2 Introduction Seriousness and Frivolity The Significance of Religion? The spiritual dimension of human life.SoulMeaningAnalysis and DiagnosisHegel
3 Introduction, cont’d. The Families of Religions Indian: Hinduism, Buddhism, (Jainism), SikhismThe SelfChinese: Confucianism, Taoism, Chinese BuddhismNatureSemitic: Judaism, Christianity, IslamGod and Revelation
4 Introduction, cont’d. Places of Worship Belief and Action Some CategoriesUniversal and ParticularMystical and EthicalSelf- and Other-PowerPersonal and Civil
5 Introduction, cont’d. Value Judgements The Phenomenological Approach Current Debate: Commitment v. AnthropologyOur Approach in this CourseDescription, Suspension, DiscussionGender and Class: Equality and the Middle Class.
6 Introduction, cont’d Test Questions: Arrange the major religions in their families.What is meant by a “universal” religion?What is meant by a religion of “self-liberation”?What is the “phenomenological” approach?What are the reasons for and against it?
7 Part I: Religions of Indian Origin HinduismBuddhismJainism (not covered in this course)Sikhism
8 Hinduism The Spirit of Hinduism The story of Narada and Vishnu The Hindu View of LifeThe presence of the divinePre-Vedic Religion: Harappa
9 Hinduism Vedic Religion The Aryans The Vedas Rig, Sama, Yajur, Atharva.The Vedic GodsIndra, Agni, Varuna, RtaSacrifice (yajna)Brahman, the Power of the Sacrifice
10 Hinduism The Upanishads Brahman, the highest Reality Nirguna Brahman The Atman or SelfThe Atman is identical with BrahmanThe True Self and the Apparent Self
11 Hinduism, cont. Monism Reincarnation The Law of Karma The Cycle of Birth and DeathMoksha, LiberationThe Path of Sacred Knowledge,Meditation and Asceticism
12 Hinduism, cont. The Later Upanishads: Personalization Saguna Brahman: With AttributesIshvara, the LordMayaYoga
13 Hinduism, cont. Classical Hinduism The Epics, Maha-bharata, Ramayana The PuranasVishnu and Shiva (and Brahma)Shakti: the GoddessParvati, Durga, KaliYoni and lingam
14 Hinduism, cont. Lakshmi Sarasvati Ganesha Polytheism and Monotheism PujaDarshana
15 Hinduism, cont. The Four Varnas, or Classes The Aryan or Twice-born, the Sacred ThreadBrahminsKshatriyasVaishyasSudrasOutcastes, Untouchables
16 Hinduism, cont. The Many Jatis, or Castes Restrictions on: Food MarriageOccupation
17 Hinduism, cont. The Four Ends of Man Dharma, Caste Duty Sadharana DharmaArtha, PowerKama, PleasureMoksha, Liberation
18 Hinduism, cont. The Four Ashramas, or Stages of Life Brahmacarin, the celibate studentGrihastha, the householderVanaprastha, the forest-dwellerSannyasinSadhus
19 Hinduism, cont. Bhakti Hinduism: The life of devotion The Bhagavad-gitaKarma yoga“Do the work for the sake of the work…”Bhakti, devotion to the Supreme LordVishnu: Krishna and RamaShiva
20 Hinduism, cont. Hindu Ethics: Class and Caste Duties Universal Duties Ahimsa, non-violenceNo doctrine of unjust warBut rules for conduct of war
21 Hinduism, cont. Modern Developments Gandhi Non-violent protest, civil disobedience, political independence (1947)Class and Caste outlawed, but preservedPartition: creation of Pakistan for MuslimsRejection of Capitalism, and Return to it.Hindutva: militant Hindu nationalism
22 Test, Hinduism1. Identify: Indra, Agni, Varuna, Rta, Vishnu, Shiva, Sarasvati, Kali.Explain briefly what is meant by: Brahman, Atman, maya, moksha, samsara, yoga.Summarize in one or two sentences the worldview of the Upanishads.What are the Four Ends of Man?5. What are the Four Varnas?
