3Structural theories Structural theories- handout1 Theory can be said to be like looking at society through different lenses – each give it a different perspective or appearance.The society and its structure is more important than the individualThere is no individual- just roles!Society makes us who we areSociety is structured either through Consensus or conflictThe power of the society over us happens through socialisation…
5Recap questions Structural theories is like looking through a …….? Is there any individual in this perspective?What are the two theories in this perspective?Which one is which?
6Functionalism TASK: Can you list jobs that are ‘valued’ more? Emile Durkheim ( )Division of labour- people have different functions, skills and abilities which are worth more or less in terms of financial gain, power, prestige, education levelTASK: Can you list jobs that are ‘valued’ more?
7Value consensus (key term) Members of society : happy to take their place within this division of labour because they believe in it’s ‘moral worth’ – this comes from StratificationHence there is a common agreement- a consensus about how a society is formedTherefore we accept that occupations should be graded in terms of their value to society and those occupying the most functional or most valued should have more rewards (Moore 2004)
8ThereforeA Stratification system is a moral stratification system embodying and reflecting common values and beliefs (Durkheim)
9Values and beliefs We believe in a meritocratic society This inspires us to keep going- training, education.We see our rewards increase as we work harder and train moreHence the system is seen as fair and just so we keep functioning within it!
10Summing up functionalism lets break it down againFunctionalists believe that society FUNCTIONS as a whole and works by social consensus, in which members of the society agree upon, and work together to achieve, what is best for society as a whole- harmony and social order.Social consensus- agreement on core values, norms and roles.Thus happens neatly and with order – as it happens through socialisation
11This agreement (Consensus)Happens.. This agreement happens through the process of socialisationParents, school, work, religion, mediaTeach people the ways of the culture- norms, values, roles.Remember a baby learns the way of life from the parents!
13Class inequalityInequality benefits the society…T What do you think?
14Davis and Moore (1955) 4 points – Handout Work through the hand-out and answer the questionsSaunders (1996) New right thinker…‘ Economic growth has raised the living standers of all members of society, and social inequality is a small price to pay for society as a whole becoming more prosperous’ …
15Weaknesses of functionalism Are all underpaid jobs ‘nonessential?’For example - Nurses vs DoctorsEarning from £15,000 to £10,000 per annum:Pharmacy and other dispensing assistants: £14,826Sales assistants and retail cashiers: £14,598Cleaners and domestics: £14,436Sales and retail assistants: £14,326Playworkers: £14,142Nursery nurses and assistants: £13,910Kitchen and catering assistants: £12,904Bar staff: £12,847Waiters and waitresses: £12,429Hairdressers and barbers: £12,138
16Weakness of functionalism Unequal distribution of wealth and rewards –‘ Fat Cat pay’This disparity of rewards and income is one of the major causes of deviance and crime..
18Marxism: Karl Marx “You must have doubts about everything” Born 5th May 1818GermanFounder of MarxismWas on the German£100 pound note untilhe fall of the Berlin wallDied 1883https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m8bdndigRA8
19MarxismMarxism – society is structured so that some groups do better than othersMarxism is a belief that capitalism allows the owners of capital (the ruling-class or bosses) to exploit the workers (employees) and this causes conflict between the two classesFixing workers in their placeThus society is structured through disagreement and conflictIf everyone got power= less wealth, control!
20Happens by…Lower classes sell their labours for little money (to live on)Ruling class makes big profits selling off the products produced by the workers!See cartoon hand-outIn industiralisation: “Transformed the living worker into a mere accessory of the machine” (Marx, 1862)
21The hierarchy of the workplace Socialisation happens through obedience to higher social classesIt is the struggles of rich people holding onto their money whilst the poorer get poorer…Only way to get social equality is through revolution…Any evidence for this?
23The social Class Focus on social class Difference between the classes is what causes conflictSociety is structured around thisSo that the powerful classes get to keep this powerMiddle class is just another ploy to give the perception that society is fair
26Education from both perspectives Marxism:Louis Althusser (a Marxist) (1971) the reproduction of an efficient and obedient work force.transmitting the ideology that capitalism is just and reasonable (school teaches you to compete with your fellow pupils by trying to do better than them)train future workers to become submissive to authority (schools teachers you to accept as normal to do as you’re told, this way when your boss orders you what to do, it seems perfectly normal)if not born into wealth then chances of getting power is not real, just painted like this to make lower classes have hope.Functionalism:People have the opportunity to be anything if you work hard enoughSocialises children and prepares them for society- norms, values, beliefs etc.Education serves social control or the regulation of deviant behaviour as it keeps people off streets, by keeping them busy and getting them achieving.teaches confidence, knowledge and self esteem, thus raising the whole society.
27Healthcare what would these perspectives say?? FunctionalismMarxism
28Summing up Gapped handout But has this theory got any weaknesses? Are you happy that the structural theories discount YOUR contribution to society?