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Religions and Philosophies

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1 Religions and Philosophies
Regents Review Religions and Philosophies

2 Shinto Beliefs- worship of nature. Worship Kami- spirits found in nature (plants, animals, rocks). Spirits control natural forces like earthquakes and typhoons. Impact- shared beliefs in gods helped unite the people of Japan. Didn’t answer questions about life and death- many turn to Buddhism. Influences landscape gardening, flower arranging and the tea ceremony. Haiku poems.

3 Animism- Africa Beliefs- all things in nature have a spirit. Your ancestors watch over you from the spirit world. Can help or harm you. Polytheistic. Impact- Respect for nature. Music- “talking drums”- a way to communicate with gods. Themes in literature (griot)- respect nature to prosper. Masks- represent spirits in religious ceremonies.

4 Confucius- China Beliefs- philosophy. 5 relationships- everybody has a specific role and responsibility. Mandate of Heaven. Respect elders. Impact- Patriarchal society. Large families- prefer sons. Combine with Buddhism.

5 Buddhism Beliefs- began in Nepal with Prince Siddhartha Gautama. 4 Noble Truths, Eightfold Path, meditation and self-denial, nirvana. Impact- cultural diffusion. Began in Nepal, India, China, Korea and Japan.

6 Islam Beliefs- 5 Pillars- fasting, almsgiving, pilgrimage to Mecca, faith in Allah, pray 5 times a day. Impact- India- Partitioning of India and creation of Pakistan. Crusades- holy wars to gain Jerusalem from Muslims. Mali- Mansa Musa converts. Afrghanistan- Taliban Iranian Revolution- Islamic fundamentalists disagree with modernization.

7 Hinduism Beliefs- Karma, dharma and reincarnation.
Impact- Caste system (determines occupation, marriage etc.) Partitioning of India

8 Christianity Beliefs- based on life and beliefs of Jesus Christ.
Apostles spread Christian religion after his death. Jesus was the son of God. After his death he was resurrected. Believe in the bible (Old and New Testament). Impact- 4th century A.D. Emperor Constantine converts- Christianity official religion of Roman Empire. Unifying force during Middle Ages. Crusades

9 Judaism Beliefs- Hebrews believed in one God- monotheism
Believe in the Old Testament (Torah). Ten Commandments- moral code for conduct. Impact- became basis for Christianity and Islam. The Exodus The diaspora Holocaust, creation of Israel, Arab-Israeli Conflict

10 Protestantism Beliefs- Led by people like Martin Luther and John Calvin. Priests and Popes cannot grant salvation. Faith alone would bring you to heaven. Read and interpret Bible for yourself. Impact- Protestant Reformation gave rise to Lutheranism, Calvinism etc. Decreased power of the Catholic Church. Caused them to reform themselves (Catholic Counter Reformation).

11 Other religions/ philosophies
Janism- extreme non-violence (India). Sikhs- Blend Islam and Hinduism (India). Legalism- People act out of self-interest and need harsh rules imposed by a strong ruler (China). Taoism- The natural way. Study nature. No need for a ruler. Yin and Yang (China).

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