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Do Now: Read the Ch.7, sect.1 summary and watch Unit 4 video

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1 Aim: How did the Industrial Revolution create a greater divide between the North and South?
Do Now: Read the Ch.7, sect.1 summary and watch Unit 4 video Homework: Read Ch.7, sect.2 answer ques. #s 3 and 4 Date: 10/27/10

2 What was the Industrial Revolution?
Industrial Revolution- social and economic reorganization that took place as machines replaced hand tools and large scale factories developed Eli Whitney introduces the idea of interchangeable parts building muskets Leads to mass production – the production of goods in large quantities Development of the Factory System- use of power driven machinery for production What effect do you think the cotton gin would have on slaves? Model of cotton gin

3 Slavery & Production: A Direct Relation
What is the relationship between slave production and cotton production? The U.S. imported the same amount of slaves from (32 years) that they imported from (157 years) So what was the overall effect of the cotton gin on slavery??? Slavery increased b/c of cotton gin

4 Where do we put the factories?
After the revolution, America relied on international trade for income Jefferson’s Embargo Act of 1807 & the War of 1812 turned American attention towards developing domestic industries. Why do you suppose this occurred?? What location in the U.S. would be the most obvious choice for factory building??? Why was this so???

5 Two Economic Systems Develop
Northern Economy: Relied heavily on factories and manufacturing Small agricultural production Did not require slaves Slavery abolished in northern states by 1804 Southern Economy Invention of Cotton Gin generates agricultural boom in South Increase in size of plantations Increased need for slaves in these areas

6 Aim: How did the Industrial Revolution create a greater divide between the North and South? (cont.)
Do Now: Finish working on problem from yesterday. Write down your solutions. Homework: None Date: 10/28/10

7 Can We Solve the Problems of Separation in America?
Problem: America is going through a period of great uncertainty. The Industrial Revolution has lead to a major economic and social separation between northern and southern states. Objective: Together, with your group develop a plan of action to unify America focusing mainly on economic issues. Task: 1) Create a plan to link the agricultural economy of the south and the industrial economy of the north. How can we unify these two economies to benefit America as a whole? 2) Focus on taxes of imported and exported goods. How can this effect your newly united economic system? 3) How can we ensure that our currency is worth the same in both northern and southern states?

8 The American System A plan of economic self-sufficiency in America
The plan included: 1) developing transportation systems between states (railroads) 2) establishing protective tariffs 3) Resurrecting the national bank National Road from Maryland to Illinois Erie canal- connected the great lakes to the Atlantic ocean

9 The Erie Canal What do you know about the Erie Canal? Opened in 1825
Only 4 feet deep but 363 miles long Greatly increased trade from NYC to rest of country Made NYC countries largest port

10 Tariffs and the National Bank
Tariffs on imported goods would surge consumption of American products- The Tariff of 1816 Second Bank of the United States- created common currency so states could easily do business with one another Which political party would not like this? Second Bank of the U.S.- Washington D.C.

11 Aim Revisited: How did the Industrial Revolution create a greater divide between the North and South? Industrial Revolution brings factory system, interchangeable parts and mass production to U.S. North rapidly industrializes while South remains agricultural Cotton gin brings more slaves to U.S. The American System plan attempts to solve US regional differences

12 Aim: How did nationalism influence America in the early 1800’s?
Do Now: What was the “American system” and how could it have increased a feeling of nationalism? Homework: Read Ch.7, sec.3 answer ques. #3 and #4 Date: 11/1/10

13 The Monroe Doctrine President James Monroe
1815- European nations (Spain, Portugal, Russia) wanted to re-establish colonies in the western hemisphere How might this affect the U.S.? What might be some possible repercussions? 1823- Monroe says any attempt to create new colonies or interfere in U.S. business will be considered a threat. He also says the U.S. will adhere to the same rules In your own words what is Monroe saying? How do these foreign policies serve national interests? What issues might arise as we begin to move west? President James Monroe

14 The Missouri Compromise
How many slave states? How many free? Balance of free and slave states threatened Maine admitted as free state, Missouri a slave state Any territory north of the 36/30 line, slavery was banned- except Mis. Any territory south, slavery was legal

15 Supreme Court increases Federal Power
Rd. the document “McCulloch Vs. Maryland” and “Gibbons v Ogden” and answer the following questions for both: 1) State the issues before the Supreme Court in this case. 2) What was the decision of the court and what was the rationale behind it? 3) What do you think would be the overall effect of the decision?

