Presentation on theme: "Do Now: Read the Ch.7, sect.1 summary and watch Unit 4 video"— Presentation transcript:
1Aim: How did the Industrial Revolution create a greater divide between the North and South? Do Now: Read the Ch.7, sect.1 summary and watch Unit 4 videoHomework: Read Ch.7, sect.2 answer ques. #s 3 and 4Date: 10/27/10
2What was the Industrial Revolution? Industrial Revolution- social and economic reorganization that took place as machines replaced hand tools and large scale factories developedEli Whitney introduces the idea of interchangeable parts building musketsLeads to mass production – the production of goods in large quantitiesDevelopment of the Factory System- use of power driven machinery for productionWhat effect do you think the cotton gin would have on slaves?Model of cotton gin
3Slavery & Production: A Direct Relation What is the relationship between slave production and cotton production?The U.S. imported the same amount of slaves from (32 years) that they imported from (157 years)So what was the overall effect of the cotton gin on slavery???Slavery increased b/c of cotton gin
4Where do we put the factories? After the revolution, America relied on international trade for incomeJefferson’s Embargo Act of 1807 & the War of 1812 turned American attention towards developing domestic industries.Why do you suppose this occurred??What location in the U.S. would be the most obvious choice for factory building??? Why was this so???
5Two Economic Systems Develop Northern Economy:Relied heavily on factories and manufacturingSmall agricultural productionDid not require slavesSlavery abolished in northern states by 1804Southern EconomyInvention of Cotton Gin generates agricultural boom in SouthIncrease in size of plantationsIncreased need for slaves in these areas
6Aim: How did the Industrial Revolution create a greater divide between the North and South? (cont.) Do Now: Finish working on problem from yesterday. Write down your solutions.Homework: NoneDate: 10/28/10
7Can We Solve the Problems of Separation in America? Problem: America is going through a period of great uncertainty. The Industrial Revolution has lead to a major economic and social separation between northern and southern states.Objective: Together, with your group develop a plan of action to unify America focusing mainly on economic issues.Task:1) Create a plan to link the agricultural economy of the south and the industrial economy of the north. How can we unify these two economies to benefit America as a whole?2) Focus on taxes of imported and exported goods. How can this effect your newly united economic system?3) How can we ensure that our currency is worth the same in both northern and southern states?
8The American System A plan of economic self-sufficiency in America The plan included:1) developing transportation systems between states (railroads)2) establishing protective tariffs3) Resurrecting the national bankNational Road from Maryland to IllinoisErie canal- connected the great lakes to the Atlantic ocean
9The Erie Canal What do you know about the Erie Canal? Opened in 1825 Only 4 feet deep but 363 miles longGreatly increased trade from NYC to rest of countryMade NYC countries largest port
10Tariffs and the National Bank Tariffs on imported goods would surge consumption of American products- The Tariff of 1816Second Bank of the United States- created common currency so states could easily do business with one anotherWhich political party would not like this?Second Bank of the U.S.- Washington D.C.
11Aim Revisited: How did the Industrial Revolution create a greater divide between the North and South?Industrial Revolution brings factory system, interchangeable parts and mass production to U.S.North rapidly industrializes while South remains agriculturalCotton gin brings more slaves to U.S.The American System plan attempts to solve US regional differences
12Aim: How did nationalism influence America in the early 1800’s? Do Now: What was the “American system” and how could it have increased a feeling of nationalism?Homework: Read Ch.7, sec.3 answer ques. #3 and #4Date: 11/1/10
13The Monroe Doctrine President James Monroe 1815- European nations (Spain, Portugal, Russia) wanted to re-establish colonies in the western hemisphereHow might this affect the U.S.? What might be some possible repercussions?1823- Monroe says any attempt to create new colonies or interfere in U.S. business will be considered a threat.He also says the U.S. will adhere to the same rulesIn your own words what is Monroe saying?How do these foreign policies serve national interests?What issues might arise as we begin to move west?President James Monroe
14The Missouri Compromise How many slave states? How many free?Balance of free and slave states threatenedMaine admitted as free state, Missouri a slave stateAny territory north of the 36/30 line, slavery was banned- except Mis.Any territory south, slavery was legal
15Supreme Court increases Federal Power Rd. the document “McCulloch Vs. Maryland” and “Gibbons v Ogden” and answer the following questions for both:1) State the issues before the Supreme Court in this case.2) What was the decision of the court and what was the rationale behind it?3) What do you think would be the overall effect of the decision?
