conditions, some functional systems of the organism develop more as to others in relation to the role they have in the realization of the required motor action. Roberto Bonomi

49 Such parameters are all determined by the entity of the overload
The adaptive answers The morpho-functional transformations that are produced in muscles subjected to a specific work, are due to many factors such as: The type of muscular contraction (concentric, eccentric, isometric) and, therefore, their combination force and speed of muscular contraction athlete’s position which determines the anatomical conditions of muscular work the width of movements and the consequent angle of the articulation or of the angular moment that allows to realize the maximum engagement of force Such parameters are all determined by the entity of the overload Roberto Bonomi

50 The limits of voluntary force
All the training’s methods are based on the engagement of voluntary force and on the athlete’s ability to mobilize to the utmost his/her motor potential. It goes to mean that the bigger it’s the engagement of the voluntary force during the lifting of an overload, the bigger it will be the velocity with which it is moved, till when, gradually increasing the entity of the load to be lifted, it is reached a point in which, as far as elevated the willpower is, the load is not liftable anymore. It follows that the limit of the training effect of such a method is determined by the limits of the force that the subject is able to voluntarily express on that particular moment. It is also well-known that under certain conditions of extreme necessity or of hypnosis, the man is able to express extraordinary abilities. It’s consequent to think that in such extreme conditions nature allows to mobilize: Roberto Bonomi

51 The limits of voluntary force
“hidden” or “reserve” possibilities. Hollmann and Hettinger (1976) have analyzed and classified such possibilities defining in particular those of the nervous and muscular system as follows: reserves utilized in “automatic movements” = 15% “physiologic” reserve = 20% “special” reserves characterized by elevated intensity and duration, which are mobilized in difficult situations of muscular activity = 35% Roberto Bonomi “automatically protected” reserves = 30%

52 The limits of voluntary force
By analyzing this classification it is allowed to think that in normal training activity only the first two kinds of organism’s reserves are mainly used, while more advanced and sophisticated trainings could bring the more or less complete use of the “special” reserves also. The difficulty in using the latter two types of reserves seems due to the “protective inhibition” of nervous central system, which compels the organism to suspend or reduce the intensity of the work at the moment in which levels of stimulus superior to the protection threshold of such system are registered. Roberto Bonomi

53 Long-term training program
All that is to say that through a long-term training program it is possible to achieve a better use of functional capabilities of the organism, consequent to the possibility of using the category of “special” and “protected” reserves. This is possible using strategies which also include exercises in which a mechanical external stimulus “forces” the central nervous system to increase the intensity of the stream of impulses sent to the muscular periphery. An example of that is represented by exercises that reuse to that end the kinetics energy accumulated by the body or by an apparatus during the free fall from a certain height. “To cheat the nervous system to put it under necessity” The inversion phase of the movement, whether it belongs to the body or the apparatus, has to be effected during such extremely short times and spaces as to provoke a sharp muscle sprain which increases the intensity of the impulses sent from the motor central zone to motor neurons, this way creating a considerable potential of muscle elastic tension (Y. Verchoshansky 1961;1963;1967;1969). If in classic work with overloads muscle tension depends mainly on the contractile voluntary force, in such exercises the mobilization of muscle activity has a “forced” character determined by external factors. Roberto Bonomi

54 The exercises of a “forced” character
Roberto Bonomi

55 The exercises “traces”
From physiology of neuromuscular apparatus we also know that every stimulus which increases the intensity of muscle activity, even though of short duration, leaves a “memory” inside the nervous system. These “traces”, which last for a certain period of time after the suspension of the action of the stimulus, can considerably affect the subsequent muscular activity, in particular they can increase its effect. (Iliev; Verchoshanskij 1970; Tatian 1974; Kodikin 1976) Following such principle, it is possible to utilize a greater excitability of the central nervous system produced by previous maximal muscle tensions of short duration in order to increase the potency of the following specific work. Roberto Bonomi