16 Supreme Court Flexes Muscles
Gibbons Vs. Ogden Ogden has monopoly on steamboat route that crosses state lines Is Ogden’s monopoly legal? Why? Helped ensure fed. Govt. has the power to regulate everything that crosses state lines How does this translate into modern times? What does the federal govt. control? McCulloch Vs. Maryland Maryland places heavy tax on local branch of the National Bank Is this constitutional? Why or why not? Supreme court decides that states could not overturn laws passed by congress How does this strengthen the power of nationalism in America?

17 Aim Revisited: How did nationalism influence America in the early 1800’s?
Federal government increases its power with Gibbons vs. Ogden and McCulloch vs. Maryland Supreme Court cases Monroe Doctrine warns Europeans to stay off N. American continent and we will stay out of Europe Missouri Compromise debates slavery issue as Missouri admitted as slave state and Maine as free state

18 Aim: How does Andrew Jackson’s presidency impact America?
Do Now: Election Day discussion: Would you have voted the other day if you could? Homework: Read Ch. 7, sect.4 and answer ques. #3 and #4 Date: 11/4/10

19 Andrew Jackson- “The People’s President”
Q: If voting qualifications of owning land decreased how must a candidate respond? A: Appeal to common people Jackson portrayed himself as a humble, average man- actually wealthy plantation owner Founder of modern day Democratic party Opponents = elitist Can we compare him to any modern day politicians? President Andrew Jackson

20 Jackson’s “Spoils System”
Jackson removed old officials from gov’t positions and replaced them with his friends and loyal “Jacksonians” This was known as the “Spoils System” Is this a good idea or bad idea? Why? Jackson Square New Orleans, Louisiana

21 Tariffs Bring Disagreement
3 separate tariffs help US manufacturing Jackson’s V.P. John Calhoun (from S. Carolina) says tariffs help North but hurt South. Calhoun convinces S. Carolina to declare tariff null and void Is this legal? Henry Clay compromises with tariff that gradually lowers over 10 yrs. John Calhoun

22 Jackson vs. Bank of US “The Bank is trying to kill me, but I will kill it!” -President Jackson Jackson hated Bank of U.S. because Taxpayer funded but profits given to elite stockholders Congressmen got loans from Bank at better interest rates than average person Was his hatred valid? 1832 Jackson vetoes re-charter of Bank of U.S. Whig party forms in protest What is this cartoon saying?

23 Jackson’s Bank War Backfires
With Bank of U.S. gone tax money went to state banks These banks were printing worthless money leads to Bank Panic of 1837 What do you think a Bank Panic is? Jackson’s successor Martin Van Buren-President during this time loses re-election as result

24 Aim Revisited: How does Andrew Jackson’s presidency impact America?
Jackson elected in 1828 as “people’s president” Used Spoils System to hire political friends Conflicts with VP Calhoun on tariffs Wages war on Bank of US which destroys economy

25 Aim: What affect did Jackson’s presidency have on Native Americans?
Do Now: What does it mean to assimilate into a culture? Is total assimilation necessary in the U.S.? Homework: Read Ch.8, sect.1 and answer ques. #2 and #3 Date: 11/5/10

26 Jackson and the Native Americans
Jackson believed that natives could not assimilate American miners wanted Native land Indian Removal Act of the gov’t. would negotiate treaties with native tribes to relocate them out west Cherokee tribe tries to fight the Act in court but eventually give up How does this contradict the image Jackson tried to portray of himself? What problems might occur from this?