16Supreme Court Flexes Muscles Gibbons Vs. OgdenOgden has monopoly on steamboat route that crosses state linesIs Ogden’s monopoly legal? Why?Helped ensure fed. Govt. has the power to regulate everything that crosses state linesHow does this translate into modern times? What does the federal govt. control?McCulloch Vs. MarylandMaryland places heavy tax on local branch of the National BankIs this constitutional? Why or why not?Supreme court decides that states could not overturn laws passed by congressHow does this strengthen the power of nationalism in America?
17Aim Revisited: How did nationalism influence America in the early 1800’s? Federal government increases its power with Gibbons vs. Ogden and McCulloch vs. Maryland Supreme Court casesMonroe Doctrine warns Europeans to stay off N. American continent and we will stay out of EuropeMissouri Compromise debates slavery issue as Missouri admitted as slave state and Maine as free state
18Aim: How does Andrew Jackson’s presidency impact America? Do Now: Election Day discussion: Would you have voted the other day if you could?Homework: Read Ch. 7, sect.4 and answer ques. #3 and #4Date: 11/4/10
19Andrew Jackson- “The People’s President” Q: If voting qualifications of owning land decreased how must a candidate respond?A: Appeal to common peopleJackson portrayed himself as a humble, average man- actually wealthy plantation ownerFounder of modern day Democratic partyOpponents = elitistCan we compare him to any modern day politicians?President Andrew Jackson
20Jackson’s “Spoils System” Jackson removed old officials from gov’t positions and replaced them with his friends and loyal “Jacksonians”This was known as the “Spoils System”Is this a good idea or bad idea? Why?Jackson SquareNew Orleans, Louisiana
21Tariffs Bring Disagreement 3 separate tariffs help US manufacturingJackson’s V.P. John Calhoun (from S. Carolina) says tariffs help North but hurt South.Calhoun convinces S. Carolina to declare tariff null and voidIs this legal?Henry Clay compromises with tariff that gradually lowers over 10 yrs.John Calhoun
22Jackson vs. Bank of US“The Bank is trying to kill me, but I will kill it!” -President JacksonJackson hated Bank of U.S. becauseTaxpayer funded but profits given to elite stockholdersCongressmen got loans from Bank at better interest rates than average personWas his hatred valid?1832 Jackson vetoes re-charter of Bank of U.S.Whig party forms in protestWhat is this cartoon saying?
23Jackson’s Bank War Backfires With Bank of U.S. gone tax money went to state banksThese banks were printing worthless money leads to Bank Panic of 1837What do you think a Bank Panic is?Jackson’s successor Martin Van Buren-President during this time loses re-election as result
24Aim Revisited: How does Andrew Jackson’s presidency impact America? Jackson elected in 1828 as “people’s president”Used Spoils System to hire political friendsConflicts with VP Calhoun on tariffsWages war on Bank of US which destroys economy
25Aim: What affect did Jackson’s presidency have on Native Americans? Do Now: What does it mean to assimilate into a culture? Is total assimilation necessary in the U.S.?Homework: Read Ch.8, sect.1 and answer ques. #2 and #3Date: 11/5/10
26Jackson and the Native Americans Jackson believed that natives could not assimilateAmerican miners wanted Native landIndian Removal Act of the gov’t. would negotiate treaties with native tribes to relocate them out westCherokee tribe tries to fight the Act in court but eventually give upHow does this contradict the image Jackson tried to portray of himself?What problems might occur from this?
