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Unit 3: The Workings of the Mind and Body

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1 Unit 3: The Workings of the Mind and Body
Ch 6: Body and Behavior Ch 7: Altered States of Consciousness Ch 8: Sensation and Perception

2 Ch 6 – Body and Behavior The structure of the nervous system
The nervous system controls your __________, movements, _______, + behavior. It is divided into 2 parts: The central nervous system - the ________ + the spinal cord (nerves that run up + down the length of the back + transmit most _______ b/w body + brain) The peripheral nervous system – the _____________________ that reach the other parts of the body.

3 Neurons Messages to + from the brain travel along the nerves, which are strings of long, _________ called neurons. Chemical ______________ travel down the neurons. Transmission b/w neurons occurs when the cells are ____________ past a minimum point + emit a signal. They have 3 parts: 1. The cell body – contains the _____ + produces the energy needed to ______ neuron activity. 2. Dendrites – Short, thin ______ that stick out from the cell body + receive _________ from other neurons + then send them to the cell body. 3. The axon – a long fiber that carries the impulses away from the cell body toward the dendrites of the ______________. The axon terminal buttons are the hair-like ends of the axon. A white, _______________ called the myelin sheath insulates + protects the axon for some neurons.


5 There is a _______ b/w the axon terminals of one neuron + the dendrites of another neuron. The space is known as the synapse. A neuron transmits its impulses or message to another neuron across the synapse by ________________ called neurotransmitters. There are many different types of neurotransmitters – ex. ___________ block pain, __________ is involved in learning + movement, etc…). 3 types of neurons based on functions: 1. Sensory (or afferent) neurons – send messages from the sense organs to the ________. 2. Motor (or efferent) neurons – send signals from the brain to the glands + __________. 3. Interneurons carry impulses b/w _________ in the body.

6 Voluntary + involuntary activities
Some _____ your body makes in response to impulses from the nerves are __________ (scratching your head, turning a page, etc…), while others are ___________ (changes in heartbeat, dilation of pupils, etc…). The somatic nervous system is the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls ____________________. The autonomic nervous system is the part of the nervous system that controls ________________. It has 2 parts: The sympathetic nervous system prepares the body for dealing w/ ____________ + strenuous activity. The parasympathetic nervous system works to __________ _________ + to help the body recover from strenuous activity.

7 Diagram of the human nervous system

8 End Section 1

9 The 3 main parts of the brain
The hindbrain – located near the ____________________ that is involved in the basic processes of life. It includes the: Cerebellum – helps control posture, balance, + _______ __________. Medulla – helps control __________, heart rate, + many ________. Pons – functions as a ______ b/w the spinal cord + brain. The midbrain – small part of the brain above the pons that integrates ________________ + relays it upwards.

10 The forebrain – covers the brain’s central core + is responsible for ______________ processes. It includes the: Thalamus – integrates all sensory input except for ______. Hypothalamus – controls functions like ______, thirst, sexual behavior, + reactions to change in ___________. The outer layer of the forebrain is the cerebral cortex. It gives us the ability to learn + store complex + _________________. The ____________ is the cerebrum. The limbic system regulates our ________ + motivations. It includes the hypothalamus, thalamus, amygdala (controls _____________ like rage + fear), + hippocampus (helps w/ the formation of ________________).

11 The lobes of the brain The cerebrum is made up of 2 __________ or sides (right + left). The hemispheres are connected by a ______________ called the corpus callosum. Each hemisphere has deep grooves + is divided into 4 lobes (regions): The occipital lobe is where ___________ are processed. The parietal lobe is concerned w/ information from the _____ from all over the body. The temporal lobe is concerned w/ ________, memory, _______, + speaking. The frontal lobe is concerned w/ organization, planning, + ________________. The more _____________ the movement, the more brain area involved in its control.

