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The Civil War. Civil War  War between the Northern (Union) and Southern (Confederate) states  1861 - 1865.

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Presentation on theme: "The Civil War. Civil War  War between the Northern (Union) and Southern (Confederate) states  1861 - 1865."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Civil War

2 Civil War  War between the Northern (Union) and Southern (Confederate) states 


4 “From Bull Run to Antietam

5 Causes of the Civil War 1.Regional differences between the industrial North and the agrarian South 2.Question of slavery in the territories 3.Compromise of 1850 and the Kansas- Nebraska Act inflame passions 4.Abraham Lincoln is elected President 5.Lower South secedes 6.Confederacy attacks Fort Sumter

6 Strengths of South  Most officers were Southern  Defensive position  Fighting to preserve their way of life and right to self- government

7 Strengths of North  Twice the railroad tracks  Twice as many factories  Balanced economy  More money  Government, Army and Navy  Larger population

8 Strategy of North Naval blockade of southern ports ordered by Lincoln Would stop South from shipping cotton to Europe and from receiving goods from Europe Gain control of the Mississippi River to divide the South Anaconda Plan

9 South’s Strategy Prepare and wait (wanted to go in peace); defensive war War of attrition – wear down enemy; failed to realize that the North had more resources But…the North had stopped exports of cotton and Europe turned to Egypt and India

10 Jomini’s Art of War The standard textbook taught to all trained military leaders of the Civil War Emphasized the importance of position and maneuvering your troops Battles were seen as unnecessary if you were able to capture important points (the high ground) Try to force enemy from his position from your BETTER position

11 Tactics and Technology Generals trained in European warfare of having masses of troops charge New rifles and artillery were more accurate and deadly; bullet shaped ammunition and rifling Artillery could fire shells and canisters Commanders were slow to change tactics


13 Why the techniques didn’t work…. Both sides tried to use these techniques at the beginning of the Civil War Both sides had the same strategy and knew the drills cold

14 So…a New Style of Fighting Developed There was a lot of shooting but not a lot of aiming! The element of surprise became important The troops advanced though “minie” balls, sulfurous smoke, and loud noise from cannon fire, Hand-to-hand combat was important after the ammo ran out

15 The Divisions of the Civil War Army Cavalry Artillery Infantry

16 Johnny Reb and Billy Yank The “common man” soldier Enlisted and usually infantry Generally aged Died by the thousands

17 If a Northerner: Could not pay someone to fight for them If a Southerner: Did not own 20+ slaves Died by the thousands on both sides throughout the war Paid the ultimate price for their convictions Who were these common soldiers???

18 The Union’s Strategy 1.Defend Washington with the Army of the Potomac and try to capture Richmond 2.Gain control of the Mississippi River and split the Confederacy in half 3.Blockade the South (Anaconda)

19 The Confederacy's Strategy Turn back every Union advance until the British or French joined their side Fight defensively Make the people of the North weary of fighting Force Lincoln to negotiate “A war of attrition”

20 The Campaign of 1861 “Our battle summer…” A short and painless war 90-day enlistments were common “ A short vacation from the plow” “An excursion party to the Sunny South”

21 The First Battle of Bull Run ( The First Battle of Bull Run ( Manassas) July 21, 1861 General Irvin McDowell-North General P.G.T. Beauregard-South Railroad used to move troops Sightseers watch; North flees Casualties: North 2900; South 2000

22 The First Battle of Bull Run (Manassas) Took place north of Richmond, VA Congressmen, reporters, socialites, and curiosity seekers came to watch the “show” Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson became Confederate hero Fierce gun fire surprised both sides

23 The Union Panics and Retreats… Spectators in carriages and with picnic lunches were trampled by troops and peppered with gunfire A Confederate win Washington DC is VERY close by “What if……????????”

24 1862 and Stalemate The British and the French did not join the Southern cause Lincoln evokes the wartime powers given to him by the Constitution (the loss of the writ habeas corpus) cut the heads of the “copperheads” Robert E. Lee takes over the Confederate Army

25 The Battle of Shiloh (Tennessee) A surprise Confederate attack by General Joseph Johnston’s 4000 Rebel troops Grant was reportedly still drunk from the night before The bloody battle lasted throughout the next day 11,000 Southern losses and 13,000 Northern losses Mass graves were dug… “Shiloh was a horror”

26 Lessons from Shiloh (April 1862) The war would be a long one and a bloody one Both sides would suffer great losses Fraternization between the two sides ceased between battles The idea of the “summer battle” was no longer boasted about by either side

27 War in the East Monitor and the Merrimack Merrimack was wooden ship with iron plates bolted on Merrimack damaged three wooden ships Wooden navies now obsolete