23 Test, Hinduism, cont.6. What is the chief message of the Bhagavad-Gita?
24 Buddhism The Mustard Seed The Buddhist View of Life: Transience "Do not cherish the unworthy desire that the changeable might become unchanging.“Siddhartha Gautama of the ShakyasThe Four Passing SightsThe Great Going ForthThe Great Awakening
25 Buddhism, cont. Theravada Buddhism The Four Noble Truths Dukkha: SufferingTanha: CravingNirvana: ExtinctionMarga: The Path
26 Buddhism, cont. The Eightfold Path Right Understanding Right Thought Right Speech, Conduct, LivelihoodRight EffortRight MindfulnessRight Concentration
27 Buddhism, cont. The Ten Precepts Five and Five Monks and Laity The Three JewelsBuddhist TheoryImpermanence, AniccaNo Self, Anatta
28 Buddhism, cont. The Five Aggregates Matter Sensations Perception Mental FormationsConsciousness
29 Buddhism, cont. The Doctrine of Dependent Origination Rebirth The Many Buddhas
30 Buddhism, cont. Mahayana Buddhism The Bodhisattva Nirvana and Samsara The Eternal BuddhaEmptiness, SunyataGrace v. MeritMeditation
31 Buddhism, cont. Devotional Buddhism Some Buddhas and Bodhisattvas Amitabha, Avalokiteshvara, MaitreyaThe Threefold Body of the BuddhaThe historical BuddhaFaithThe SanghaFestivals
32 Buddhism, cont. Buddhist Ethics Compassion for suffering Care for life, including commerceRejection of justice, just war.Modern DevelopmentsLittle affected by science, democracy, capitalismNeo-Buddhism
33 Religions of Chinese Origin Harmony with NatureHuman Nature: ConfucianismCosmic Nature: TaoismBuddha Nature and Cosmic Nature: Chinese Buddhism
34 Traditional Chinese Religion Spirit: Sacrifice offered to spirits of ancestorsby the son.Civil religion, for the good of the community. rather than personal.A function of the head of the community:father, king (son of ancestors).Nearest thing to a priesthood: the ju, the learned.
35 Traditional Chinese Religion Shang Dynasty, BC.Aristocracy and peasantry.AncestorsSpirits: kuei and shen.Gods: the T’u Tithe celestial administration;once human beings.
36 Traditional Chinese Religion Shang dynasty cont.Ti.Divination.Ritual, Li.Power, Te.
37 Traditional Chinese Religion Chou Dynasty, BC.Shang Ti, the high God.Heaven, T’ien.The Mandate of Heaven, T’ien Ming.Virtue, Te.Filial piety, Hsiao.The Son of Heaven, T’ien Tzu.
38 Traditional Chinese Religion Period of the Warring States, BC.CalamitiesShang Ti, replaced by Heaven, T’ien.The Five Classics:ChangesHistoryPoetryRitualSpring and Autumn Annals.
39 Confucianism Confucius and the Tiger The Confucian View of Life: Human-heartedness.K’ung Fu Tzu, BC.Poor but well educated.Teachings compiled by his followers.Response to barbarization: virtue, character.Religious ethics.
40 Confucianism, cont. The Four Books: Analects The Doctrine of the Mean The Great LearningMenciusHeavenThe Goodness of Human Nature
41 Confucianism, cont. Tao, the Way Chun-tzu, the Noble Man Ren, Human-heartednessI, JusticeHsiao and T’i, Filial Piety and Brotherly LoveThe Five RelationshipsLi, the Rules of Good Behavior
42 Confucianism, cont. Shu, Treat others as you wish to be treated. Chung, ConscientiousnessTe, the Power of VirtueHo, harmonyThe MeanThe Rectification of NamesTheory of Government: the Person of the Ruler
43 Confucianism, cont. The Destiny of Man Yang and Yin Modern Developments:Banned under Communism on MainlandMaintained in Taiwan, Hong Kong, SingaporeCan it foster democracy?Can it foster free markets?
44 Taoism The Spirit of Taoism: Who knows what is ‘good’? Harmony with Cosmic Nature.Lao Tzu and Chuang TzuTao, the Way of NatureWu, Non-being, EmptinessSpontaneityImpartial, not humane
45 Taoism, cont. The Relativity of Values Our ordinary values are conventional,and relative to their opposites. Beauty implies ugliness.The cosmos does not share our human values.Wu Wei: Inactive Action.The Man of TaoGovernment should be minimal.Taoism and the arts.
46 Taoism, cont. Other forms of Taoism: In addition to Philosophical Taoism,there is also Popular Taoism,which aims to produce health, wealth and long life through rituals.
