Learning Objectives To understand the concepts of tourism policy and planning To evaluate the role of policy and planning in tourism development To critically assess the challenges faced by tourism planners around development, access, recreation and conservation
Tourism policy is often closely linked to –Employment opportunities –Diversification for traditional rural businesses –Development of infrastructure –Development of tourism strategy –Enhanced quality of life –Cultural preservation –Inward investment strategies Tourism Policy
International –United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) National –National Tourism Organizations (NTOs) –Destination Management (or Marketing) Organizations (DMOs) Tourism Planning Organizations
Local –Councils Local authority involvement in planning includes –Coordination of different functions, such as rights of way and access, conservation, licensing etc. –Planning processes and regulation required for developing new facilities –Legislation and regulation, including licensing, health and safety, food safety and environmental health Tourism Planning Organizations
Local authority involvement in planning includes (cont.) –Entrepreneurship, supporting new businesses, offering favourable business rates and offering start- up funding –Stimulation of supply and demand through investment in the activities of a DMP –Marketing and promotion through a DMP or directly, including promotion of the area as an investment destination Tourism Planning Organizations
Local authority involvement in planning includes (cont.) –Providing benefit to local communities and enhancing civic pride –Protecting public interest, ensuring communities do not suffer the impacts of tourism development, but can benefit from them Tourism Planning Organizations
Population changes Changing visitor trends The nature of the destination Over-exploitation Outbreaks of diseases Congestion Event safety Resentment towards tourists Increase in criminal activity Destruction of host community values Why Plan for Tourism?
Managing seasonality Converting day trippers Managing impacts –Environmental –Social –Cultural –Economic Challenges in Tourism Planning
Tools and techniques –Managing visitor flows –Carrying capacity –Zoning –Education and interpretation –Encouraging local involvement Management Solutions
Recognition of planning need Setting objectives for planning need Surveying the existing data Creating surveys to collect new data Analysing primary and secondary data Formulating an initial/draft plan Developing recommendations Implementing the plan Monitoring and amending the plan Planning Process (Cooper et al., 2008)
References Cooper, C., Fletcher, J., Fyall, A., Gilbert, D. and Wanhill, S. (2008) Interrelationships and Classifications. In: Tourism: Principles and Practice, 4th edn. Prentice Hall, Pearson Education Limited, Harlow, UK.