29 War in the West General George McClellen led Northern Army; ordered to build and train the army General Ulysses Grant led Northern Army in the West to try to seize the Mississippi River


31 Forts Henry and Donelson Used gunboats Forts in Tennessee and fell to Grant –Nashville fell to federal troops Grant moved farther south toward Mississippi


33 Mississippi River Naval squadron under David Farragut seized New Orleans for the Union He captured Baton Rouge, La and Natchez, MS Took Memphis, TN on June 6, 1862 Only Vicksburg, MS and Port Hudson, LA remained for the North to capture to split the Confederacy

34 Peninsular Campaign Confederates destroyed Merrimack to keep it from being captured by the North McClellan was too cautious Moved army east of Richmond Heavy casualties in the Battle of Seven Pines

35 George McClellan

36 Robert E. Lee Trained at West Point, he takes command at the Battle of Seven Pines Well liked by his troops Served as President of Washington and Lee University after the war

37 The South Goes on the Offensive… General RE Lee now in Charge!!!!General RE Lee now in Charge!!!! Second Battle of Bull Run –Stonewall Jackson attacks from the rear and General Lee from the front –Another Confederate Victory!

38 The War at Sea Union sailors assigned to the blockade had many long, boring days at patrolling sea waiting for action Confederate sailors however on commerce-raiding ships destroyed or captured more than 250 northern merchant ships and $15 million in ships and cargo

39 The Union’s Ironclad The Union Monitor was an odd shaped ship “that resembled a cake tin riding on a platter”.

40 The Confederate's Ironclad The Confederate Merrimac (Virginian) was an old battleship that had been armed with iron plates that covered it in the shape of a tent

41 The Clash of the First Ironclads On March 9, 1862 the two ships battled for 5 hours Technically a draw The Merrimack had to withdraw for repairs so it became known as a Union win

42 Battle of Antietam Lee invaded Maryland, hoping for European support McClellan delayed after getting battle plans of Lee; Sept. 17, 1862 North lost 12,000 and Lee 14,000; retreated to VA; As Lee withdrew, McClellan did not attack Bloodiest one-day battle of war

43 The Battle of Antietam President Davis was not happy with Lee’s defensive victory’s and wanted him to make a major push north His army of 40,000 met McClellan’s 80,000 men at Antietam Creek near Sharpsburg, VA McClellan found Lee’s battle plans, due to a fatal stroke of bad luck The Rebel forces lost 25% of their men


45 Life Behind the Lines

46 Southern Constitution  Recognized states’ rights and slavery  Needed to build loyalty of southerners southerners  Fewer resources than North

47 Draft  Required military service  Law required 3 years service for white men from 18 to 35; later moved to 50  Large slave owners excused; wealthy hired substitutes

48 Economy  Confederate government regulated commerce and railroads  Farmers paid 10% of produce to war effort  Income tax imposed  Borrowed slaves for labor

49 Help from Europe  No recognition (official acceptance of government)  Great Britain built privateers for the Confederacy  Europe decided to wait and see who would win

50 Politics in the North  Strained relations with Great Britain  North removed Slidell and Mason from British ship, the Trent, and then had to free them  Demanded $19 billion for damages by privateers from Great Britain

51 Republicans  1862, passed Pacific Railroad Act: gave land and money to companies for construction of railroad from Nebraska to Pacific Coast  Homestead Act: free land  Tariff to protect industry

52 Economy of North  Federal income tax  Internal Revenue Act of 1862: tax on certain items such as liquor, tobacco, medicine, and ads  Created national currency: greenbacks

53 Wartime Actions  Delaware secure  Maryland: arrested disloyal representatives  Missouri: supported uprising to overthrow pro-Confederate state government  Kentucky: martial law

54 Northern Draft  1863, military service for white males 20 to 45.  Could pay $300 or hire a substitute to serve

55 Opposition to War  Riot over draft: 100 died in New York City  Copperheads (Democrats): said freed slaves would take jobs  13,000 imprisoned for opposition

56 Writ of Habeas Corpus  Legal protection requiring that a court determine if a person is lawfully imprisoned  Constitution allows suspension during a rebellion  13,000 Americans imprisoned without trial; newspaper editors and elected state officials

57 Emancipation  Jan. 1, 1863, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation  Freed slaves in areas of rebellion against the government

58 Effect of Proclamation  Inspired southern slaves to escape to the protection of Union troops  Encouraged African Americans to serve in the Union army

59 Contraband  Seized possessions would be kept by the enemy; included slaves  Used to build fortifications, etc.  1863, used to fight South

60 African American Soldiers  By ,000 African Americans had enlisted  Served in all-black regiments  th Massachusetts Infantry, under Colonel Robert Gould Shaw attacked Fort Wagner; lost half his men


