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Religions and Philosophies

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Presentation on theme: "Religions and Philosophies"— Presentation transcript:

1 Religions and Philosophies
Belief Systems Religions and Philosophies

2 Religions Monotheism Polytheism The belief in one God
Ex. Judaism, Christianity, Islam Polytheism The belief in many gods Ex. Ancient Egypt, Hinduism

3 Judaism The Hebrews founded Judaism , the oldest known monotheistic religion Sacred text: Torah (Christian Old Testament) Basic teachings: Ten Commandments- the Hebrew code of laws Holy City: Jerusalem

4 Christianity Founder: Jesus of Nazareth Holy City: Jerusalem
Sacred text: Christian Bible (Old Testament and New Testament) Monotheistic Practices: Seven sacraments

5 Christianity Christian Churches divide numerous times
Major churches: Roman Catholic (headed by Pope), Eastern Orthodox, Protestant Faiths (Lutheran, Calvinist, Church of England)

6 Islam Holy Cities: Mecca (Makkah), Medina, Jerusalem
Founder: Prophet Muhammad (6th Century AD) Sacred text: Qur’an (Koran) Monotheistic: One God (Allah- means God in Arabic) Basic teachings: 5 pillars Divisions: Sunni and Shiah Holy Cities: Mecca (Makkah), Medina, Jerusalem

7 Hinduism POLYTHEISTIC No Single Founder
Holy books: Vedas, Bhagavad Gita, Mahabarata Reincarnation- rebirth of one’s soul

8 Hinduism Beliefs: Karma- all the good and bad deeds done in one’s life
Dharma- duties one must fulfill in life Moksha- union with Brahman at the end of life cycle Caste system- rigid social class system based on birth

9 Buddhism Founder: Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha) 500’s BC
No Single God- believe in universal spirit Basic teachings: Four Noble Truths and Eightfold Path

10 Buddhism Beliefs: Karma Reincarnation
Ahimsa- nonviolence to all living things Nirvana- release from the cycle of rebirth

11 Animism Founder-There is no one person Geographic Origin- Africa
Significant Writings- Animism has an oral tradition of story-telling, rather than a developed writing system. Places of Worship-Animist rituals tend to take place outdoors in nature. Teachings and Beliefs- Animists practice nature worship. They believe that everything in the universe has a spirit.

12 Philosophies

13 Confucianism Founder: Confucius 500’s BC Text: The Analects
Beliefs: Filial Piety- respect for parents and elders 5 relationships: guide conduct in all interactions in family and society

14 Daoism Founder: Laozi 500’s BC Text: Dao De Jing
Beliefs: harmony with nature Yin and Yang: must balance 2 opposing forces in nature The Dao: the force that guides all things

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