Presentation on theme: "And Riding Smart Don Arthur, MD Emergency Medicine Physician Rider."— Presentation transcript:
1 And Riding SmartDon Arthur, MDEmergency Medicine PhysicianRider
2 Endurance Rallying The “Secrets” You can’t win without bagging the BIG points.You can’t win without the REST BONUS.You can’t win unless you ride a LOT.Even if you ride a LOT, you can’t win unless you ride SMART.
3 Sleep & FatigueSleep restores the brain’s chemical balanceWakefulness develops a sleep ‘debt’Needs are individual and geneticCycle is normal and cannot be changedLack of sleep has a cumulative effectWe cannot ‘bank’ sleepComputing PowerFatigue Debt“More than any other factor, a winning ride almost invariably correlates with total miles ridden.“Never forget, however, that fatigue can easily take it all back.”Bob Higdon
4 Circadian Rhythm “Normal” Our internal clock controls sleep-wakefulness cycleTries to keep us on a ‘normal’ 24 hour cycleSynchronized to light (day) and dark (night) cyclesMid day urge to sleep is normal and can help you“Normal”SleepSleep NeedSleepSleep Urge122468101224681012NOON
5 Can You Change Your Cycle? Yes… and everyone’s internal clock is uniqueCan easily adapt to sleep cycle shiftsAdapts to three time zone shifts in as little as one dayNeed an additional day for each time zone shift over threeCan adapt to work ‘shift’ changes – but slowly (days or weeks)But we cannot decrease our overall sleep need“Normal”SleepSleep NeedSleepSleep Urge122468101224681012NOON
6 Disturbing the RhythmSleeping less than normal results in accumulation of a sleep debtDebt lasts until rest fulfills normal sleep needs and repays the debtSleepSleep NeedSleep Urge122Awaken early4681012NOON24681012
7 Less experienced riders are at greater risk! Fatigue EffectsGradual and insidiousYou may not be consciously aware – especially if engaged in high skill or high tempo activityEffects are modified by:Individual task skill levelLevel of training/experienceLess experienced riders are at greater risk!Sleep NeedSleep1224681012NOON24681012
8 “How did I get in this lane?” MicrosleepsYou’ve had a microsleep if…?Variable and unpredictable lapses in full consciousnessCan last a few secondsOpen-eyed sleep, paralysis, blurred vision, or other effectsVictim is unaware except for a vague feeling of missing timeMay occur during periods of otherwise ‘normal’ functioningAt 70 mph, rider covers 103 feet every second!“How did I get in this lane?”
9 The Slowing Phenomenon “Ummmm… Hey Don, the speed limit here is 65.” Riding speed slowsFaulty appreciation for speedDecreasing ‘computing power’Brain’s ability to processinformation and perceive speed70605040“Ummmm… Hey Don, the speed limit here is 65.”
10 Dangerous Mental Changes Decreased performance slower thinkingReduced vigilanceLoss of situational awarenessImpaired decision-making Tend to choose uncomplicated options‘Fill in’ perception gaps – especially at nightImpaired long and short term memoryTask fixation and slowed reaction timeYou know you’re tired when you try to put drops in your eyes and miss.You know you’re REALLY tired when it’s because you’re still wearing your glasses.
11 Fatigue Manifestations Psychological changesSleep becomes major subconscious focusMood slowly degrades and interferes with socializationMotivation declines faulty decisionsEating and drinking tasks are ignoredInhibitions wane impatience, frustration, angerPersonal hygiene ignoredUnexplained refusal to recognize sleep deprivationImpaired ability to take corrective actionDeepens fatigue and increases dangerThe greater the fatigue, the greater is our tendency to underestimate the fatigue burden and magnitude of the drive to sleep.This adds to the danger of unrecognized fatigue effects.
12 There is NO place in any sport for stimulant drugs. CountermeasuresSocialization and physical activityEnhances alertness while engaged in activityBut… you will be more prone to sleep afterwardPrescription medicationsEffects may be affected by other riding factorsMay increase susceptibility to problems while ridingConsult your primary care providerOther drugsMay improve wakefulness but only for very short periodsDo not enhance long term (days) performanceSignificantly decrease performance after dose wears offJUSTSAYNO!There is NO place in any sport for stimulant drugs.PERIOD.