27 Cherokee Nation’s Last Effort
What were the reasons the Cherokee gave for staying in their homeland? What else could the Cherokee have done? Read the document “Cherokee Nation’s Appeal to the American People” and answer the following questions…

28 Trail of Tears About 75,000 Natives forced to move 800 miles
Those who disagreed were forcibly moved More than ¼ of Cherokee population died en route to new western territories Choose a character in the painting, imagining you are them, write a sentence or 2 about what they are feeling or thinking? “Children cry and many men cry, and all look sad like when friends die, but they say nothing and just put heads down and keep on go towards West. Many days pass and people die very much.” - From the Heart

29 “Should I stay or should I go?”
Read the Point/Counterpoint document on the Indian Removal Act Working in a group… State the strongest point made against the Act State the strongest point made for the Act Create a solution of how to deal with the Natives that would make some sort of compromise

30 Aim Revisited: What affect did Jackson’s presidency have on Native Americans?
President Jackson and Congress pass Indian Removal Act to relocate Native tribes from the South to the West Cherokee nation appeals the decision but gets nowhere 75,000 Natives forced to move 800 miles west of their homelands Many Natives die in what becomes known as Trail of Tears

31 Aim: How did Religion bring reform to American life?
Do Now: How does religion affect American society? Homework: Read Ch.8, sect. 2 and answer ques. #2 and #3. Date: 11/8/10

32 Religious Reform Sparks a Change
The Second Great Awakening Emphasized individual responsibility for seeking salvation People can improve themselves and society Revivals performed to awaken faith through preaching and prayer Affected African Americans greatly- belief that all people belonged to the same God Is there a modern day equivalent to this? Charles Finney “The Father of Modern Revivalism”

33 Religion and Literature
Writers like Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau- personal salvation could be achieved through simple living and connecting to nature- transcendentalism Thoreau practiced civil disobedience to protest U.S. government’s practices of slavery and war with Mexico Who were some other well known preachers of civil disobedience? Asher Durand: Hudson River school

34 How might paintings like this reflect transcendentalist religious beliefs?
Thomas Cole Write down some words or phrases that come to mind after looking at this painting.

35 Albert Bierstadt Write down some words or phrases
that come to mind after looking at this painting.

36 Religious Reform: Hospitals, Schools, Prison
In your opinion what should be done with mentally ill people? Dorothea Dix created hospitals for mentally ill rather than imprisoning them in poor conditions Reform of the sick or imprisoned is possible Horace Mann helped create public schools in Massachusetts “If we do not prepare children to become good citizens…if we do not enrich their minds with knowledge, then our republic must go down to destruction, as others have gone before it.” Previous schools- one room schoolhouses children only attended until 10. Public outcry from wealthy and German immigrants against public schools Why would these groups oppose public education? Compulsory education mostly in north not in south, why?

37 Read the document entitled, “Dorothea Dix’s Plea on Behalf of the Mentally Ill.”
Answer the following questions… What were some of the conditions that Dix noted about how the mentally ill lived. Which examples would have helped her make her case?

38 Aim Revisited: How did Religion bring reform to American life?
2nd Great Awakening was religious revival that attempted to change societal problems Transcendental writers and artists tried to emphasize salvation through nature Dorothea Dix and Horace Mann reformed schools, hospitals, prisons

39 Aim: What were the ideas of the Abolition movement?
Do Now: Imagine yourself as a slave in the 1800s, what are your thoughts/feelings? Homework: Read Ch.8, sect. 3 and answer ques. #3 and #4 Date: 11/9/10

40 Life Under Slavery Slavery doubled in South between (1.2 mil.-2 mil.) Majority of slaves born here and spoke English Slaves worked fields all day under harsh command Small minority worked in cities as artisans/craftsmen What can you learn from the picture of the slave woman here?

41 Abolitionists have Differing Ideas
Abolition- call to outlaw slavery William Lloyd Garrison- radical white abolitionist Started “The Liberator”- newspaper that preached immediate freedom for blacks Founded the American Anti-Slavery Society How do you suppose Garrison was viewed across America by both blacks and whites? “I will be harsh as truth, and uncompromising as justice…I will not excuse… I will not regret a single inch- AND I WILL BE HEARD!”- William Lloyd Garrison

42 Frederick Douglas Born into slavery and educated by master’s wife
Escaped to New York Became friends with Garrison and a member of the American Anti-Slavery Society Believed abolition could occur through non-violent political actions Started his own paper “The North Star” in 1847 “I appear before you as a thief and robber…I stole this head, these limbs, this body from my master and ran off with them.”

