Presentation on theme: "Jennifer Hamilton, ELL Instructional Specialist"— Presentation transcript:
1Bricks and Mortar: Strategies that Work in Building True Academic Language Proficiency Jennifer Hamilton, ELL Instructional SpecialistAlexandria City Public Schools, VirginiaRobin Liten-Tejada, ESOL/HILT SpecialistArlington Public Schools, VirginiaWIDA National Conference, October 2014
2ObjectivesTo share strategies for building academic language proficiency thatgo beyond merely introducing words and definitions to studentsintegrate language and contentincorporate reading, writing, listening and speakingprovide language for higher order thinking skills
3Why the focus on academic language? Current emphasis in research on best practices for ELLsNew standards emphasize higher order thinking, but need the language to express higher order thoughtsAPS Program Evaluation indicated area in need of improvement
5So what is academic language exactly? Academic language is the set of words, grammar, and organizational strategies used to describecomplex ideashigher-order thinking processesabstract concepts. (p.20)
6What does that mean?What features of academic language do you find in this excerpt?Zwiers, J. (2008). Building Academic Language: Essential Practices for Content Classrooms (p.28). San Francisca: Jossey-Bass
7Aspects of academic language Figurative language to express abstractionsLong sentencesTransitions/connectivesRather, In additionPassive voiceNominalizationwe hold the belief thatCondensed complex messagesPluralist future
8Bricks and Mortar Words Mortar therefore as a result contains consists of thus infer dependent maintain correspondBricks imagery metaphor revolution emancipation hypotenuse reciprocal mitosis gravity
9Dimensions of Academic Language VocabularySyntaxDiscourse
10VocabularySyntaxDiscourseStrategies for teaching Syntax (how words are used in sentences):Analyze how that word is used in a sentence.Use sentence frames for both oral and written practice.Build sentences with manipulatives.Lastly generate original sentences.Syntax: sentence frames help students understand how the words are used in sentences manipulatives
11Otherwise (conjunction) connecting word that means if you don’t do something, something else will happen“I have to pay $15 tomorrow, otherwise the jacket will be given to someone else.”Linda must pay the rent, otherwise she will lose her apartment.You need to study tonight, otherwise ________________________ , otherwise _________
12Did my Level 3 student use “otherwise” correctly? Many countries have an economy completely bad. The person who has a big family for the bad education, and that person cannot find a job, the only alternative is to emigrate. Otherwise his family will die or only have for eat once a day.
13Teach Cause & Effect signal words becausesincesothereforeconsequentlyas a resultUsing the content being studied…Reinforcing language and content!!
14Effect + Cause Sentences ___effect (what)__because ___cause (why) __sinceThe student opened his eyes because Ms. L-T dropped the book.The student opened his eyes since Ms. L-T dropped the book.
15Cause + Effect Sentences __cause (why)_______, effect (what)_____Because Ms. L-T dropped the book, the student opened his eyes.Since Ms. L-T dropped the book, the student opened his eyes.BecauseSince
16Cause + Effect Sentences , so. Therefore,. Consequently,. As a result,__cause (why)_______ effect (what)_____Ms. L-T dropped the book, so the student opened his eyes.Ms. L-T dropped the book. Therefore, the student opened his eyes.Ms. L-T dropped the book. Consequently, the student opened his eyes.Ms. L-T dropped the book. As a result, the student opened his eyes.
18Night, by Elie Weisel Cause & Effect Sentence Practice Cause (why the effect happened)Effect (what was the result)The inmates had marched for hoursThe inmates were exhaustedFather and son stayed togetherthey were able to survive for a while longerThe inmates were given small rationsthe inmates became emaciatedRabbi Eliahu had lost his sonRabbi Eliahu was searching for his son everywhere,.hethey
19VocabularySyntaxDiscourseStrategies for teaching Syntax and Discourse:Use academic sentence starters to analyze textSyntax: sentence frames help students understand how the words are used in sentences manipulatives
20Strategies Background building Scaffolded instruction Content specific (ex. the Civil War)Pre-teaching key vocabulary (Tier 2 and Tier 3 words)Scaffolded instructionModeling use of target languageGradual release of responsibility through structured activitiesGraphic organizersExplicit academic language instructionSentence framesOral and written use of target languageUse of target language in context of reading discussionsCooperative learningPaired and small group tasks for reading, discussion, and some writing tasks
21Sample Sentence Frames & Transitions Instead of “The author says…”To Show Contrasting Ideas:General Transitions:According to _______, “______”The author argues/claims that _____Based on the text, the reader can infer that the author believes _____Consequently, the author claims that _____With this in mind, the author argues _____Considering the evidence, the author deduces that _____Although some people believe ______, the author claims that ______In contrast to popular opinion, the author argues that ______While popular opinion states that ______, the author claims that _____Whereas others have argued that ______, the author believes that _____For example,For instance,In addition,Furthermore,Moreover,Based on the evidence,First, (second, third, finally, etc.)In summary,
23VocabularySyntaxDiscourseStrategies for teaching Vocabulary through interdisciplinary reinforcement:Content teachers collaborate to determine “words of the week”Syntax: sentence frames help students understand how the words are used in sentences manipulatives
24Multidisciplinary Content Vocabulary for Level 2 ELLs Crucial stage in English-language acquisition, acquiring content vocabulary, developing language structuresTeachers created strategies to teach mortar words and phrases across the curricula of language arts, science and social studies
25Mortar Phrases Selected Sixteen paired mortar phrases were selected from Building Academic Language based on teachers’ informal observation of phrases most used in mainstream academic content classes. In addition, academic brick words and phrases from English language arts, science and social studies SOL word lists were also chosen.that isto be specificin other wordsmore preciselyin this mannerfurthermorein particularbesidesconverselyas a resultin spite of thisthereforemeanwhilein briefpresentlyto sum up
26Interdisciplinary Pre-Assessment Students all took a written interdisciplinary multiple-choice assessment to establish a baseline of their prior knowledge and use of these phrases.SAMPLE QUESTIONAnimal scientists have established that the relationship between dogs and humans has existed for thousands of years; __________, canines and people have long been living together.a) furthermore b) preciselyc) in other words d) meanwhile
27Written and Spoken Evidence Phrases introduced weekly and practiced in each class through cloze activities, skits, picture writing prompts, gamesUsing the phrases in writing encourages more advanced sentence structures—complex sentences—and more advanced punctuation— semicolons and colons.Spoken and written evidence demonstrates that students are consistently using the phrases, and speaking and writing more academically sophisticated sentences:SAMPLEHarriet Tubman helped fellow slaves to escape to freedom; more precisely, she was a successful conductor on the Underground Railroad.
28Look at a writing sample from Maureen’s class Look at a writing sample from Maureen’s class. How many academic mortar phrases are used correctly?VocabularySyntaxDiscourseStrategies for teaching Vocabulary through interdisciplinary reinforcement:Content teachers collaborate to determine “words of the week”Syntax: sentence frames help students understand how the words are used in sentences manipulatives
30ObjectivesTo share strategies for building academic language proficiency thatgo beyond merely introducing words to studentsintegrate language and contentincorporate reading, writing, listening and speaking provide language for higher order thinking skills
31Cocktail Party How can you use the information we shared today? that isto be specificin other wordsmore preciselyin this mannerfurthermorein particularbesidesconverselyas a resultin spite of thisthereforemeanwhilein briefpresentlyto sum up