Presentation on theme: "Cold War and Postwar Changes Chapter 27 Our Lady of Lourdes High School March 2015."— Presentation transcript:
Cold War and Postwar Changes Chapter 27 Our Lady of Lourdes High School March 2015
Section 1: Development of the Cold War What is the message of this political cartoon?
Following World War II Europe is destroyed Ideological differences between United States and Soviet Union – Communism Versus Democracy – Both fear each other Both countries are “superpowers”
Eastern Europe Soviets refuse to give up control of Eastern Europe – U.S. and G.B. want conquered territories to self-determine First place of conflict is a Civil War in Greece – Communist V. Anti-Communist
Truman Doctrine Goal is to avoid Soviet expansion Truman asks for $400 million in support of Greece and Turkey Also stated the U.S. would support other countries threatened by Communism
Don’t Write “Like apples in a barrel infected by disease, the corruption of Greece would infect Iran and all the East….likewise Africa, Italy, France….Not since Rome and Carthage had there been such a polarization of power on this earth” United States Secretary of State Dean Acheson 1.What is Acheson saying in this quote in your own words? 2.What steps can the United States take to achieve this goal?
The Marshall Plan 1947 – A European recovery program Belief is Communism thrives in countries with economic problems Marshall Plan provides $13 Billion to rebuild Europe
New U.S. Policy Europe is split; not much U.S. can do about it Policy of Containment – Keep Communism within its current boundaries
Iron Curtain The imaginary line that divided the Western European countries from the Eastern European countries after World War II
Germany Split Country is split in 4 after WWII – Berlin is also split U.S., G.B. and France unite to create West Germany, also want to unite Berlin Soviets Blockade Berlin Federal Republic of Germany German Democratic Republic
The Berlin Airlift British and U.S. airlift supplies for 10 months Soviets give in and lift Blockade Loading milk on a flight headed for East Berlin Above: A drop of supplies over East Berlin Left: East Berliners await a drop on top of a destroyed building
An Arms and Space Race Both the US and Soviets try and build militaries – Both have nuclear weapons – Believe large nuclear arsenals will prevent war (deterrence) Also race to space – Sputnik 1 (1957) – Soviet satellite put into orbit around Earth.
New Military Alliances North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) – U.S., France, G.B. and others Warsaw Pact – Eastern European nations and S.U NATO IN BLUE WARSAW PACT IN RED
The Berlin Wall After Stalin’s death Nikita Khrushchev emerges as Soviet leader 1961 Khrushchev constructs a wall – Prevent people from leaving East Berlin to West Berlin
Your Contribution to the Wall Choose West Berlin or East Berlin East Berlin – May want to have a central theme of: Communism Destitution Oppression Control Thoughts about the West – Loss of family West Berlin – May want to have a central theme of: Democracy Employment Freedom Thoughts about the East – Loss of family
Communist Cuba 1959 – Fidel Castro overthrows Fulgencio Batista in Cuba (90 miles off coast of Florida) Removes all American businesses Establishes Communist gov’t
Bay of Pigs Invasion Kennedy decided to launch an invasion to remove Castro Bay of Pigs April 16,1961 Horrible failure; creates more tension
The Cuban Missile Crisis 1962 – Soviets (Khrushchev) place nuclear missiles in Cuba – Response to U.S. missiles in Turkey JFK blockades Cuba to not allow missiles in Khrushchev and JFK reach agreement – Soviets remove missiles, U.S. will not invade Cuba Left: Fidel Castro and Nikita Kruschev embrace. Right: JFK on the cover of the Daily News during the crisis
The Vietnam War Communist N. Vietnam want control of S. Vietnam 1964 – US troops sent to keep this from happening – Sent by Linden B. Johnson (after Kenedy’s assassination) – Following the Domino Theory (if one country falls to Communism so will surrounding countries)
DO NOW: Was the United States justified in involving itself in the Communist conflict in Greece, Cuba, and Vietnam? Why or why not?
Result of Vietnam War US fail to hold North Vietnamese led by Ho Chi Minh US withdraws troops Within two years all Vietnam is Communist Domino theory proves to not be true
Nikita Khrushchev emerges as Soviet policy maker De-Stalinization – Process of eliminating the more ruthless policies set forth by Stalin Failed foreign and domestic policies get him removed from office in 1964
Revolts Against Communism Eastern European countries exploited by Soviets Soviets fight to keep control Will see Eastern Europeans fight for sovereignty