12 The hemispheres of the brain
The hemispheres of the brain are roughly ____________ + each has the same 4 lobes. Both sides complement + help each other. The corpus callosum carries messages b/w them to jointly control human functions. Each side controls the movements of the _________________________. The left side specializes in: _______ (speaking, understanding language, reading, + writing) ____________ ________ (analyzing several pieces that make up a whole) The right side specializes in: ___________ (understanding simple sentences + words) _________ _______ (combining parts that make up a whole)

13 Split brain operations
In a normal brain, the 2 sides communicate through the ______ _________. Some people prone to severe ______ have surgery to sever the corpus callosum so that the 2 sides can no longer __________ to each other (this lessens the seizures). These people now have ____ _____________ operating brains. Studies have shown that these people’s abilities to complete certain tasks depends on which _______________. They may be able to correctly identify an object held in one hand but not the other (see p. 164). Split brain patients remained practically unchanged in intelligence, ____________, + emotions. This research proves that each hemisphere is unique w/ ________ ___________.

14 How psychologists study the brain
Recording _________________: Electrodes are wires that can be inserted into the brain to record ___________ activity. They are able to detect minute electrical changes that occur when _________________. An electroencephalograph (EEG), can look at activity of whole areas of the brain. ____________ brain activity: Different parts of the brain can be stimulated by the use of __________ to determine what functions various parts of the brain serve. Lets doctors know what parts of the brain need to be ______________________. ________________: Scientists create lesions by cutting or ________ part of an animal’s brain. This can also show what parts of the brain are used for various activities. Lesions may also occur due to an __________.

15 Studying people involved in __________:
Doctors can draw conclusions about the brain based on what parts of the brain were _______+ how the patient’s __________ changed. (1848) __________ had an iron pipe go through his skull during an explosion. It damaged the part of his brain which controls the __________________. So while Gage had been known for the ability to plan and execute those plans well, afterwards, he wasn’t as much. Studying ________: Different types of scans (CAT, PET, MRI) can show brain deterioration, ________, what parts of the brain are used in different activities, etc… End Section 2

16 The endocrine glands The 2nd system for sending ________ to + from the _______ (the 1st is the nervous system). The endocrine system is a _________ ________________ which uses hormones to send messages through the bloodstream. Hormones are __________________ that carry messages through the body in ____ + other ___________ (see p. 172 diagram). Although hormones circulate throughout the bloodstream, they are only received at the _____________ that they influence. Hormones affect your body in various ways – ex. growth of _______ + bone, ___________, physical differences b/w boys + girls, influence _______ + drives, etc…

17 The pituitary gland is the _____________ of the endocrine system + secretes a large # of hormones.
Many of these hormones control the output of ________ by other endocrine glands. It acts as the _______________. The thyroid gland produces the hormone thyroxine which stimulates certain chemical reactions. Too little thyroxine makes people feel lazy + __________, but too much causes people to lose weight + ________. When a person is angry or frightened the adrenal glands become active + release adrenaline + noradrenaline into the blood which cause ___________ + breathing to Helps generate ____________ to handle a difficult situation. The sex glands – _____ in men (which produce sperm + testosterone) + ________ in females (which produce eggs + estrogen). Testosterone helps determine the ___________ + estrogen helps w/ the _________________.

18 Hormones vs. neurotransmitters
Both work to affect the ________ _________. The difference is that a neurotransmitter is released right beside the _________________ + a hormone is released into the blood + _________________________. The nervous system developed to send rapid + ______________ w/in thousandths of a second. The endocrine system developed to send slow + ___________ _______________ which can take minutes to reach their destination + weeks or months to have their ____ ________. End Section 3

19 Nature vs. nurture (heredity vs. environment)
There has long been a debate over whether human behavior is __________ (due to heredity) or _______ (due to environment – things like family, ________, education, + individual experiences). Inherited + environmental factors act together in _____________. Heredity is the genetic transmission of _____________ from parents to their kids. Genes are the basic units of heredity. They are reproduced + passed from __________________.

20 One way to determine if a trait is inherited is to study ___________.
Twin studies One way to determine if a trait is inherited is to study ___________. Identical twins develop from a __________________ + share the same genes. Fraternal twins develop from 2 fertilized eggs + so their genes are no more similar than ___________. The ____________________ has been studying identical twins who were ______________. By looking at their similarities, psychologists can better understand what behaviors must be caused by heredity instead of ___________. End Section 4

21 Ch 7 – Altered States of Consciousness
Sleep A state of ______________________, characterized by certain _______ of brain activity + inactivity. Consciousness is a state of ___________, including a person’s feelings, sensations, ideas, + ____________. People have altered states of consciousness, or different ___________________. Until recently sleep was ______________. W/ the invention of the EEG, psychologists can now study people’s sleeping patterns based on the _____________ of the brain.