62 Hardships of War  South’s economy: food shortage  Men at war; women worked  Inflation  Army deserters

63 North’s Economy  Industry boomed  Women worked  Some products were shoddy and fell apart

64 Prison Camps  Andersonville, Georgia  Held 35,000 Northerners, kept in a fenced open area  100 died a day of starvation or exposure  Commander hanged later




68 Medical Conditions  1 out of 4 soldiers died  Women cared for sick  Clara Barton: “angel of battlefield”  American Red Cross  Disease killed more than guns

69 The Tide of War Turns

70 Battle of Fredericksburg  General McClellan replaced with Ambrose Burnside  Burnside attacks Lee in VA by charging into Confederate gunfire  Union casualties 13,000


72 Battle of Chancellorsville  Burnside resigns  Joseph “Fighting Joe” Hooker takes over for North  Lee split forces to counter Hooker approaching from the rear; builds fires in camp


74 Lee and Jackson

75 Chancellorsville  May, 1863; On the second day, Stonewall Jackson attacked on right of Hooker  Jackson scouting at night and is hit by own troops; arm amputated; died

76 1863…. The Battle of Chancellorsville General Lee had 60,000 troops General Hooker had more than double that amount Lee took a chance and divided his army and took Hooker by surprise Known as Lee’s last great victory although the South technically lost more men The Confederates mourned the loss of Stonewall Jackson

77 The Siege of Vicksburg Vicksburg an important trading center was high on a rocky cliff on the Mississippi River City was considered impassable General Grant created a new plan…assault the society and the civilians who live nearby! After several successful confrontations, he settled down for a successful 7-month siege Vicksburg surrenders on July 4, 1863

78 Battle of Gettysburg  North at low point due to losses  Lee weakened by blockade and lack of supplies  Lee hoped North would give up if he won in Pennsylvania

79 Lee’s Biggest Mistake  General James Longstreet, Lee’s second in command  He advised Lee not to attack the North’s strong position  But…Lee orders the attack

80 The Gettysburg Campaign Lee decided to threaten Washington DC by way of Pennsylvania At first everything went his way, and he caught the Union soldiers off guard General Meade was looking for Lee and Lee was looking for a shoe factory They found each other in a little town called Gettysburg

81 The 3-Day Battle Begins … The Rebels were on Seminary Ridge and the Union was on Cemetery Ridge Lee attacked and almost won on the first day but the Federal line held On day two, the Union held its place on Little Round Top where they could shoot onto advancing troops Remember…the advantage always rests with the _________________?

82 July 1, 1863  General George Meade, new Northern general  Northerners held hills south of town; Cemetery Ridge  Southerners held Seminary Ridge; field in between

83 July 2, 1863  Meade brings reinforcements  Little Round Top, undefended  Maine soldiers under Colonel Joshua Chamberlain hold it and then attack with bayonets  Saved Union army from retreat

84 Day Three: Pickett’s Charge Between 1:00 and 2:00, General Longstreet was ordered against his will to head across “no man’s land” The “Billy Yanks” were waiting on top of Cemetery Ridge with reinforcements who were loaded with rifles and artillery The “Johnny Rebs” were slaughtered first by artillery and then by minie balls


86 The Results of Gettysburg The attack was a nightmare for the South that lasted less than an hour but over 10,000 men were dead wounded or missing 5 of 25 commanders were injured; the other 15 were killed and 2 Brigadier Generals were killed. Southern morale was ravaged But a second attack never came…Lincoln was furious. The South was never able to launch an offensive campaign again

87 Actual Scene from after the Battle


89 July 3, 1863  Lee opens with artillery barrage  15,000 Confederates attack  Pickett’s Charge; cut up by Northern artillery; ½ casualties


91 Gettysburg  Bloodiest battle of war  Union had 23,000 casualties  South had 28,000 casualties  July 4, 1863, Lee retreats to Virginia

92 The Gettysburg Address Lincoln’s moving speech is among the most famous in U.S. History

93 Gettysburg Address  Nov. 19, 1863  President Lincoln explained the meaning of the Civil War  Freedom and equality belong to all


95 After Gettysburg… Southern Campaign The Tennessee Campaign becomes more important as General William Rosecrans followed orders to push General Braxton Bragg into northern Georgia Union troops then attacked Chattanooga one of the South’s only important railroad centers

96 Vicksburg  North wanted control of the Mississippi River  General Ulysses S. Grant  Several attacks failed  Began a siege in May 1863  Surrender July 4, 1863

97 Ulysses S. Grant

98 Turning Point  Gettysburg and Vicksburg  Mississippi River taken by North, cutting Confederacy in two

99 A New Birth of Freedom

100 Grant Takes Command Lincoln must win battles to win the election of 1864 Grant plans to use North’s superior population and industry to wear down the South