13 Sleep Timing Normal circadian rhythm favors sleep at two times Try to time sleep to coincide with circadian rhythmLight and other cues lessened at night increased riskFall asleep more quicklyNap effectiveness will be enhancedSleepSleep NeedNapNAPSleep NeedSleepSleep UrgeSleep122468101224681012NOON
14 Sleeping or Napping Resting – naps v. prolonged sleep Sleep timing Repetitive ‘missed sleep’ has cumulative effectProlonged sleep is necessary to repay fatigue debtSome sleep is better than no sleepNaps provide significant recuperation but not as good as prolonged sleepAny sleep longer than 5 minutes is beneficialWaking after more than 45 minutes but less than 2 hours sleep inertiaTwo hours of continuous sleep ensures complete sleep cycleGrogginess during sleep inertia is dangerous!Prophylactic naps helpSleep timingCombine with gas/food stops… or not?Rest without sleep does not pay fatigue debt
15 The Sleep Cycle 90-120 MINUTE SLEEP CYCLE DANGER Moderately deep sleep Dreaming phaseErratic heart rate and breathingEasily awakenedLight sleepJerky movementEasily awakened90-120MINUTESLEEPCYCLEDANGER40-50% of sleep timeNo eye movementBrain function slowsEasily awakened“DON’T WAKE ME UP”Stages of SleepSTAGES 3 & 4Nap for 5-45 minutes to avoid sleep inertia.Sleeping more than 2 hours provides a full sleep cycle.Deep sleep phasesBrain function very slowDifficult to awakenInertia if interruptedREM = Rapid Eye Movement – the stage of sleep where dreams occur
16 There is no substitute for sleep. Where to SleepBe physically and mentally comfortableShelter is better than open airPolice guarded rest stops are bestCompany is goodUse a ground cloth or pad to keep dryStay away from pet walking areasBeware of ants and other creaturesLeave your helmet and riding suit onRemove your ear plugsDon’t wake others with your Screamin’ Meanie®Yes, you can sleep while resting on your tank bagThere is no substitute for sleep.“REST TO GO FARTHER.”
18 How to Sleep the Night Before Overcoming Pre-Rally Excitement Clear your mindDon’t keep planning your rideIf something is bothering you, fix it!Develop a bedtime routine and stick to itYoga, meditation, readingTrain your mind to anticipate sleepAvoid activities which require complex thoughtHave everything packed and ready to go when you awakenTurn your phone offPay your bill ahead of timeSet your alarm and ask for a wake-up callHave your bike gassed up and ready to rideHave something to eat and drink ready for the morningSleep where and how you’re comfortable and fall asleep easilyRoommate? Find one with similar/complementary habits
19 Preparing for the Ride Carefully consider potential riding impact Chronic illnessesPredisposing conditionsCarry a card with emergency informationName, address, phone numbersNext of kin and how to contactSignificant health historyMedications and allergiesHealth insurance informationVehicle insurance and towing informationMake an ICE entry in your cell phone contactsPut a sticker on the back of your driver’s licenseTake extra medication (in safe and dry place)Prevention is better than treatmentWhen in doubt, talk with your primary care provider
20 Personal Preparation Begin well rested Maintain physical fitness Eat properlySmall, balanced mealsEasily digested, low bulk foodsAfternoon snack to counter circadian dipAvoid caffeine, alcohol, and tobaccoParticipate in several small rallies before “the big one” to develop a successful routine and confidence.Can you find your gear…In the dark?In the rain?
21 Prepare your bike to eliminate variability Bike PreparationPrepare your bike to eliminate variabilityConsistent systematic packingCommunication equipment (phone cards, too)Ergonomics – form and functionComfortable seat that fits YOUIf you’re worried about your tires, change them!Tools and tire repair kit – know how to use them!Can you pick it up?“SKERT”
22 Eliminate Riding Stressors Severe time constraintsBad weatherExcessive heat or coldUnfamiliar roadsMonotonous sceneryExtended night ridingIncreased threats – wildlife and trafficRiding conditions beyond the rider’s abilityComplex tasks required while ridingDistractions – mechanical or personal problemsYOU’RELATE!Know your limits ahead of time and stick to them.PLAN YOUR RIDE. RIDE YOUR PLAN.