22 Why do we sleep? Theories include: It’s a ___________ – helps us “charge our batteries” + recover from ______. It’s a type of primitive __________ – helps us conserve ________. It’s an _________________ – kept primitive humans from wandering out at night + being vulnerable to animals w/ better ______________. It helps us clear our minds of ______ ___________. We sleep to ________.

23 Stages of sleep Each cycle last about __________. At no point does the brain become ________ __________. Beginning: Body temperature + pulse rate Breathing becomes _____________. Body may twitch + eyes roll. Stage I: Lasts about 10 min. Pulse slows more + _____________. Breathing becomes uneven. Stage II: Lasts about 30 min. Your eyes ________ from side to side. Stage III: _________________ b/w light + deep sleep. Stage IV: Time varies inversely w/ ________. _____________ – difficult to awaken. People may sleep talk/walk or _______ _______. Stage V: ____________.

24 REM sleep Characterized by ___________________. Breathing becomes __________. Levels of adrenal + ________________ in blood like you were involved in intensely emotional or ________________ activity. Often face + fingers ________, but large muscles in arms + legs are ___________. Brain waves resemble those of someone who is _________. Lasts from ____ (early at night) to _____ (late at night). Seems to serve psychological functions like building efficient learning + _________ ____________.



27 How much sleep do we need?
Humans spend about _______________ asleep. Average amount needed varies based on age: __________: 16 hrs __________: spend as much as hrs ______________: 8 hrs ______________: may only need 5 hrs Your circadian rhythm is a ____________ that is genetically programmed to regulate physiological responses w/in a _____________. Operates even when normal __________ cues are removed. ___________ for everyone. Regulates times of day when we feel more/less _________. Blood pressure, heart rate, _________, ________________, sensory sharpness, etc… all follow our circadian rhythm. Doesn’t necessarily match the ____________ (ex. jet lag).

28 Sleep disorders Insomnia – a prolonged + usually abnormal inability to obtain ______________. Many ______ (depression, drugs, etc) + _____ (no sleep, interrupted sleep, etc). Sleep apnea – sleeping disorder during which the person has _________________ while sleeping. Characterized by a specific type of _________ – lasts seconds + ends suddenly. Person is actually _____ due to a blocked _______________. Usually caused by physical problems (ex: obesity, enlarged tonsils etc). Affects _______ Americans – usually the elderly. Narcolepsy – sleeping disorder characterized by __________________ or feeling very sleepy during the day. People w/ it are constantly tired + may have unusual sleep patterns + ____________________.

29 Night terrors – sleep disruptions involving _______, sweating, panic, + _________. Unlike nightmares, people who suffer from terrors wake up w/ __________________. Sleepwalking – many causes, usually _________. Associated more w/ children than adults. It is ______ __________ to wake them. Sleep talking – _________, many people sleep talk but don’t realize it. Can __________________ or may only speak a word or two.

30 Dreams Most people can ___________ a few of their dreams. 1st few dreams of the night are usually ______ thoughts left over from the day’s activities. Later dreams become longer + more _______ + dramatic. You usually remember the ________ you have. Most dreams are about more _____________ ________ than the ones we remember. Content of dreams includes: ____________ activities. ____________ settings. Large % of emotion in dreams is ______. Dreams do not happen in a split second; they correspond to a ______ time scale.

31 Dream interpretation Practice dates back to __________
_____________ believed that dreams may contain clues to thoughts the dreamer is ____________________ in his/her waking hours + that they have _______________. He was the 1st psychologist to _____ _________ thoroughly. Many psychologists do ________ this view + have different views about dream interpretation: Some ____________. Others state that dreams are _____ + mean nothing. Others state they are used so we can recap what happened in our day + ________________. The final group says they are there to help remove some ___________ ___________.

