Presentation on theme: "WHAT DO SOCIOLOGISTS SAY? HOW IS IT DIFFERENT FROM PSYCHOLOGISTS? Sociological Explanations for Crime and Deviance."— Presentation transcript:
WHAT DO SOCIOLOGISTS SAY? HOW IS IT DIFFERENT FROM PSYCHOLOGISTS? Sociological Explanations for Crime and Deviance.
Socialisation, home and family. What is Socialisation? It is the process by which we learn the norms of society. One explanation for crime and deviance is that socialisation has gone wrong for an individual. Longitudinal research – research that is conducted over a long time, often following people from when they are born until they die. Longitudinal studies will show trends in children which may lead to crime in later life.
Socialisation and the family Some sociologists think there may be factors that increase the likely hood of a child growing up to commit crime. These are Poor parenting. Troubled family life with arguments, violence, abuse and parental alcohol use. A parent’s low reasoning ability.
Peer Groups and Subcultures What is your peer group? Your peer group is your friends, who are the same age as you and living in the same culture. Your peer group affects your socialisation. If your peer group has a different set of norms and expectations then it is called a ‘sub culture’ Peer groups and sub cultures could lead to delinquency.
Subculture and Delinquency. How can your peer group affect delinquent behaviour? Little value placed on education. (truancy, bad behaviour in school) No respect for authority (rudeness to teachers, police etc) Dislike of school rules (breaking them and testing boundaries) No respect for public property. (vandalism and graffiti) Enjoyment of thrills and risk (fighting, stealing cars etc) Sometimes the sub culture may involve adults as well, such as the Mafia, Inner City ‘Gangsters’, local area gangs.
Lack of opportunity – a different theory Another theory is that crime happens when people are unable to get things that they think they are entitled too (should have) This could be because There are not many jobs. It is difficult to get good qualifications. When would you expect this to happen? When a country is struggling (economic depression )or when living standards are rising? (ie after the WW2 in Britain)
Living Standards Crime increased dramatically in Britain, after WW2. Living standards were rising. Crime did not increase during the Depression of the 1930’s Why do you think this is? This suggests that living in poverty (no money) doesn’t cause crime but that being aware (knowing) other people have more than you does cause crime. This is known as Relative Deprivation.
The Nature of Society Some people think that it is the structure of society that causes crime. The most famous type of sociologists who think this are Marxist. What is a Marxist? Marxists believe that there is a big divide between rich and poor in society. (The haves and the have nots) Marxists think that crime is inevitable (unstoppable) in a society that is based on conflict and exploitation.
Marxism and Capitalism. Many societies are capitalist. Capitalism is based on Materialism – valuing the ownership of material possessions more than spiritual value. Consumerism – wanting more, and better, consumer goods (ie cars, computers, technology) Competition – Companies fighting for customers, and people competing to be seen as better than each other (better jobs, better car, better house etc)
Marxism and the Media Advertising re-enforces capitalist values and the idea that there is always something better, in ownership or lifestyle. Marxists believe this encourages crime, as people steal to gain things that they can not afford.
Marxism and types of crime. Marxists believe that laws are made and enforced by the ruling class. The ruling class has more property Therefore laws focus on property, giving out harder punishments. Large thefts (bank robbery etc) have tougher punishments than violence. Therefore Capitalist societies think that property is more important than human life. Wealthy and powerful people are treated easier than the poor and working class. (i.e. a company not paying tax is seen as less serious than a person getting social security that they should not have, even though the money they take is less.)
Marxism and Punishment Marxists believe that Capitalist societies think that property is more important than human life. Wealthy and powerful people are treated easier than the poor and working class. (i.e. a company not paying tax is seen as less serious than a person getting social security that they should not have, even though the money they take is less.) ‘There’s one law for the rich and another for the rest of us’ Popular saying
Questions What is meant by relative deprivation? Identify and explain three features of a subculture which could lead to delinquent behaviour. What sorts of things could be meant by the term poor parenting? Do people always agree on what a good parent is? Why, according the Marxists, does the law punish large thefts more severely than violent offenses?
Questions Part 2 Why might Apple products (iphone, ipad, MacBook etc) cause an increase in crime? Write about this connected to the nature of society. Use evidence to present your argument. Finish for Homework for next Wednesday