Presentation on theme: "Education Marxism. Some questions… 1.Functionalists argue that there are three broad roles that education fulfils. The first of these is socialisation."— Presentation transcript:
Some questions… 1.Functionalists argue that there are three broad roles that education fulfils. The first of these is socialisation – something that ensures that: a) young people are socialised into key cultural values. b) young people are given the chance to make friends. c) young people learn how to read and write.
Some questions… 2.The second function of education is skills provision – something that is important for: a) preparing people for their married life. b) preparing people for their working life. c) preparing people for examinations.
Some questions… 3.The third function of education is role allocation – something that: a) ensures that people end up becoming wealthy. b) ensures that people end up working in jobs that are appropriate for their skills. c) ensures that young people know their place in society.
Some questions… 4.What did Durkheim say about education? a) education passes on norms and values. b) education helps to create social order. c) both of the above (which lead to a values consensus being formed).
Some questions… 5.What did Parsons say about education? a) education (specifically, school) is like a bridge between the family and adult roles in society. b) school passes on the universal value of achievement. c) both of the above.
Some questions… 6.Parsons said that education selects children for appropriate roles in society. It does this because it is: a) problematic. b) autocratic. c) meritocratic.
Some questions… 7.Davis and Moore (1945) said that society sorts its members into different positions. There are certain rules for how education does this that are called: a) the principles of education. b) the principles of state control. c) the principles of stratification.
Some questions… 8. Davis and Moore argued that there has to be a system of unequal reward in order to: a) motivate people to train for the top positions in society. b) keep the rich people rich. c) oppress the desires of the working class.
Marxism & Education Remember: the main themes of Marxism are… – Class Conflict – Social Inequality
Althusser (1971) Marxist sociologists challenge the functionalist approach. For example, Althusser (1971) disagrees that the main function of education is the transmission of common values. Instead, Althusser argues that education is an ideological state apparatus.
Althusser (1971) Ideological – set of ideas state – rulers (elites) apparatus – the way something works…
Althusser (1971) Althusser suggests that the real function of education is to maintain, justify and reproduce class inequalities from one generation to the next. Althusser argues that this is done through the hidden curriculum.
Althusser (1971) The hidden curriculum ensures that working class people conform to the capitalist system (the economic structure) and that the position of the ruling class is maintained as a result. Working class people accept relative failure and inequality as a result.
Bowles and Gintis (1976) Bowles and Gintis (1976) elaborate on Marxist themes and ideas. They suggest that education reproduces the capitalist relations of production. This means that the hierarchy of work is replicated at school.
Bowles and Gintis (1976) Because of this, the workers (pupils) unquestioningly adapt to the needs of the elitist (school) system. In this sense, Bowles and Gintis suggest that the activities of school correspond to the world of work. Teachers are like bosses, pupils are like workers.
Bowles and Gintis (1976) Workers (pupils) are motivated by rewards (such as exam success). At school, rewards are not entirely dependant upon academic ability. Conformity and obedience can lead to educational success.
Functionalism & Marxism: Education Functionalists see education as a way of producing model citizens. Marxists argue that education is intended to turn working class kids into conformist workers. Both approaches are structural – they see social institutions as being more important than individuals.