32 Require a __________________ + involve fantasizing while we are awake.
Day dreams Require a __________________ + involve fantasizing while we are awake. Usually occurs when we’re in situations that require _____________ or when we’re ________. Serves several useful purposes: Reminding or preparing us for events ________________. Improving __________. Some psychologists believe they allow us to __________________. End Section 1

33 Hypnosis A state of altered consciousness resulting from a narrowed ______________ + characterized by heightened _____________ to changes in behavior + thought. People who have been hypnotized can be made conscious of things they’re usually ______ of + unaware of things they’re usually _______ of. Hypnosis is NOT a ___________ – people who are hypnotized become highly receptive + responsive to ____________. They can focus their attention on one tiny aspect of reality + _________________. The hypnotist induces a trance by slowly persuading a participant to ______ + to lose interest in external ___________. The ________________ it takes to induce a hypnotic state varies. Anyone can resist hypnosis by _____________ his/her mind to the hypnotist.

34 Different theories about hypnosis
Some think it isn’t a __________ of consciousness, but the result of ____________. If people are given instructions + just try their ______, they’ll be able to do anything hypnotized people can. Some think there is something special about the hypnotic state b/c people don’t ____________ under hypnosis + are better at imagining + ___________ things. Others believe that hypnotized people behave as they do b/c they’ve ________________ of a hypnotized subject.

35 Uses of hypnosis ____________ Posthypnotic suggestion – a suggestion made during hypnosis that influences the participant’s ___________________. Useful for quitting _________ _______ (ex: smoking, overeating, etc) __________ – people have had ______ under hypnosis w/o anesthesia + reported feeling no pain. Used by therapists to reveal problems + ______________.

36 Biofeedback The process of learning to control ____ ______ w/ the help of _________ monitoring the states to be controlled. Used to teach people to control a variety of ___________________ (ex: brain waves, heart rate, blood pressure, sweat-gland activity, muscular control, etc). Machines tell people about very subtle ______________ changes in the body. People can then experiment w/ different thoughts + feelings while they watch how each _________________.

37 The focusing of attention to clear one’s mind + __________________.
Meditation The focusing of attention to clear one’s mind + __________________. Been in practice _______________ for thousands of years. 3 major approaches to meditation: Transcendental meditation: involves sitting w/ eyes closed for min + the __________________________. Mindfulness meditation: involves focusing on the _________________. Breath meditation: involves concentrating on one’s ____________. Researchers mostly agree that people can ________ from the type of systematic _________ that meditation provides. Has been found to help lower _____ ______, heart rate, + respiration rate. End Section 2

38 Range from __________ like caffeine to ___________ like alcohol.
Psychoactive drugs Interact w/ the central nervous system to alter a person’s _______, perception, + ___________. Range from __________ like caffeine to ___________ like alcohol. Drugs are carried by the blood + taken up in target tissues in parts of the body by acting like _________________ + hooking onto the ends of neurons + sending out their own __________________. Ex. of messages: Alcohol molecules may tell a nerve cell not to fire. As more + more cells cease firing, the alcohol user becomes slower + may lose ______________. LSD molecules may cause circuits in different areas of the brain to start ____ _______ instead of separately, resulting in hallucinations.

39 Marijuana The dried leaves + flowers of Indian _____ (Cannabis sativa) that produce an altered state of consciousness when smoked or ingested (can be cooked + eaten). It’s legally + _________________ in some societies where ________ isn’t. _______ vary from person to person + may be pleasant or unpleasant. Not _________ addictive, but may become ____________ addictive. Cases have been reported in which it appears to have helped bring on ______________________ in people who were already unstable before they used it. Studies suggest that it is more damaging to the lungs than ___________ use. Disrupts _________________, making it difficult to carry out mental + physical tasks. Adults using it score lower than nonusers on academic ___________________.

40 Hallucinogens Drugs that often produce ______________. Hallucinations are perceptions that have no direct __________________. Can be caused by hypnosis, _________, certain drugs, withdrawal from certain drugs, psychological breakdown, lack of sleep, ________, + periods of high emotion or concentration. Hallucinogens (also called __________) create a loss of contact w/ _______. They create a false body image + dreamlike __________. Best known is LSD – one of the _____________ drugs known. A “trip” on LSD lasts from 6-14 hrs. During this time, a person can experience any # of perceptions, often intense + rapidly changing. Sometimes it’s a _____________________. It impairs thinking, even though users may feel they are thinking more clearly than ever before. Panic attacks can be a side effect + sometimes people have ____________.

41 Opiates Produce ___________, euphoria (a pleasurable state somewhere b/w wake + sleep), + ___________. Also called ___________. Includes _____, morphine, + heroin. Regular use can lead to physical ____________. An overdose results in a loss of control of breathing – user then dies from ________________.

