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Cold War Around The World. Main Idea  The Cold War superpowers supported opposing sides in Latin America and Middle Eastern conflicts.

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Presentation on theme: "Cold War Around The World. Main Idea  The Cold War superpowers supported opposing sides in Latin America and Middle Eastern conflicts."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cold War Around The World

2 Main Idea  The Cold War superpowers supported opposing sides in Latin America and Middle Eastern conflicts.

3 Why It Matters Now  Many of these areas today are troubled by political, economic, and military conflict and crisis.

4 Setting The Stage  Vietnam was just one of many countries that attempted to shake off colonial rule after WWII.  Local battles for independence provided yet another arena for competition between the Cold War superpowers.  Vietnam was just one of many countries that attempted to shake off colonial rule after WWII.  Local battles for independence provided yet another arena for competition between the Cold War superpowers.

5 Confrontations over Developing Nations  After WWII the world’s nations were grouped politically into three “worlds.”  The first world was the US and all its allies.  The second world was the USSR and allies.  The third world consisted of developing nations, often newly independent, who were NOT aligned with a superpower.  After WWII the world’s nations were grouped politically into three “worlds.”  The first world was the US and all its allies.  The second world was the USSR and allies.  The third world consisted of developing nations, often newly independent, who were NOT aligned with a superpower.

6 Confrontations over Developing Nations  These third world countries in Latin America, Asia, and Africa experienced terrible poverty and political instability.  This was because of Imperialism.  Ethnic conflict, lack of technology and education also played a role.  Each needed a political and economic system to follow. They had two choices.  Soviet style Communism & US style democracy.  These third world countries in Latin America, Asia, and Africa experienced terrible poverty and political instability.  This was because of Imperialism.  Ethnic conflict, lack of technology and education also played a role.  Each needed a political and economic system to follow. They had two choices.  Soviet style Communism & US style democracy.

7 Cold War Strategies  The US, USSR, and in some cases China, used a variety of techniques to influence these third world countries.  They sponsored revolutions, liberations, and counterrevolutions.  US/CIA and USSR/KGB, spy agencies.  US provided schools, military aid, money, in Latin America, Asia, and Africa.  USSR offered military and technical assistance to India and Egypt.  The US, USSR, and in some cases China, used a variety of techniques to influence these third world countries.  They sponsored revolutions, liberations, and counterrevolutions.  US/CIA and USSR/KGB, spy agencies.  US provided schools, military aid, money, in Latin America, Asia, and Africa.  USSR offered military and technical assistance to India and Egypt.

8 Association of Nonaligned Nations  Other developing nations also had pressing needs for assistance.  They became key players in the competition between the US, USSR, and China.  Not all third world countries wanted to play this role of key player.  India vowed to remain neutral.  Indonesia hosted the Bandung Conference, to form the “third force,” of independent nations or nonaligned nations.  Other developing nations also had pressing needs for assistance.  They became key players in the competition between the US, USSR, and China.  Not all third world countries wanted to play this role of key player.  India vowed to remain neutral.  Indonesia hosted the Bandung Conference, to form the “third force,” of independent nations or nonaligned nations.

9 Postwar Face-off in Latin America  Long time before WWII US businesses dominated Latin American politics.  They backed leaders who oppressed their people, but who protected US interests.  After WWII the huge gap between rich and poor in LA countries had them seeking aid from both superpowers.  Parts of LA went towards the Communists and those who did not got aid from the US. Even if they were dictators.  Long time before WWII US businesses dominated Latin American politics.  They backed leaders who oppressed their people, but who protected US interests.  After WWII the huge gap between rich and poor in LA countries had them seeking aid from both superpowers.  Parts of LA went towards the Communists and those who did not got aid from the US. Even if they were dictators.

10 Postwar Face-off in Latin America  In 1970 Salvador Allende, (a marxist) was freely elected the president of Chile.  The US government feared the expansion of Communism in this country, so the CIA helped forces who were opposed to Allende to topple his government in  His replacement was Augusto Pinochet a dictator who used brutal tactics to keep his people in order.  But since he was NOT communist he had the support of the US.  In 1970 Salvador Allende, (a marxist) was freely elected the president of Chile.  The US government feared the expansion of Communism in this country, so the CIA helped forces who were opposed to Allende to topple his government in  His replacement was Augusto Pinochet a dictator who used brutal tactics to keep his people in order.  But since he was NOT communist he had the support of the US.

