Presentation on theme: "Civil War Battles of Texas. Early in the war, Union ships began to blockade, or deny access, to Southern ports. In addition, the Union even occupied."— Presentation transcript:
Civil War Battles of Texas
Early in the war, Union ships began to blockade, or deny access, to Southern ports. In addition, the Union even occupied the port of Galveston on the Texas coast.
Who: Colonel John B. Magruder (Commander of Confederate forces in Texas) Why: (military objective) To run the Union out of Galveston When: January 1, 1863
What: Magruder’s men lined the sides of two ships with cotton bales for protection. While the North had “ironclads,” Magruder would have to made do with “cottonclads.” Colonel Tom Green and his sharpshooters used the cottonclads to attack Union ships in the harbor. Meanwhile, Confederate land forces overran the Union troops in Galveston, capturing several hundred Union soldiers.
Outcome and Significance: The Confederates gained control of the port and maintained control of it for the rest of the war.
The Union did not intend to leave Galveston in Confederate hands. General William B. Franklin and about 4,000 Union troops planned to invade Texas through Sabine Pass, march overland to Houston, and then capture Galveston.
Who: Richard Dowling – Confederate commander of Fort Griffin, which guarded Sabine Pass. He led an all-Irish unit known as the Davis Guards. Why: The Confederates needed to defend Texas ports from Union invasion. When: September 8, 1863
What: Union forces used gunboats to shell Fort Griffin for more than an hour. Dowling and the Davis Guards held their fire until the gunboats were close enough to hit. When they did finally open fire, they crippled two gunboats and stopped the Union attack.
Outcome and Significance: The Confederates drove the Union from Sabine Pass. They also captured over 100 prisoners, 11 cannons, 150 small guns, and other supplies. Richard Dowling and the Davis Guards received special medals for their actions.
Who: Colonel John S. “Rip” Ford – Confederate commander of the “Cavalry of the West” controlled almost 200 miles of the Rio Grande borderland. Why: Union troops moved inland to occupy Brownsville. When: May 12, 1865 – more than a month after the end of the war
What: Union forces marched to Palmito Hill, 12 miles east of Brownsville. Ford arranged his men for battle and yelled: “Men, we have whipped the enemy in all previous fights. We can do it again. Charge!”
Outcome and Significance: Ford and his men defeated over 800 Union soldiers in the last battle of the Civil War. Not until after the battle did Ford hear from one of his prisoners that Lee had surrendered a month before. A few days later, Union officers met with Ford to arrange a truce.