42 Alcohol The most widely ____________ mind-altering substance in the US. Encouraged by advertisements, ________ ____________, + traditions. Immediate effect is a general loosening of _____________. Although it appears to be a stimulant, it’s really a __________ that inhibits the brain’s _________________. Effects depend on the amount + frequency of drinking, the drinker’s body weight, + other _____________ (other drugs in their system, food consumption, etc). Effects include slurred speech, blurred vision, + ___________________ + memory. Permanent brain + liver damage + a change in __________ can result from long-term heavy use.


44 Most of us have taken a _____________ – like caffeine or nicotine.
Drug abuse + treatment Most of us have taken a _____________ – like caffeine or nicotine. Drug abusers are people who regularly use illegal drugs or _____________________________. Common reasons for taking drugs include to ____________, to fit in w/ peers, to gain self-confidence, to _____________, to relax, or to feel good. Risks include _________, death or injury from overdose, damage to health, legal consequences, + ____________________. __________ for drug abuse usually involves the following 3 steps: Must admit that he/she has a ________. Must enter a treatment program +/or get _________. Must _________________. Many addicts suffer a ______. Support groups can help prevent this. End Section 3

45 Ch 8 – Sensation and Perception
Occurs anytime a ________ activates one of your ________ (touch, sight, sound, taste, or smell). A stimulus is any aspect of or _______ in the environment to which an _______________. A perception is the organization of sensory information into _____________________. Your success in __________________ from your environment, interpreting this information, + acting on it depends on its being ___________________________.


47 Absolute threshold for humans is:
Psychophysics Study of relationships b/w ________________ + the ________________ that cause them. The absolute threshold is the ____________ of a stimulus required to produce a __________. The level of stimulus that produces a positive response of detection ___% of the time. Absolute threshold for humans is: Seeing a candle flame 30 mi away on a clear night. Hearing a watch ticking 20 ft away. Tasting 1 teaspoon of sugar dissolved in 2 gal of water. Smelling 1 drop of perfume in a 3 room house. Feeling a bee’s wing falling 1 cm onto your cheek. The difference threshold is the ____________ in a physical ________ that can be detected b/w 2 stimuli. Weber’s Law states that the larger or stronger a ________, the larger the change required for a person to ______ that anything has happened to it.

48 Psychologists focus on people’s _______ to changes in stimuli b/c the senses are tuned to ________.
Senses are ____________ to or to new events rather than ongoing, unchanging stimulation. This is b/c our senses _______. There’s _______________ b/w stimuli you can + can’t perceive.

49 Signal-Detection Theory
Studies the relations b/w ________, sensitivity, + decision making in detecting the presence or absence of a __________. Detection thresholds involve recognizing some stimulus against a background of ________________. Varying factors can affect our ability to ___________________, such as motivation, quantity + quality of competing stimuli, amount of time spent __________ on a task, etc… So there is _________ true absolute threshold for detecting a stimulus. Psychologists have identified 2 ways of processing stimuli (or “________”): Preattentive process is a method for extracting information _____________ + simultaneously when presented w/ stimuli. Attentive process is a procedure that considers only _______________________ presented at a time. End Section 1

50 Vision _____________ of all the senses – shows how important we think it is. Provides us w/ information about our environment – ___, shapes, locations, textures, colors, + ___________. _____occurs when light enters the eye through the pupil (the opening in the ___ that regulates the amount of ____ entering the eye) + reaches the lens (a ______ structure that focuses light on the retina). Once the lens has focused light on the retina (the innermost coating of the back of the eye, containing the light-sensitive receptor cells – __________) the rods + cones w/in it change light energy into __________ ______ which then travel along the optic nerve (nerve that carries _______ from the retina to the brain) to the brain where they are routed to the _______________.



53 Light Light is a form of electromagnetic ______ (so are radio waves, __________, infrared radiation, UV rays, X-rays, etc…) Visible light can be observed w/ a ______. Passing sunlight through a prism breaks the light into a ___________ of colors each comprised of light of different ___________. Prisms transmit light while other objects _____________ light. The object’s color depends, in part, on the light that ___________________. Ex. An apple ________ red light + _________ all others.