27Cherokee Nation’s Last Effort What were the reasons the Cherokee gave for staying in their homeland?What else could the Cherokee have done?Read the document “Cherokee Nation’s Appeal to the American People” and answer the following questions…
28Trail of Tears About 75,000 Natives forced to move 800 miles Those who disagreed were forcibly movedMore than ¼ of Cherokee population died en route to new western territoriesChoose a character in the painting, imagining you are them, write a sentence or 2 about what they are feeling or thinking?“Children cry and many men cry,and all look sad like when friends die,but they say nothing and just put headsdown and keep on go towards West.Many days pass and people die very much.”- From the Heart
29“Should I stay or should I go?” Read the Point/Counterpoint document on the Indian Removal ActWorking in a group…State the strongest point made against the ActState the strongest point made for the ActCreate a solution of how to deal with the Natives that would make some sort of compromise
30Aim Revisited: What affect did Jackson’s presidency have on Native Americans? President Jackson and Congress pass Indian Removal Act to relocate Native tribes from the South to the WestCherokee nation appeals the decision but gets nowhere75,000 Natives forced to move 800 miles west of their homelandsMany Natives die in what becomes known as Trail of Tears
31Aim: How did Religion bring reform to American life? Do Now: How does religion affect American society?Homework: Read Ch.8, sect. 2 and answer ques. #2 and #3.Date: 11/8/10
32Religious Reform Sparks a Change The Second Great AwakeningEmphasized individual responsibility for seeking salvationPeople can improve themselves and societyRevivals performed to awaken faith through preaching and prayerAffected African Americans greatly- belief that all people belonged to the same GodIs there a modern day equivalent to this?Charles Finney“The Father of Modern Revivalism”
33Religion and Literature Writers like Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau- personal salvation could be achieved through simple living and connecting to nature- transcendentalismThoreau practiced civil disobedience to protest U.S. government’s practices of slavery and war with MexicoWho were some other well known preachers of civil disobedience?Asher Durand: Hudson River school
34How might paintings like this reflect transcendentalist religious beliefs? Thomas ColeWrite down some words or phrases that come to mind after looking at this painting.
35Albert Bierstadt Write down some words or phrases that come to mind after looking atthis painting.
36Religious Reform: Hospitals, Schools, Prison In your opinion what should be done with mentally ill people?Dorothea Dix created hospitals for mentally ill rather than imprisoning them in poor conditionsReform of the sick or imprisoned is possibleHorace Mann helped create public schools in Massachusetts“If we do not prepare children to become good citizens…if we do not enrich their minds with knowledge, then our republic must go down to destruction, as others have gone before it.”Previous schools- one room schoolhouses children only attended until 10.Public outcry from wealthy and German immigrants against public schoolsWhy would these groups oppose public education?Compulsory education mostly in north not in south, why?
37Read the document entitled, “Dorothea Dix’s Plea on Behalf of the Mentally Ill.” Answer the following questions…What were some of the conditions that Dix noted about how the mentally ill lived.Which examples would have helped her make her case?
38Aim Revisited: How did Religion bring reform to American life? 2nd Great Awakening was religious revival that attempted to change societal problemsTranscendental writers and artists tried to emphasize salvation through natureDorothea Dix and Horace Mann reformed schools, hospitals, prisons
39Aim: What were the ideas of the Abolition movement? Do Now: Imagine yourself as a slave in the 1800s, what are your thoughts/feelings?Homework: Read Ch.8, sect. 3 and answer ques. #3 and #4Date: 11/9/10
40Life Under SlaverySlavery doubled in South between (1.2 mil.-2 mil.)Majority of slaves born here and spoke EnglishSlaves worked fields all day under harsh commandSmall minority worked in cities as artisans/craftsmenWhat can you learn from the picture of the slave woman here?
41Abolitionists have Differing Ideas Abolition- call to outlaw slaveryWilliam Lloyd Garrison- radical white abolitionistStarted “The Liberator”- newspaper that preached immediate freedom for blacksFounded the American Anti-Slavery SocietyHow do you suppose Garrison was viewed across America by both blacks and whites?“I will be harsh as truth, and uncompromisingas justice…I will not excuse…I will not regret a single inch- AND I WILLBE HEARD!”- William Lloyd Garrison
42Frederick Douglas Born into slavery and educated by master’s wife Escaped to New YorkBecame friends with Garrison and a member of the American Anti-Slavery SocietyBelieved abolition could occur through non-violent political actionsStarted his own paper “The North Star” in 1847“I appear before you as a thief and robber…I stole this head, these limbs, this body from my master and ran off with them.”