11 Cuban Revolution  Throughout the 1950’s the US support maintained Cuba’s unpopular dictator, Fulgencio Batista.  Cuban resentment led to a popular revolution, which overthrew Batista in January  A young lawyer named Fidel Castro led the revolution.  At first many people praised Castro for bringing reforms to Cuba and improving the economy, literacy, health care, and conditions for women.  Throughout the 1950’s the US support maintained Cuba’s unpopular dictator, Fulgencio Batista.  Cuban resentment led to a popular revolution, which overthrew Batista in January  A young lawyer named Fidel Castro led the revolution.  At first many people praised Castro for bringing reforms to Cuba and improving the economy, literacy, health care, and conditions for women.

12 Cuban Revolution  Yet Castro was a harsh dictator.  He suspended all elections, jailed or killed his opponents, and strangled the press with tight government controls.  When Castro nationalized the Cuban economy, he took over US owned sugar mills and refineries.  In response Eisenhower ordered an embargo on all trade with Cuba.  As relations with the US worsen, Cuba turned to the USSR for economic and military aid.  Yet Castro was a harsh dictator.  He suspended all elections, jailed or killed his opponents, and strangled the press with tight government controls.  When Castro nationalized the Cuban economy, he took over US owned sugar mills and refineries.  In response Eisenhower ordered an embargo on all trade with Cuba.  As relations with the US worsen, Cuba turned to the USSR for economic and military aid.

13 Cuban Revolution  In 1960, the CIA planned an invasion of Cuba and began to train anti-Castro cuban exiles to carry it out.  In April 1961, these exiles landed at the Bay of Pigs in Cuba.  Kennedy approved the invasions, but refused to send plans to support it.  Castro’s forces defeated the invaders, humiliating the United States.  In 1960, the CIA planned an invasion of Cuba and began to train anti-Castro cuban exiles to carry it out.  In April 1961, these exiles landed at the Bay of Pigs in Cuba.  Kennedy approved the invasions, but refused to send plans to support it.  Castro’s forces defeated the invaders, humiliating the United States.

14 The Cuban Missile Crisis  The failed Bay of Pigs invasion convinced the Nikita Khrushchev, that the US would not resist Soviet expansion in Latin America  In July 1962, Khrushchev secretly began to build 42 missile sites in cuba.  In October a US spy plane discovered it.  JFK declared the missiles were to close to the US mainland and were a threat.  He demanded they be removed and also set up a blockade around Cuba so no more could be installed.  The failed Bay of Pigs invasion convinced the Nikita Khrushchev, that the US would not resist Soviet expansion in Latin America  In July 1962, Khrushchev secretly began to build 42 missile sites in cuba.  In October a US spy plane discovered it.  JFK declared the missiles were to close to the US mainland and were a threat.  He demanded they be removed and also set up a blockade around Cuba so no more could be installed.

15 The Cuban Missile Crisis  Castro protested his country being used as a tool in the Cold War. He said he did not want to be in the middle of the conflict.  The USA and USSR were now on a collision course.  US troops assembled in Florida ready to invade Cuba.  The World thought this would lead to WWIII or a nuclear disaster.  Castro protested his country being used as a tool in the Cold War. He said he did not want to be in the middle of the conflict.  The USA and USSR were now on a collision course.  US troops assembled in Florida ready to invade Cuba.  The World thought this would lead to WWIII or a nuclear disaster.

16 The Cuban Missile Crisis  Instead of war Khrushchev agreed to remove the missiles in return the US promised not to invade Cuba.  The result of the Cuban missile crisis was the Castro was now dependent on Soviet support.  Castro in exchange supported Communist Revolutions in Latin America and Africa.  With the Soviet breakup in 1991, Cuba economy suffered greatly.  US even today refuses to lift the trade embargo.  Instead of war Khrushchev agreed to remove the missiles in return the US promised not to invade Cuba.  The result of the Cuban missile crisis was the Castro was now dependent on Soviet support.  Castro in exchange supported Communist Revolutions in Latin America and Africa.  With the Soviet breakup in 1991, Cuba economy suffered greatly.  US even today refuses to lift the trade embargo.

17 Civil War in Nicaragua  The US supported and funded another dictator in Nicaragua, Anastasio Somoza since  In 1979, Communist Sandinista rebels toppled the dictatorship of Somoza’s son.  Both the US and USSR initially gave aid to the Sandinistas and their leader, Daniel Ortega.  The Sandinistas, however, had aided other socialist in El Salvador.  To help the government fight those rebels the US aided the Nicaraguan anti-communist rebel force, called contras.  The US supported and funded another dictator in Nicaragua, Anastasio Somoza since  In 1979, Communist Sandinista rebels toppled the dictatorship of Somoza’s son.  Both the US and USSR initially gave aid to the Sandinistas and their leader, Daniel Ortega.  The Sandinistas, however, had aided other socialist in El Salvador.  To help the government fight those rebels the US aided the Nicaraguan anti-communist rebel force, called contras.