43 Class Debate William Lloyd Garrison Frederick Douglas
With a group choose the position in the abolition debate you agree with… William Lloyd Garrison’s or Frederick Douglas’. Think about and discuss the following talking points before writing a few sentences on what your opinion is then be ready to share with the class. William Lloyd Garrison Uncompromising in belief that emancipation should be total and immediate Criticized churches and U.S. Gov’t for failing to abolish slavery Associated with black abolitionist David Walker who felt slaves unwilling to fight for freedom deserved slavery Thought violent uprisings were acceptable in gaining emancipation Frederick Douglas An educated lecturer on the abolitionist cause for 50 yrs., believed in non-violence to achieve emancipation Believed non-violence would win public sympathy and support for the cause Protested segregation laws in trains by sitting in “white” seats Advocated for women’s rights as well Acted as model for African Americans by changing name of newspaper to “Frederick Douglas’ Paper

44 Rebellions and Reactions
Nat Turner- led a failed rebellion of nearly 80 slaves attacking 4 plantations and killing 60 white people Other rebellions in 1800, 1811, 1822, 1831 and countless smaller ones failed Slave Codes- laws passed by state legislatures to tighten the control on African Americans Abolitionists push even harder-eventually leading to violence

45 Aim Revisited: What were the ideas of the Abolition movement?
Slave life begins to change as slavery increases and many are born here Abolitionists like William Lloyd Garrison and Frederick Douglass take differing positions on abolishing slavery Nat Turner leads famous rebellion that fails like others

46 Aim: How did the reform movement include women’s rights?
Do Now: Why do you think that many of the people who fought for abolition also fought for women’s rights? Homework: Read Ch.8, sect.4 and answer ques. #2 and #5 Date: 11/10/10

47 All the Single Ladies, All the Single Ladies!!!
Women participated heavily in the abolition movement but were often times turned away What is the irony here? Women also participated heavily in The temperance movement- effort to prohibit the drinking of alcohol Sarah and Angelina Grimke spoke out to support the Abolition Movement in America

48 Women & Education What is Sarah Grimke’s view on education for women in America? What are some advantages both for men and women in this quote? Emma Willard opens first school for girls in Troy, N.Y Mount Holyoke Female Seminary- becomes first college for women in 1837 1831- Quaker Prudence Crandall opens first African American school for girls- closes after 3 years “During the early part of my life, my lot was cast among the butterflies of the fashionable world, I am constrained to say…that their education is miserably deficient…Our brethren may reject my doctrine…but I believe they would be “partakers of benefit”…and would find that woman, as their equal, was unspeakably more valuable than woman as their inferior, both as a moral and an intellectual being.” – Sarah Grimke

49 Women’s Issues Today vs. Past?
List with your group some problems facing women today? Problems facing women in the early to mid-1800’s: 1) Earned ½ the pay of men 2) Could not vote 3) Could not sit on juries 4) Any property or money a woman had became her husbands upon marriage 5) Lacked guardianship over children

50 “The Seneca Falls Convention ‘Declaration of Sentiments’”
Read the Document and answer the following questions… What were some of the grievances that the women wrote about? What do you think was the strongest argument they made as to why women should receive equal rights?

51 The Seneca Falls Convention
Assembled the first “Women’s Rights Convention” in Seneca Falls, N.Y. in 1848 Created the Declaration of Sentiments”- “We hold these truths to be self evident: that all men and women are created equal” The women agreed on all issues unanimously except one: voting! Why do you suppose this issue was up for debate? Lucretia Mott Elizabeth Cady Stanton

52 Aim Revisited: How did the reform movement include women’s rights?
Women joined abolition movement and supported prohibition as well Schools began to open for women Seneca Falls Convention in 1848 wrote Declaration of Sentiments for equality

53 Aim: How did the reform movement in America change the workplace?
Do Now: What do you know about conditions in America’s early factories? Homework: Read Ch.9, sect.1 and answer quest. #3 and #4 Date: 11/12/10

54 Industrial Revolution
Prior to the industrial revolution, most manufacturing work was done in the home This was known as the cottage industry How does this shift from the home to factory affect: 1) the family? 2) the community? 3) the relationship between employer and employee? Textile Factory

55 Early Factories Early factory in Winchester, Mass.
The Spread of factories allowed for: 1) lower production costs 2) unskilled workers could now use machines Why is this significant? Where will the unskilled workers come from? The earliest factories sprung up in the town of Lowell, Mass. By 1828-women made up 9/10 of the workforce in New England factory mills Why do you suppose mill owners would hire females over males? Why do you suppose textile mills lured so many women in? Early factory in Winchester, Mass.