54 Color deficiency The _____ in our retinas require more light than _____ + work best in daylight. Only cones are sensitive to color. Rods work best at ______ + only see black + white. So when some or all of a person’s cones don’t function properly, he/she is ______-_______. Most color-deficient people see ___________ (Ex. They may have trouble distinguishing b/w red + green OR blue + yellow). Few people are totally _________. Color deficiency affects about ___% of American women + ___% of men. It’s a hereditary condition carried on the ____ ______________.


56 Binocular fusion B/c we have 2 eyes, the visual system receives 2 images. The process of ____________________ received from the 2 eyes into a single, _________ is called binocular fusion. There is also a difference b/w the images on the retinas ____________________ called retinal disparity. Try holding your pen or pencil in front of your face. Close your left eye + look at it only w/ your right. Now quickly close your right eye and look at it only w/ your left. Do this several times. Retinal disparity is essential to our sense of _____ __________. A large amount of retinal disparity tells the brain the object is ________ + a small amount tells it it’s _____________. If your eyeballs are a little too long, you are _________ (can see objects nearby, but far away objects appear blurry). If they’re too short you are ___________ (can see objects far away, but objects nearby appear blurry).

57 Hearing Depends on __________________, called sound waves. Hearing occurs when __________ pass from the air through various bones until they reach the inner ear, which contains tiny ___________ that move back + forth which change sound vibrations into _______________ that travel through the auditory nerve (the nerve that carries impulses from the inner ear to the brain, resulting in the ____________________) to the brain. Loudness is determined by the ___________, or height, of sound waves. Pitch depends on sound wave _________, or the rate of vibrations. Sources of sounds can be located when your ears ____________. Sounds that reach an ear a fraction of a second _____ + are slightly _____, tell you what direction it came from.

58 The pathway of sound The ear is designed to _____ sound waves. The outer ear receives sound waves + the earflap directs the sounds down a short tube called the _______________. The vibration of air (the sound wave) causes air in the auditory canal to vibrate which causes the ________ to vibrate. The middle ear is an _____________ w/ 3 tiny bones that vibrate when the eardrum vibrates + push against the cochlea. The cochlea makes up the ________. It’s a bony tube that contains fluids + ________. The pressure against it makes the ______ inside it move. The tiny hairs inside it pick up the motion. The hairs are attached to sensory cells which turn the sound vibrations into ______________ which are carried by the auditory nerve to the brain.


60 Deafness There are 2 types of deafness: __________ deafness occurs when anything hinders _______________ through the outer or middle ear. These people can usually be _______ w/ a hearing aid. ___________ deafness occurs from ______ to the cochlea, the hair cells, or the auditory neurons. These people _____________ w/ a normal hearing aid. They require special hearing aids that must be _______ in their ear.

61 Balance Our sense of _______ is regulated by the vestibular system (the 3 semicircular canals that provide the sense of balance, located in the ________ + connected to the brain by a nerve). The ________ for vestibular responses include movements like ______, falling, + tilting your body or head. ____________ can result in dizziness or motion sickness. Necessary to be able to walk or stand w/o ___________.

62 Smell + taste Known as ____________ b/c their receptors are sensitive to chemical _________ rather than light energy or sound ______. In order to smell something, the appropriate ______________ must come into contact w/ the smell receptors in your nose. They enter your nose in ________ that reach a special membrane in the upper part of the nasal passages on which the smell receptors are located. These receptors ______________ about smells from the nose to the brain through the olfactory nerve. In order to taste something appropriate ____ __________ must stimulate receptors in the taste buds on your tongue. Taste information is relayed to the brain along w/ data about _________ + temperature. There are 4 primary sensory experiences that make up taste: _____, salty, bitter, + _____. ____________ also influences taste. Much of what is referred to as taste is actually produced by the sense of _______.

63 Skin senses ___________ in the skin are responsible for providing the brain w/ at least 4 kinds of information about the environment: ________, warmth, cold, + ______. Sensitivity to pressure ______ from place to place in the skin (ex. Fingertips are more sensitive than the middle of the back). Pain makes it possible for you to ________ _________ to your body – it’s an emergency warning system. Unlike most other senses, pain results from many ______________ (ex. Intense pressure, bright lights, loud noises, intense heat, etc…). There are 2 types of pain sensations: _______, localized pain you feel immediately + _______, generalized pain you may feel later. The Gate Control Theory of Pain states that we can _____ some pains by shifting our attention away from the pain impulses or by sending other signals to _________ w/ the pain signals (ex. Rubbing a stubbed toe).