43Class Debate William Lloyd Garrison Frederick Douglas With a group choose the position in the abolition debate you agree with… William Lloyd Garrison’s or Frederick Douglas’.Think about and discuss the following talking points before writing a few sentences on what your opinion is then be ready to share with the class.William Lloyd GarrisonUncompromising in belief thatemancipation should be totaland immediateCriticized churches and U.S.Gov’t for failing to abolish slaveryAssociated with black abolitionist David Walkerwho felt slaves unwilling to fight for freedomdeserved slaveryThought violent uprisings were acceptable ingaining emancipationFrederick DouglasAn educated lecturer on the abolitionist cause for 50 yrs., believed in non-violence to achieve emancipationBelieved non-violence would win public sympathy and support for the causeProtested segregation laws in trains by sitting in “white” seatsAdvocated for women’s rights as wellActed as model for African Americans by changing name of newspaper to “Frederick Douglas’ Paper
44Rebellions and Reactions Nat Turner- led a failed rebellion of nearly 80 slaves attacking 4 plantations and killing 60 white peopleOther rebellions in 1800, 1811, 1822, 1831 and countless smaller ones failedSlave Codes- laws passed by state legislatures to tighten the control on African AmericansAbolitionists push even harder-eventually leading to violence
45Aim Revisited: What were the ideas of the Abolition movement? Slave life begins to change as slavery increases and many are born hereAbolitionists like William Lloyd Garrison and Frederick Douglass take differing positions on abolishing slaveryNat Turner leads famous rebellion that fails like others
46Aim: How did the reform movement include women’s rights? Do Now: Why do you think that many of the people who fought for abolition also fought for women’s rights?Homework: Read Ch.8, sect.4 and answer ques. #2 and #5Date: 11/10/10
47All the Single Ladies, All the Single Ladies!!! Women participated heavily in the abolition movement but were often times turned awayWhat is the irony here?Women also participated heavily in The temperance movement- effort to prohibit the drinking of alcoholSarah and Angelina Grimkespoke out to supportthe Abolition Movement in America
48Women & EducationWhat is Sarah Grimke’s view on education for women in America?What are some advantages both for men and women in this quote?Emma Willard opens first school for girls in Troy, N.YMount Holyoke Female Seminary- becomes first college for women in 18371831- Quaker Prudence Crandall opens first African American school for girls- closes after 3 years“During the early part of my life, my lot was cast among the butterflies of the fashionable world, I am constrained to say…that their education is miserably deficient…Our brethren may reject my doctrine…but I believe they would be “partakers of benefit”…and would find that woman, as their equal, was unspeakably more valuable than woman as their inferior, both as a moral and an intellectual being.” – Sarah Grimke
49Women’s Issues Today vs. Past? List with your group some problems facing women today?Problems facing women in the early to mid-1800’s:1) Earned ½ the pay of men2) Could not vote3) Could not sit on juries4) Any property or money a woman had became her husbands upon marriage5) Lacked guardianship over children
50“The Seneca Falls Convention ‘Declaration of Sentiments’” Read the Document and answer the following questions…What were some of the grievances that the women wrote about?What do you think was the strongest argument they made as to why women should receive equal rights?
51The Seneca Falls Convention Assembled the first “Women’s Rights Convention” in Seneca Falls, N.Y. in 1848Created the Declaration of Sentiments”- “We hold these truths to be self evident: that all men and women are created equal”The women agreed on all issues unanimously except one: voting!Why do you suppose this issue was up for debate?Lucretia MottElizabeth Cady Stanton
52Aim Revisited: How did the reform movement include women’s rights? Women joined abolition movement and supported prohibition as wellSchools began to open for womenSeneca Falls Convention in 1848 wrote Declaration of Sentiments for equality
53Aim: How did the reform movement in America change the workplace? Do Now: What do you know about conditions in America’s early factories?Homework: Read Ch.9, sect.1 and answer quest. #3 and #4Date: 11/12/10
54Industrial Revolution Prior to the industrial revolution, most manufacturing work was done in the homeThis was known as the cottage industryHow does this shift from the home to factory affect:1) the family?2) the community?3) the relationship between employer and employee?Textile Factory
55Early Factories Early factory in Winchester, Mass. The Spread of factories allowed for:1) lower production costs2) unskilled workers could now use machinesWhy is this significant?Where will the unskilled workers come from?The earliest factories sprung up in the town of Lowell, Mass.By 1828-women made up 9/10 of the workforce in New England factory millsWhy do you suppose mill owners would hire females over males?Why do you suppose textile mills lured so many women in?Early factory in Winchester, Mass.