101 Battle of the Wilderness May 5, 1864 in Virginia Grant beaten, but moved south anyway No retreat

102 Battle of Spotsylvania May 12, 1864 Northern losses were huge, with bodies piled four deep Again Grant moves his army further south

103 Battle of Cold Harbor June, 1864, armies met eight miles from Richmond Large Northern losses Grant lost 7,000 Union soldiers in less than one hour

104 Siege of Petersburg Grant moved around capital of Richmond and attacks Petersburg In last two months, Grant lost 65,000 men Lee has trouble replacing casualties and waits

105 Sherman in Georgia Sherman wanted to seize Atlanta, a rail and industrial center 98,000 Union men Confederate General - Joseph Johnston

106 General William Sherman

107 Battle of Kennesaw Mountain


109 Atlanta Johnston wanted to delay Sherman until after the Nov. elections Mid-July, Sherman is near Atlanta Johnston replaced with General James Hood

110 Atlanta Hood engaged Sherman in several battles and lost thousands of men Sherman laid siege to the city Sept. South’s army left Atlanta


112 The South’s last true victory… Chickamauga A surprise awaited Rosecrans, when Bragg hit him hard at Chickamauga just south of Chattanooga The Confederate force of 70,000 beat the Union force of 56,000 one of the bloodiest battle of the war The Rebels lost 18,454 and the Yankees 16,179 in the bloodiest two days of the War.

113 “ The Battle Above the Clouds” A fog began to cover much of the top half of Lookout Mountain at 10:00am that morning, obscuring the view of the participants of the battle and the men in the Chattanooga Valley. It was this meteorological phenomena that gave the fighting on its nickname, "The Battle Above the Clouds."

114 “The Rock of Chickamauga” The Union forces fled back to Chattanooga in part because of General George H. Thomas, a Federal soldier who had remained loyal to the Union Thanks to Thomas, the North was able to retire in good order to the fortifications of Chattanooga

115 - William B. Hamilton-- (Lt., 22nd Michigan Infantry, Co. F) The Rock of Chickamauga Let rebels boast their Stonewall brave Who fell to fill a traitor's grave, We have a hero grander far, The Union was his guiding star, The "Rock of Chickamauga." When foot by foot, stern Rosecrans Round grim Lookout, with bold advance, Pressed back the rebels from their lair, Our Thomas was the foremost there, The "Rock of Chickamauga."

116 Grant’s “Total War” Lincoln promoted General Grant to the rank of Lt. General Gave him total command of the Union forces He called off the “gentlemen’s war Make war not only on the Confederate army but on the Southern people as well

117 Sherman’s March to Atlanta Ringgold Gap Dalton Rocky Face Ridge Resaca Adairsville New Hope Church Pickett’s Mill Dallas Kolb’s Farm Kennesaw Mountain Peachtree Creek Jonesborough



120 Grant’s Right Hand Man… William Tecumseh Sherman Was he mentally ill? Was he a brilliant strategist? How did his plan to cut through Georgia work? How did Atlanta fit into his plan?

121 The March to the Sea Some thought Sherman was mentally unstable He ordered Atlanta burned Cut a 300-mile long path of destruction Captured Savannah in Dec.



124 The Election of 1864 Lincoln and Andrew Johnson, Vice President, Republicans Former General McClellan, Democrat (Lincoln had relieved him of his command!) Capture of Atlanta helped Lincoln win reelection

125 Thirteenth Amendment Passed by Congress in February, 1865 Ratified by the states and became law on Dec. 18, 1865 Ended slavery in the U.S.

126 End of the War Sherman moved through South Carolina, burning most houses Did not destroy North Carolina

127 Appomattox April 9, 1865 Lee met Grant and surrendered Grant offered food and ordered celebration by Northern troops ended



130 Effects of the War Both sides suffered great losses; more than half a million people died Union preserved Slavery abolished

131 Lincoln’s Assassination April 14, 1865, John Wilkes Booth shot Lincoln while he was watching a play Lincoln died the next day and Booth was killed in Virginia



134 John Wilkes Booth



137 The Death of a President Did not live to see the peace he helped to create –Conspirators and southern sympathizers plotted against the president –Died in office on April 14, 1865

138 Lincoln’s Rocking Chair at Ford’s Theatre Bed in which Lincoln Died

139 Lincoln Laying in State Funeral Hearse Funeral Procession

140 John Wilkes Booth

141 Other Conspirator’s

142 How would the South be Treated After the War?? Welcomed Back?? Or…paid back??? Find out in Chapter 15… –Reconstruction!!!

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