56 The exercises “traces”
Such a method, therefore, plans two ensuing works. The first one (tonic work) is performed at low speed and estimates the use of an high weight overload and a limited number of repetitions, whilst the second work (of development) is characterized by an explosive concentrated engagement of force, performed against a lesser external resistance, and plans a number of repetitions considerably greater compared to the first work. The “traces” in nervous system and their influence on the effect of the subsequent work are determined by many factors, in particular by the intensity of the tonic stimulus, by the exhaustion degree of the organism and by the pause between the previous work (tonic) and the subsequent one. Roberto Bonomi

57 The exercises of a “forced” character
All the series of exercises that estimate counter-movement and bounces, either with or without overload, allows in a more or less conclusive way to: It is important to know that all the exercises aiming at producing such effects are based on the capacity of the athlete to resist to external high forces. This implies some risks that can be in part avoided if the previous construction has been attentive, effective and has considered the temporal development of training, using exercises suitable for developing the functional preconditions necessary to the following phases. to elevate as much as possible the force to superior levels with voluntary work to reduce the inhibition processes due to Golgi receptors over miotatic reflex to improve the sensitivity of muscle spindle to improve the restitution time (eccentric-concentric inversion) Roberto Bonomi

58 How recovery times affect
Seldom the morphological-functional characteristics and, even more, the biological proprieties of an athlete are alike to those of another one. This is to remind the specificity of training that presupposes personalized exercises and loads depending on the event and on the biological characteristics of each athlete. The recovery pauses can vary from one to three minutes to get as far as five minutes in the case in which the exercise plans a course that, on average, includes three low recovery trials (1 min.), of which one is at contrast (that is alternation high/low or slow/fast load or closed/open angle). Roberto Bonomi

59 Short recovery times mainly affect the hormonal modifications
How recovery times affect Short recovery times mainly affect the hormonal modifications Wider recoveries affect more the neurogen aspect (Kramer, 1990) Roberto Bonomi

60 The training strategy A correct training strategy of the force, especially in sprint or “fast cyclical force” disciplines, must plan well differential methodologies which engage either the muscle component or the neuro-endocrine one producing totally different effects, that is respectively those of proteinous trophism (muscle), extended to the biggest possible quantity of fibers that, in so doing, are enabled to twitch with more force, and those (neuro-endocrine) of frequency increase of the trains salvo of nervous stimuli to which concurs the hormonal activity solicited by the strong motivation to perform fast actions. (Vittori) Roberto Bonomi

61 The conditions that affect the growth of muscular hypertrophy are:
Entity of muscular tension Time of maintenance of muscular tension Roberto Bonomi

62 The conditions that affect the growth of muscular hypertrophy
If we set maximum either the load or the execution’s speed, we surely activate all the engine’s units but, in the case of maximal execution’s speed, we don’t note the same muscular trophism that it is found after exercises with overload. This goes to signify that this aspect (trophism) depends on the factor time of maintenance. The exercises with natural load are able to produce substantial changes of strength, they constitute a time of great interest, initially as a formative means of the athlete and subsequently as a system aiming at shifting, with more and more specific exercises, the benefits of a sectoral increase over the athletic gesture. By themselves, however, they are not sufficient to develop the big effects produced by training with maximal loads, both from the viewpoint of the coordination and from that of hormonal modification. The natural load has, therefore, the fault not to allow levels of strenght’s temporal consolidation as rapid and lasting as those that are obtained working with overload; the high speed of executions often don’t produce improvements of maximal strength, given the short time of their execution. Roberto Bonomi

63 Why the overload The entity of muscular tension is function both of the load and of the movement’s speed. If the speed or the load are maximum, the engine units are all activated realizing the maximum tension that doesn’t differ, in terms of value, in both cases. This goes to mean that muscular hypertrophy that is verifiable after working with overload doesn’t come much from this factor, but from the supposed other, that is from the time of maintenance of the tension. The load and the speed of displacement must be raised so as to put strain on the real effectors of the strength, stimulating this way their own “supercompensative” answer. (Vittori) Hence it can be inferred that intensive loads have a character of development and direct stimulus and that the extensive ones, instead, take on the character of consolidation, which is aimed at stabilize the previous functional adaptive transformations of athlete’s organism. Roberto Bonomi