56Lowell Textile MillsAs a group read your section of the Textile Mill worker’s diary and …Summarize what she is writing aboutWrite what you would be thinking/feeling if you were in her position
57The Conditions in the Lowell Factories 12 ½ hr. work dayHeatDarknessPoor ventilationFines for latenessIncrease in production demandIn Lowell mills announce 15% pay cut-workers STRIKE!!!Will this work?“I regard my work people asI regard my machinery.”-Textile Mill Manager, 1840’s
58ImmigrationNearly 5 million people (not including slaves) immigrated to the U.S. betweenMost of the immigrants were either German or IrishWhy would most immigrants avoid The South?Irish were immigrants were disliked the most- were willing to work for the lowest wages under the worst conditionsHow could this create conflict within the big cities?Immigrants arrive at Ellis Island
59Aim Revisited: How did the reform movement in America change the workplace? Factories begin to sprout up in Mass. and hire mostly young womenWorking conditions are very poor and women begin to organize into early labor unionsImmigrants begin coming to country by millions from Ireland and Germany and begin to take factory jobs
60Aim: How did the Market Revolution help strengthen the nation? Do Now: What do you know about Capitalism? Jot down some ideasHomework: Read Ch. 9, sect.2 and answer ques. #3 and #4Date: 11/15/10
61U.S. Markets Expand Samuel Morse What is meant by the word market? Market Revolution- people bought and sold goods rather than making them for themselvesCapitalism- economic system in which businesses and individuals control the means of production and use them to earn profitsEntrepreneurs- investors in business and the capitalist systemWhat role do banks play in capitalism?Samuel Morse
62Capitalism Discussion “America is a country in which fortunes have yet to be made…All cannot be made wealthy but all have a chance of securing a prize. This stimulates to the race, and hence the eagerness of the competition.” – Alexander MackayWhat does this quote describe?Do you think this statement has truth to it? Why or why not? What are your feelings on this?
63Many people were skeptical of the capitalist system Many people were skeptical of the capitalist system. In groups… Describe what you see here. Is it in favor of or against Capitalism? What clues helped you get your answer?
64New Inventions Vulcanized Rubber (tire) The Sewing Machine Singer Sewing MachineVulcanized Rubber (tire)The Sewing MachineThe Telegraph (Morse Code)Steam Powered Engine (trains and ships)The Steel PlowThe Mechanical ReaperA handcrafted clock cost $50 in 1800, by 1850 a manufactured clock cost 50¢What is good and bad about this?How would these inventions contribute to the expansion of the U.S. Market and the concept of Capitalism?Morse Telegraph“This mode of instantaneouscommunication must inevitably become an instrument of immense power, to be wielded for good or for evil… Let the sole right of using the telegraph belong, in the first place, to the Government, who should grant… the right to lay down a communication between any two points for the purpose of transmitting intelligence.” -Samuel Morse
65New Markets Link Regions 3 Regions-3 MarketsNortheast Shipping and manufacturingSouthern AgricultureMidwest FarmingHow do you suppose the inventions that we discussed earlier plus the development of the transportation revolution (trains, ships, roads, canals, etc..) help connect these different markets.John Deere’s Steel Plow
66Aim Revisited: How did the Market Revolution help strengthen the nation? Capitalism as America’s economic system advanced in mid 1800sUS markets expand to other regions and countriesNew Inventions help economy grow and link different regions of the country
67Aim: How did the concept of “Manifest Destiny” change America forever? Do Now: Why might people who were invested in the Capitalist system have interest in the idea of westward expansion of the United States?Homework: Read Ch. 9, sect.3 answer quest. # 4Test on Ch. 7-9 on FridayDate: 11/16/10
68What is Manifest Destiny? Based on this quote, what do you suppose is the meaning of Manifest Destiny?Manifest Destiny- Americans belief that their movement westward and southward was destined and ordained by GodThe U.S. should be “an empire for liberty with enough room for our descendents to the thousandth and thousandth generation.” – Thomas JeffersonThe Annexation of Texas in 1845 was “the fulfillment of our manifest (obvious) destiny to overspread the continent allotted by Providence for the free development of our yearly multiplying millions.” – editor of the U.S. Magazine and Democratic Review
69Is God On Our Side???Listen to Bob Dylan’s “With God On Our Side” and answer the following in your notebooks.What is he saying?How is it related to Manifest Destiny?