18 Civil War in Nicaragua  The civil war in Nicaragua lasted over 10 years and seriously weakened the country’s economy. Finally in 1990, President Ortega agreed to hold free elections.  He was defeated by Violeta Chamorro.  In 1997 Jose Lacayo was elected President.  The civil war in Nicaragua lasted over 10 years and seriously weakened the country’s economy. Finally in 1990, President Ortega agreed to hold free elections.  He was defeated by Violeta Chamorro.  In 1997 Jose Lacayo was elected President.

19 Confrontations in the Middle East  With its rich oil supply the Middle East lured both the United States and the Soviet Union.

20 Religious and Secular Values Clash in Iran  Throughout the Middle East the wealth from the oil industry fueled a growing conflict between traditional Islamic values and modern Western materialism.  This clash between cultures erupted in Iran.  After WWII Iran’s leader Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi embraced Western Governments and wealthy oil companies.  Throughout the Middle East the wealth from the oil industry fueled a growing conflict between traditional Islamic values and modern Western materialism.  This clash between cultures erupted in Iran.  After WWII Iran’s leader Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi embraced Western Governments and wealthy oil companies.

21 Religious and Secular Values Clash in Iran  Iranian nationalist were angry about this and resented the foreign alliances.  These nationalist united under the leadership of Prime Minister Muhammad Mossaddeq.  They seized and nationalized a British-owned oil company and in 1953 forced the Shah to flee.  Fearing that Mossaddeq might turn to the USSR the USA had him arrested and returned the Shah to power.  Iranian nationalist were angry about this and resented the foreign alliances.  These nationalist united under the leadership of Prime Minister Muhammad Mossaddeq.  They seized and nationalized a British-owned oil company and in 1953 forced the Shah to flee.  Fearing that Mossaddeq might turn to the USSR the USA had him arrested and returned the Shah to power.

22 The United States Supports Secular Rule.  With the support of the US, the Shah westernized his country.  By the end of 1950’s, Iran’s capital, Tehran, had huge skyscrapers, foreign banks, and modern factories.  However, million of Iranians still lived in extreme poverty.  The Shah’s secret police brutalized anyone who dared oppose him.  With the support of the US, the Shah westernized his country.  By the end of 1950’s, Iran’s capital, Tehran, had huge skyscrapers, foreign banks, and modern factories.  However, million of Iranians still lived in extreme poverty.  The Shah’s secret police brutalized anyone who dared oppose him.

23 The United States Supports Secular Rule  The Shah also tried to weaken the political influence of religion in the country by limiting the role of Islamic legal and academic experts.  Iran’s conservative Muslim leaders known as ayatollahs, bitterly opposed this move.  The ayatollahs also opposed all western influences.  They wanted Iran to become a republic ruled strictly by Islamic law.  The leader of this religious opposition is Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini.  The Shah also tried to weaken the political influence of religion in the country by limiting the role of Islamic legal and academic experts.  Iran’s conservative Muslim leaders known as ayatollahs, bitterly opposed this move.  The ayatollahs also opposed all western influences.  They wanted Iran to become a republic ruled strictly by Islamic law.  The leader of this religious opposition is Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini.

24 The United States Supports Secular Rule  Ayatollah Khomeini was living in exile.  He sent taped recordings to encourage the Iranian workers to go on strike.  In late 1978 riots erupted in every major city in Iran.  In 1979 the Shah fled and Ayatollah Khomeini returned triumphant and established an Islamic state.  He banned western influences and reinstated Muslim values. Islamic law became the legal code.  Ayatollah Khomeini was living in exile.  He sent taped recordings to encourage the Iranian workers to go on strike.  In late 1978 riots erupted in every major city in Iran.  In 1979 the Shah fled and Ayatollah Khomeini returned triumphant and established an Islamic state.  He banned western influences and reinstated Muslim values. Islamic law became the legal code.