23 Environmental Stressors Helmet – proper fit, full face, linerWindshield – laminar flowEye protectionUV filtering sunglassesPrescription lenses/bifocal insertsHearing protectionSkin and lip protectionPowder to prevent chaffingSunWindDrynessMoistureTemperatureVibrationNoiseENVIRONMENATLEFFECTSCourtesy: Paige Ortiz
24 Clothing Full body protection of your choice Waterproofing – including gloves and bootsBallistic contact point padsMake sure everything is ‘broken in’Heated clothing – vest at leastEvaporative cooling garmentsThe perennial undergarment debate…
25 Dehydration Water loss from heat exposure – primarily sweating Normal vapor loss from lungsNormal ‘insensible’ water loss from skinIncreased water loss during heat exposureKeep skin coveredUse cooling methodsSignificantly affects mental and physical functionsCan accelerate development of fatigueAccentuates fatigue effectsMany symptoms mimic fatigueDry mouth, headache nausea, muscle weaknessIncreases risk for heart and circulation problemsEspecially when taking some medications
26 Rehydration Stay ahead… DRINK before you need to Water AND electrolyte (salt) solutionSweating causes loss of water and electrolytesNeed to replenish BOTHLow salt levels can be harmfulRead the labelsAmounts of electrolytes varyMay contain carbohydrates (sugar)Avoid caffeine or alcohol for hydrationBoth cause water loss by increasing urinationAnd this can accelerate dehydration
27 For DiabeticsCarbohydrate (sugar) in drinks can be dangerous for diabeticsCan raise blood sugar level acutelyMay result in rebound decreased blood sugarMay increase water output through urineMost athlete supplements contain sugar+ SugarNo SugarContains necessary electrolytesNo carbohydrates/sugarsAdd to your water bottle
28 Caffeine is a drug – use it wisely! Caffeine is not a substitute for rest!Should be avoided prior to an event – habituationCan be used ‘strategically’ to improve alertnessMental awareness improved by mgPeak effect seen in 30 minutes, lasts 3-4 hoursDon’t consume prior to anticipated rest – disturbs sleepWill increase urine output!The ‘Caffeine Nap’Drink a caffeinated beverage just before a napThe caffeine will be absorbed during the napCaffeine effects will manifest upon awakening100Caffeine is a drug – use it wisely!
29 Remember, caffeine is a diuretic! Caffeine SourcesEffective dose = mg12 ounce30-45mgGrande330mg400mg/Packet10 ounce130mg200mg/Tablet12 ounce55mg*140mg12mg/PieceTEA8 ounce60mg2 ounce207mg8 ounce80mg9mg/Piece8 ounce5-25mgRemember, caffeine is a diuretic!* NOT IN CANADA
30 5-hour Energy Drink“Regain the feeling of energy and mental alertness with 5-Hour Energy Drinks. It’s better because you can actually feel it working. It starts with a tingle, a sudden rush, then KAPOW. Grogginess is gone and you’re running on all cylinders. Your mind is alert and focused. Your body is ready for action.“5-Hour Energy Drinks provides a boost of energy and mental alertness that lasts for hours – with no crash. That’s because 5- Hour Energy is packed with B-Vitamins, enzymes and amino acids.”
31 5-hour Energy Drink Supplemental Facts Contains 207mg of caffeine. (“…as much as a cup of coffee”)… and a whopping dose of Niacin (Vitamin B3) which causes dilation of blood vessels and a flushed feeling, giving the impression “It’s working.”These effects may increase water and heat loss due to blood vessel dilation.Side effects include nausea, vomiting, dizziness, insomnia, arm and leg numbness, rapid heart beat.Supplemental FactsServing Size 1.93 fl. oz.Amount Per Serving % Daily ValueNiacin (as Niacinamide) 30mg 150%Vitamin B6 (as Pyridoxine Hydrochloride) 40mg 2000%Folic Acid 400mcg 100%Vitamin B12 (as Cyanocobalamine) 500mcg 8333%Sodium 18mg <1%Energy Blend 1870mg *Taurine, Glucuronic acid (as or from gucuronolactone), Malic Acid, N-Acetyl L-Tyrosine, L-Phenylalanine, Caffeine, Citicoline* Daily value not established.Other Ingredients: Purified Water; Natural and Artificial Flavors; Sucralose; Potassium Sorbate, Sodium Benzoate and EDTA (to protect freshness).
32 NO RIDE IS WORTH YOUR LIFE! Ride SafelyKnow when to stop.Stop before you need toStop to go farther!Have a routine for stops.Gas… log?FoodEt ceteraGet gas before you need to.Separate gas from rest stops?Avoid high speeds.Greatly increases fatigueGreatly increases riskConsistency wins!Stay away from trucks!NO RIDE IS WORTH YOUR LIFE!
33 Be On The Lookout! Distracted drivers …are out to kill you! You’re four timesIt’s hard tomore likely to haveconcentrate ona road accidenttwo thingswhen you’re onat the same time.a mobile phone.Distracted drivers…are out to kill you!