47 Chinese Buddhism The Spirit of Chinese Buddhism Paradox The Chinese Buddhist View of Life:Personal ReligionA Fusion of Indian Buddhism and TaoismThe place of the Tao is taken by the Buddha- nature.Meditational and Devotional
48 Chinese Buddhism Meditational: Ch’an (Zen in Japan) Meditation is the path to enlightenment.The Buddha and the LotusBodhidharmaSeeking the Buddha in One’s Own HeartA Special Transmission outside the ScripturesNo Dependence on Words or Letters
49 Chinese BuddhismMeditation: Overcoming the sense of individual identity distinct from the world.Seeing our innermost nature as the Buddha- nature.Sudden vs. Gradual EnlightenmentLin ChiShock therapy, kung an (koan).Tsao Tung Reason and argument
50 Chinese Buddhism Enlightenment not our doing. No objective change. Spontaneity and the arts.Devotional Chinese BuddhismFar greater numbersThe Pure LandKuan Yin
51 Religions of Semitic Origin Judaism, Christianity, IslamGodPersonal, all-powerful, -knowing, -good.CreationRevelation, in writingJudgement
52 Israelite Religion Spirit: David, Uriah, Nathan Origins: Unification of hill tribes.Captivity in Egypt? Exodus?Torah in BabylonEthical MonotheismCivil religion, for this worldThe Law
53 Israelite Religion God and Creation Initial henotheism Pluralistic, not monisticSalvific HistoryBeginning, middle, endThe CovenantThe Law of Moses
54 Israelite Religion The Torah Sacrifice, purification Civil law Priests ProphetsSin and punishmentJeremiah: individual instead of collective responsibility
55 Israelite Religion 538 B.C.: Incorporation into the Persian Empire ZoroastrianismBattle between Good and EvilJudgement, Paradise and hell, AngelsThe Messiah to comeDiaspora
57 Israelite Religion Religious Diversity Sadducees, traditional pre-Persian beliefscivil religion, sacrificesPharisees, Persian: personal religionScribes of both (> Rabbis)Essenes, monasticImminent MessianismZealots
58 Rabbinic Judaism The Story of Rabbi Eisik The Revolts of 70, 135 AD. Diaspora, Roman CitizenshipElimination of DiversityChristianization of the Roman EmpireConstantine, TheodosiusChanged political circumstances of the Jewish peopleThe Oral Law, Fences, > TalmudMishnah + GemaraEnlargement of Torah
59 Rabbinic Judaism Transformation of Jewish religion End of sacrifices End of special law enforcementFestivals now religiousTemple replaced by Synagogue and FamilyContinuitiesPharisaic conception of universal GodTraditional Faith
60 Rabbinic Judaism An Ethnic Religion The Holy Days Sabbath Rosh HashanahYom KippurSukkotHanukaPurimPassover (Pesach)Pentecost (Shavuot)
61 Rabbinic Judaism Rites of Passage Circumcision Bar Mitzvah Shiva and SheloshimKashrutTallit, Tefillin, Mezuzah, KippahThe Divine Name: Yahweh and Adonai
62 Rabbinic Judaism Kabbalah Hasidism Branches of Modern Judaism Orthodox ReformedConservativeReconstructionist
63 Rabbinic Judaism Ashkenazim and Sephardim The Holocaust The Land of IsraelConflict with PalestiniansJewish EthicsOrthodox: HalakhahOthers: Socialist, “Liberal”Neo-conservatives
64 Islam 600, 622 A.D. The Spirit of Islam: Voice of the Muezzin Languages: Urdu, from India, and ArabicView of Life: God, Submission, SalvationBefore Islam: polytheism, spirits, jinnAllah the high but not only GodChristianity, Judaismhanifs
65 Islam Mohammed 570-632 Mecca Travel to Damascus Revelations (see Hadith)KoranHegira, 622Medina
66 Islam The Return to Mecca, 630 The Death of Mohammed, 632 Expansion of Islam into Persian, Roman EmpiresThe Status of Mohammed: Seal of the ProphetsSunna (custom) and Hadith (report)
67 Islam Doctrines of Islam: One God: There is no God but Allah Angels, jinnCorrection of text: not precisely “fallen”Prophets and ScripturesIslam views itself as the original religionResurrection and JudgementPredestination
68 Islam Shari’ah: the Law The Five Pillars of Islam Shahadah: confession of FaithSalat: public prayerZakat: almsgivingSawm: fastingHajj: pilgrimage to Mecca
69 Islam Jihad, internal and external Polytheists: conversion or death People of the Book, tolerated: Jews, Christians, Hindus, Zoroastrians.Ritual ImpurityCircumcisionThe Organization of Islam: Ulama
70 Islam Islam and Society: union of religion and politics Sunni and Shiite: the problem of the succession, and so of authority. Abu Bakr v. AliShiite Islam: the redemptive sacrifice of Husayn,10th of Muharramsaviorism, philosophySufismIslamic Ethics
71 Christianity An Incident in the Temple The Christian View of Life Two RootsJewish MonotheismThe Graeco-Roman worldThe Humanity of GodGod as Father
72 Christianity The Jewish Community in Jesus’ Time Pharisees Universal GodFuture LifeOral LawSadduceesGod of the Jewish PeopleProsperity of the Jewish People in this life.