56 Lowell Textile Mills As a group read your section of the Textile Mill worker’s diary and … Summarize what she is writing about Write what you would be thinking/feeling if you were in her position

57 The Conditions in the Lowell Factories
12 ½ hr. work day Heat Darkness Poor ventilation Fines for lateness Increase in production demand In Lowell mills announce 15% pay cut-workers STRIKE!!! Will this work? “I regard my work people as I regard my machinery.”- Textile Mill Manager, 1840’s

58 Immigration Nearly 5 million people (not including slaves) immigrated to the U.S. between Most of the immigrants were either German or Irish Why would most immigrants avoid The South? Irish were immigrants were disliked the most- were willing to work for the lowest wages under the worst conditions How could this create conflict within the big cities? Immigrants arrive at Ellis Island

59 Aim Revisited: How did the reform movement in America change the workplace?
Factories begin to sprout up in Mass. and hire mostly young women Working conditions are very poor and women begin to organize into early labor unions Immigrants begin coming to country by millions from Ireland and Germany and begin to take factory jobs

60 Aim: How did the Market Revolution help strengthen the nation?
Do Now: What do you know about Capitalism? Jot down some ideas Homework: Read Ch. 9, sect.2 and answer ques. #3 and #4 Date: 11/15/10

61 U.S. Markets Expand Samuel Morse What is meant by the word market?
Market Revolution- people bought and sold goods rather than making them for themselves Capitalism- economic system in which businesses and individuals control the means of production and use them to earn profits Entrepreneurs- investors in business and the capitalist system What role do banks play in capitalism? Samuel Morse

62 Capitalism Discussion
“America is a country in which fortunes have yet to be made…All cannot be made wealthy but all have a chance of securing a prize. This stimulates to the race, and hence the eagerness of the competition.” – Alexander Mackay What does this quote describe? Do you think this statement has truth to it? Why or why not? What are your feelings on this?

63 Many people were skeptical of the capitalist system
Many people were skeptical of the capitalist system. In groups… Describe what you see here. Is it in favor of or against Capitalism? What clues helped you get your answer?

64 New Inventions Vulcanized Rubber (tire) The Sewing Machine
Singer Sewing Machine Vulcanized Rubber (tire) The Sewing Machine The Telegraph (Morse Code) Steam Powered Engine (trains and ships) The Steel Plow The Mechanical Reaper A handcrafted clock cost $50 in 1800, by 1850 a manufactured clock cost 50¢ What is good and bad about this? How would these inventions contribute to the expansion of the U.S. Market and the concept of Capitalism? Morse Telegraph “This mode of instantaneous communication must inevitably become an instrument of immense power, to be wielded for good or for evil… Let the sole right of using the telegraph belong, in the first place, to the Government, who should grant… the right to lay down a communication between any two points for the purpose of transmitting intelligence.” -Samuel Morse

65 New Markets Link Regions
3 Regions-3 Markets Northeast Shipping and manufacturing Southern Agriculture Midwest Farming How do you suppose the inventions that we discussed earlier plus the development of the transportation revolution (trains, ships, roads, canals, etc..) help connect these different markets. John Deere’s Steel Plow

66 Aim Revisited: How did the Market Revolution help strengthen the nation?
Capitalism as America’s economic system advanced in mid 1800s US markets expand to other regions and countries New Inventions help economy grow and link different regions of the country

67 Aim: How did the concept of “Manifest Destiny” change America forever?
Do Now: Why might people who were invested in the Capitalist system have interest in the idea of westward expansion of the United States? Homework: Read Ch. 9, sect.3 answer quest. # 4 Test on Ch. 7-9 on Friday Date: 11/16/10

68 What is Manifest Destiny?
Based on this quote, what do you suppose is the meaning of Manifest Destiny? Manifest Destiny- Americans belief that their movement westward and southward was destined and ordained by God The U.S. should be “an empire for liberty with enough room for our descendents to the thousandth and thousandth generation.” – Thomas Jefferson The Annexation of Texas in 1845 was “the fulfillment of our manifest (obvious) destiny to overspread the continent allotted by Providence for the free development of our yearly multiplying millions.” – editor of the U.S. Magazine and Democratic Review

69 Is God On Our Side??? Listen to Bob Dylan’s “With God On Our Side” and answer the following in your notebooks. What is he saying? How is it related to Manifest Destiny?