64 Kinesthesis is the sense of movement + _______________.
Body senses Kinesthesis is the sense of movement + _______________. It cooperates w/ the vestibular + visual senses to maintain posture + _________. It comes from receptors in + near the ________, tendons, + joints. When any movement occurs, these receptors ___________ to the brain. W/o these sensations, your movements would be jerky + ______________. End Section 2

65 Perception Occurs when the brain receives information from the senses + organizes it into _____________________. Happens ____________. The brain makes sense of the world by creating ______________ out of bits + pieces of information in the environment. Each whole that is organized by the brain is called a gestalt (the experience that comes from organizing bits + pieces of ____________ into meaningful wholes). Principles the brain uses in constructing perceptions: __________ __________ (or symmetry) Diagram p.224

66 Figure-ground perception
Ability to discriminate b/w a figure + its ___________. The figure is whatever you are _________ – it can change in any given scene. Important b/c it shows we can see a single _______ in more than one way + aren’t just ______________ of stimuli. Applies to ______ as well, such as focusing on one __________ in a crowded room or a particular part of a song.

67 Perceptual inference We often have perceptions that aren’t based entirely on ________________ information. We ___________ based on past experience + are probably born w/ some of our ________. You hear a meow + assume it’s a cat. You see a road go up a hill + assume it doesn’t drop off at the top. Largely _______ + __________.

68 Learning to perceive Perceiving is something that we ____ to do. _______________ in one’s environment is important for accurate perception. Learning to perceive is influenced by our needs, beliefs, + ____________. We are more likely to see something we ________________. What we identify as truth may be twisted + reconstructed to fit our own _______ _________. _______________ influence what we see. Read p “To See and Not See”

69 Subliminal perception
Subliminal messages are brief auditory or visual messages presented below the _________________ so that there is less than a _____% chance that they will be perceived. The idea is to get people to do something w/o __________ of why – it affects their _________________ only. __________tried this in the 1950s. When the public found out there was a large outcry. Although its success was never really proven, laws were passed _________ subliminal advertising.

70 Depth perception Ability to recognize _______ + 3-dimensionality. Develops in ________ – tests show that infants placed on a table usually won’t crawl over the ________. __________ depth cues help perceive distance + depth. They can be used w/ a single eye: ______ (bigger is nearer) ____________ (objects farther away are higher on your plain of view) _____________ – overlapping of images (objects we can see entirely are closer than one that is partially blocked)

71 _______________ (brightly lit objects appear closer)
______________ gradient (the farther away an object is, the less detail we see) Motion parallax – the apparent _________ of objects that occurs when you move your head or are walking (closer objects appear to move more) _____________ (parallel lines seem to converge in the distance) ______________ – ex. When riding in a car looking at distant objects, nearby objects appear seem to be moving in the opposite direction. But when looking at nearby objects, distant objects appear to be moving in the same direction.

72 ________ depth cues depend on the movement of both eyes:
__________ (your eyes turn inward to look at nearby objects) Look at a friend's eyes as you hold your finger in front of him or her and move it towards the nose. You will see the eyes converge. _______________ - difference b/w the images on the retinas stimulating each eye (A large amount of retinal disparity tells the brain the object is __________) Remember: Try holding your pen or pencil in front of your face. Close your left eye + look at it only w/ your right. Now quickly close your right eye and look at it only w/ your left. Do this several times.

73 Constancy Illusions The tendency to perceive certain objects in the _______ regardless of changing angle, distance, or lighting. Perceptions that misrepresent physical stimuli (____________________). Created when perceptual cues are _________, so our brains can’t correctly interpret space, size +/or ____________.

74 Extrasensory perception (ESP)
The ability to ______________ by some means other than the _______________. Widely debated – most scientists ___________ it. 4 types: ____________ – perceiving objects or information w/o sensory input. __________ – reading someone’s mind or transferring one’s thoughts. Psychokinesis – moving objects through __________________. ____________ – knowing something will happen before it does. Why do so many people accept it? B/c they may have a ____________ that some unlikely event will occur + it does. They remember that event + forget all of the premonitions that ______________. End Section 3

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