73 Christianity Scribes Scholars of the law of both Pharisees and SadduceesEssenesA monastic movement, sort ofCommon propertyZealotsPolitical revolutionaries, in Galilee (the north).
74 Christianity The Gentile Background The Roman Empire Judaea, Galilee Roman Civic ReligionNational, polytheisticThe Mystery ReligionsPersonal, Participation in the life of the God
75 Christianity Jesus of Nazareth in historical perspective The Message of JesusThe law of Moses must be keptBut it must be interiorizedThe law exists for man, not man for the lawThe Oral Law has no validityNo food is uncleanGod is our FatherThe law is kept fully by loving God and our fellow man
76 Christianity The Kingdom of God Ag. the Sadducees, there is a future life for soul and bodyOne day Jesus will return.The Miracles of Jesus
77 Christianity The Message of Paul Jesus is the Savior of Mankind All men are sinners, and need redemptionThe Gentiles are immoral and do not knowGodThe Jews do not keep God’s lawAll men suffer death, the punishment for sin
78 Christianity Jesus saves mankind from sin and death by his death and resurrectionTo become a Christian is to participate in Jesus’death and resurrection
79 Christianity The Further Development of Christianity Jewish v. Gentile ChristiansDestruction of Jewish Christianity in 70 AD.Some meanings of terms“Catholic” = the whole church, as contrasted with the local churchOrganization of the Christian Church
80 Christianity The Christian Bible The Hebrew Bible completed c. 100 AD Accepted by Christians as the Old TestamentBooks of New Testament settled c. 180 ADThe Church superior to the BibleThe Sacramental SystemAt first two, then five others“Ex opere operato”
81 Christianity The Church as Authority The Apostolic Succession Communion with the Church in Rome312, Constantine, Christianity permittedTheodosius, other religions banned
82 Christianity The Status of Jesus Divine or human? Real body? Real death?Doctrines of Incarnation:Jesus is one person with two naturesand TrinityGod is one nature in three persons
83 Christianity Philosophy and Theology Evil Purgatory East v. West The Germanic tribes
84 Christianity The Reformation Martin Luther, 1517 John Calvin (b. 1509) Salvation by grace aloneNature and reason are corruptGrace only through ChristSalvation by faith alone
85 Christianity Certainty of salvation Reduction of the sacramental systemThe church not a divine authoritybut the BibleVirtue the consequence of being savedElimination of prayers for the dead.
86 Christianity The Reformation Churches Lutheran Calvinist Presbyterian CongregationalistAnglicanMethodist
87 Christianity The Radical Reformation Baptist Believers only, by immersionSeparation of church and state, religious libertyMennonite (Brethren)Sect v. churchBible alonePacifistSociety of Friends
88 Christianity Ethics Old Testament: the Ten Commandments New Testament: love and compassionCatholics: Natural Law (Aquinas)Protestants: diverse.Bible alone;or, Natural Law (Hooker, Locke)
89 Christianity Modern Developments Liberal Christianity Values rather than faithSocial JusticeEquality v. No Harm
90 Comparative AnalysisPhenomenological: without value judgements, initiallyEvaluational: in terms of some criterion, e.g. consequencesWhat are the interesting points of comparison?That is, what are the interesting differencesand the interesting agreements?
91 Comparative Analysis Aspects of Religions: Faith, Belief, World-view Religious PracticesEthics, ValuesConsequences:Social existence, economics, government, family
92 Comparative AnalysisExample: Compare and contrast Buddhism and Christianity.Theravada: Interesting Differences:God v. No Self, ImpermanenceMorality v. psychologyJust war v. pacificismSimilarities: Detachment, humility
93 Comparative Analysis Mahayana and Christianity Differences: God v. Eternal Buddha-natureReality of the Phenomenal worldSimilaritiesSaviorist
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