70Why would Americans head west? Escape Religious PersecutionFind New Markets for BusinessClaim Land for farming, ranching & miningLocate Harbors on the PacificSeek Employment & Avoid CreditorsSpread DemocracyHeadin’ Down The Oregon Trail
71How Did They Get West? Both trails began in Independence, Missouri Oregon Trail to Portland, ORSanta Fe Trail to Santa Fe, New MexicoThe trails were a route for thousands of Americans to head west and including Bringham Young and his Mormon followersWhat do you think were some hardships they faced?
72“Fifty-Four Forty or Fight!!!” In 1844, President Polk wanted to remove Britain from the Oregon territory“Fifty-Four Forty or Fight” was his slogan to generate support in newspapersGood approach?Dispute settled on the forty-ninth parallel, present boundary between U.S. and Canada
73Aim Revisited: How did the concept of “Manifest Destiny” change America forever? Americans begin moving west following belief in manifest destiny.Americans move west in search of business, land and other opportunitiesAmericans face tough journeys through trails like Oregon Trail and Santa Fe TrailBorder between US and Canada confirmed after many Americans move west
74Aim: How did expansion into Texas lead to war with Mexico? Do Now: Who do you think has more right to a piece of land, an absentee owner or the person who takes care of the land?Homework: Read Ch. 9, sect.4 and answer quest. #4 and # 5Test on Ch. 7-9 on Friday!!!!Date: 11/17/10
75Mexican Independence Mexico gains independence from Spain in 1821 As a new country what might Mexico do to ensure a stable economy?Trade with the U.S.Mexico offers Land Grants to agents or empresariosEmpresarios attracted American settlers like Stephen Austin- cheap landSoon Americans outnumber Mexicans 15:1Who should control Texas?
76Texas Fights For Independence Texans want slavery Mexicans don’tAustin argues for self-government in TXMexican President Santa Anna squashes the Texas Revolution at U.S. fort- The AlamoTexans use Alamo defeat as inspiration and eventually defeat Mexico1836 Sam Houston is president of independent Texas1845 Texas is annexed by U.S.“Remember the Alamo!!!!”
77Tensions with Mexico President James K. Polk Solve this equation: Manifest Destiny + The Annexation of Texas + an unstable Mexican govt. = ???Pres. James Polk wants other Mexican land and antagonizes Mexico with military on Rio Grand River- “I’m not touching you!”War begins when Mexico attacks U.S. soldiers on “U.S. land”If we gain all these new states what issue will have to be resolved?“…the lives of Mexicans are sacrificed in this cause; and a domestic question, which should be reserved for bloodless debate in our country, is transferred to the fields in a foreign land!” – Charles SumnerWhat “domestic question” is he referring to?President James K. Polk
78What are the results???U.S. dominates war seizing California, New Mexico and later even Mexico CityTreaty of Hidalgo: U.S. & Mexico agree on Rio Grande border of TexasU.S. pays $15 million for Mexican cession (CA, NV, AZ, NM, UT)What land is the best part of this deal?
79GOLD!!!!!!!! A California Forty-Niner 1849: Thousands of people from all over the world move to San Francisco In search of gold including Chinese, French, free African-Americans, S. Americans and MexicansA California Forty-Niner
80Aim Revisited: How did expansion into Texas lead to war with Mexico? Mexico gains independence from Spain and grants land to American empresariosTexans fights with Mexico and becomes independent countryBorder with Texas leads to war with MexicoU.S. wins war and buys land from Mexico including California loaded with gold
81Topics to Study for Unit 4 Test Chapters 7,8,9 Women’s Rights MovementNorthern vs. Southern economy Industrialization in NorthCotton Gin Market Revolution/CapitalismThe American System Manifest DestinyTariffs and their effects Mexican WarMonroe DoctrineMissouri CompromiseSupreme Court cases- McCulloch vs. Maryland/Gibbons vs. OgdenAndrew Jackson’s presidencyIndian Removal Act of 18302nd Great Awakening ReformsAbolition Movement