64 Unilateral contraction
that is related to the work made on a single limb The force, just as electrical activity obtained from the bilateral contraction of homologous muscles, is inferior as to the sum of the force obtained unilaterally contracting the two muscles (Coyle and coll. 1981, Ohtsuki 1981; Howard e coll. 1987). In an exercise of ½ explosive squat, an athlete weighing 80 kg who works with the 200% of his own corporeal weight, using both limbs, must raise a load of 160 kg (therefore he raises = 240, that is 120 for each leg); on the contrary, working on a single limb, it will be sufficient to raise only 40 kg to have the same load on the single limb (80 kg P.C kg overload). Roberto Bonomi

65 Wath is important to know
It should be remembered that only special methods of force preparation, fit or very close to the event exercise, can guarantee the effective improvement of the necessary specific neuro-motor mechanisms. Big attention should be paid to the fact that the effects of the “super-compensation” following the recovery time mustn’t be thwarted through exercises or loads that would suppress their effect. Training, when it is well structured, must present progressiveness in loads, right modulation of intensity and richness of mixture. Roberto Bonomi

66 Wath is important to know
It is important to always keep under control the training process, always keeping in mind that during the force training period is registered, in tests, a decrease in potency which is widely retrieved to stabilize at higher values in the following periods of “restoration” or of “discharge”. The force special preparation requires a great waste of nervous energies, therefore the exercise concerning it must be performed in rest conditions; better results are obtained devoting to the force work a distinct training session begun in freshness conditions or even dividing the force session into two periods spaced out in a few hours, in order to avoid the tiring of the nervous system that in such exercises plays a major role. As for the work session with overload it’s not necessary to perform the classic warming-up, but it’s advisable a warming-up which makes use of plates and equalizers. At the end of such phase must always be introduced classic lifting up exercises (run-up or snatch or pulls). Roberto Bonomi

67 Hence the necessity to find the right balance between work and rest.
Force training, besides soliciting biochemical aspects and consequent morphological modifications, also activates specific neurogen answers. The nervous system plays a decisive role, especially in coordinating the answer to the stressful action, that is in the activation of the axis hypothalamus-hypophysis-suprarenal gland. To this first answer, autonomous phase, follows a much more complex hormonal answer called metabolic phase, connected to the increment processes of the protein synthesis. Hence the necessity to find the right balance between work and rest. Roberto Bonomi

68 Utilization time As for “eccentric regime”, the times of maximum utilize get as far as three months, but can be even drastically halved if we intervene looking for right adaptations right from the construction phase of the basic force. As for “concentric regime”, the utilizes tops referred to the maximum dynamic force are variable depending on used methods and go from the five weeks connected to the contrast methods to the two weeks or less of the pure concentric voluntary method. Roberto Bonomi

69 Eccentric contraction
When an external force acts on an activated muscle and the external force is greater than the actual tension of the muscle, the length of the muscle increases and its tension increases too. Eccentric contraction IC EC Fext Roberto Bonomi

70 Radial Sarcomerogenesi
The ability of the muscle to express strength can be increased through muscular contractions of eccentric type that almost always produce damages to the components cytoskeleton and contractility of the muscular fibers themselves, with consequent feeling of weakness and perception of soreness. The muscles adapt him both structurally and functionally to the constant contractions in eccentric extension raised and these adaptations Roberto Bonomi

71 Unaccostumized, strenuous, eccentric exercise
Muscle damage Strength reduction DOMS Muscle reconstruction Protection against muscle damage The muscular damage doesn't seem to be a consequence forced following elevated eccentric contractions. The ability to produce elevated strengths through eccentric contractions owes, more correctly, to be considered as an adaptation of protection and as a stimulation with positive effects for the strength of the muscle. da Tihanyi - modificato

72 Benefit of eccentric training
Protects against muscle damage Induces fast neural adaptation Stimulates fast fibre hypertrophy Roberto Bonomi

73 How much is the force enhancement during stretch
Hill 1938 Frog gastrocnemius Fec / Fic = 1.8 Roberto Bonomi

74 Comparison of isometric and eccentric contraction FECC - FIC = F
Reason: new Mus recruitment increasing firing rate stiffness of elastic components Roberto Bonomi

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