25 Khomeini’s Anti-U.S. Policies  Hatred of the US was at the heart of Khomeini’s politics.  The US had long supported the Shah and the final insult was when in 1979 the US admitted the Shah into the US for medical treatment.  With the Ayatollah’s blessing, a group of young Islamic revolutionaries seized the US embassy in Tehran.  They took more than 60 hostages, demanded the return on the Shah to face trial.  Hatred of the US was at the heart of Khomeini’s politics.  The US had long supported the Shah and the final insult was when in 1979 the US admitted the Shah into the US for medical treatment.  With the Ayatollah’s blessing, a group of young Islamic revolutionaries seized the US embassy in Tehran.  They took more than 60 hostages, demanded the return on the Shah to face trial.

26 Khomeini’s Anti-U.S. Policies  Most of the US hostages remained prisoners for 444 days before they were released on January 20,  Khomeini also encouraged Muslims fundamentalist in other countries to overthrow their secular governments.  This caused tensions between Iran and Iraq.  The Iranians were Shi’a Muslims, while the Iraq’s were Sunni Muslim.  In addition the Iraqi leaders Saddam Hussein ruled Iraq as a secular state.  Most of the US hostages remained prisoners for 444 days before they were released on January 20,  Khomeini also encouraged Muslims fundamentalist in other countries to overthrow their secular governments.  This caused tensions between Iran and Iraq.  The Iranians were Shi’a Muslims, while the Iraq’s were Sunni Muslim.  In addition the Iraqi leaders Saddam Hussein ruled Iraq as a secular state.

27 Khomeini’s Anti-U.S. Policies  War broke out between the two countries in  For eight years, Muslims killed Muslims in a territorial struggle.  Caught in the middle the US secretly sold weapons to Iran in an effort to get their hostages released.  A million people died before a UN ceasefire ended the hostilities in  War broke out between the two countries in  For eight years, Muslims killed Muslims in a territorial struggle.  Caught in the middle the US secretly sold weapons to Iran in an effort to get their hostages released.  A million people died before a UN ceasefire ended the hostilities in 1988.

28 The Superpowers Face Off in Afghanistan  Iran was not the only country in the Middle east in which the Cold War erupted.  For several years following WWII Afghanistan was able to maintain independence from both the USSR and US.  However in the 1950’s Soviet influence in the country began to increase.  In the late 1970’s, a Muslim revolt threatened to topple Afghanistan’s Communist regime, this triggered a Soviet invasion in December  Iran was not the only country in the Middle east in which the Cold War erupted.  For several years following WWII Afghanistan was able to maintain independence from both the USSR and US.  However in the 1950’s Soviet influence in the country began to increase.  In the late 1970’s, a Muslim revolt threatened to topple Afghanistan’s Communist regime, this triggered a Soviet invasion in December 1979.

29 The Superpowers Face Off in Afghanistan  The Soviets thought they would be in and out of Afghanistan, but just like the US in Vietnam in the 1960’s, the Soviets found themselves stuck in Afghanistan.  Like the Vietcong in Vietnam, determined Afghan rebel forces outmaneuvered and overpowered the Soviets.  The Afghan rebels were called mujahideen, they were supplied by the Americans with arms.  The Soviets thought they would be in and out of Afghanistan, but just like the US in Vietnam in the 1960’s, the Soviets found themselves stuck in Afghanistan.  Like the Vietcong in Vietnam, determined Afghan rebel forces outmaneuvered and overpowered the Soviets.  The Afghan rebels were called mujahideen, they were supplied by the Americans with arms.

30 The Superpowers Face Off in Afghanistan  The US had armed the Afghan rebels because they believed the USSR invasion put a threat to the oil rich Middle East.  President Jimmy Carter warned the Soviets any attempt to gain control of the Persian Gulf would be “repelled by any means necessary, including military force.”  No threat developed, so the US only placed an embargo to USSR and boycotted the 1980 Olympic games.  The US had armed the Afghan rebels because they believed the USSR invasion put a threat to the oil rich Middle East.  President Jimmy Carter warned the Soviets any attempt to gain control of the Persian Gulf would be “repelled by any means necessary, including military force.”  No threat developed, so the US only placed an embargo to USSR and boycotted the 1980 Olympic games.

31 The Superpowers Face Off in Afghanistan  In the 1980’s a new Soviet regime acknowledge how devastating the war with Afghanistan really was.  By 1989 all Soviet forces were out of Afghanistan.  By then, internal unrest and economic problems were tearing the Soviet Union apart.  In the 1980’s a new Soviet regime acknowledge how devastating the war with Afghanistan really was.  By 1989 all Soviet forces were out of Afghanistan.  By then, internal unrest and economic problems were tearing the Soviet Union apart.


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