70 Why would Americans head west?
Escape Religious Persecution Find New Markets for Business Claim Land for farming, ranching & mining Locate Harbors on the Pacific Seek Employment & Avoid Creditors Spread Democracy Headin’ Down The Oregon Trail

71 How Did They Get West? Both trails began in Independence, Missouri
Oregon Trail to Portland, OR Santa Fe Trail to Santa Fe, New Mexico The trails were a route for thousands of Americans to head west and including Bringham Young and his Mormon followers What do you think were some hardships they faced?

72 “Fifty-Four Forty or Fight!!!”
In 1844, President Polk wanted to remove Britain from the Oregon territory “Fifty-Four Forty or Fight” was his slogan to generate support in newspapers Good approach? Dispute settled on the forty-ninth parallel, present boundary between U.S. and Canada

73 Aim Revisited: How did the concept of “Manifest Destiny” change America forever?
Americans begin moving west following belief in manifest destiny. Americans move west in search of business, land and other opportunities Americans face tough journeys through trails like Oregon Trail and Santa Fe Trail Border between US and Canada confirmed after many Americans move west

74 Aim: How did expansion into Texas lead to war with Mexico?
Do Now: Who do you think has more right to a piece of land, an absentee owner or the person who takes care of the land? Homework: Read Ch. 9, sect.4 and answer quest. #4 and # 5 Test on Ch. 7-9 on Friday!!!! Date: 11/17/10

75 Mexican Independence Mexico gains independence from Spain in 1821
As a new country what might Mexico do to ensure a stable economy? Trade with the U.S. Mexico offers Land Grants to agents or empresarios Empresarios attracted American settlers like Stephen Austin- cheap land Soon Americans outnumber Mexicans 15:1 Who should control Texas?

76 Texas Fights For Independence
Texans want slavery Mexicans don’t Austin argues for self-government in TX Mexican President Santa Anna squashes the Texas Revolution at U.S. fort- The Alamo Texans use Alamo defeat as inspiration and eventually defeat Mexico 1836 Sam Houston is president of independent Texas 1845 Texas is annexed by U.S. “Remember the Alamo!!!!”

77 Tensions with Mexico President James K. Polk Solve this equation:
Manifest Destiny + The Annexation of Texas + an unstable Mexican govt. = ??? Pres. James Polk wants other Mexican land and antagonizes Mexico with military on Rio Grand River- “I’m not touching you!” War begins when Mexico attacks U.S. soldiers on “U.S. land” If we gain all these new states what issue will have to be resolved? “…the lives of Mexicans are sacrificed in this cause; and a domestic question, which should be reserved for bloodless debate in our country, is transferred to the fields in a foreign land!” – Charles Sumner What “domestic question” is he referring to? President James K. Polk

78 What are the results??? U.S. dominates war seizing California, New Mexico and later even Mexico City Treaty of Hidalgo: U.S. & Mexico agree on Rio Grande border of Texas U.S. pays $15 million for Mexican cession (CA, NV, AZ, NM, UT) What land is the best part of this deal?

79 GOLD!!!!!!!! A California Forty-Niner
1849: Thousands of people from all over the world move to San Francisco In search of gold including Chinese, French, free African-Americans, S. Americans and Mexicans A California Forty-Niner

80 Aim Revisited: How did expansion into Texas lead to war with Mexico?
Mexico gains independence from Spain and grants land to American empresarios Texans fights with Mexico and becomes independent country Border with Texas leads to war with Mexico U.S. wins war and buys land from Mexico including California loaded with gold

81 Topics to Study for Unit 4 Test
Chapters 7,8,9 Women’s Rights Movement Northern vs. Southern economy Industrialization in North Cotton Gin Market Revolution/Capitalism The American System Manifest Destiny Tariffs and their effects Mexican War Monroe Doctrine Missouri Compromise Supreme Court cases- McCulloch vs. Maryland/ Gibbons vs. Ogden Andrew Jackson’s presidency Indian Removal Act of 1830 2nd Great Awakening Reforms Abolition Movement

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