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Why are semicolons important? Semicolons between independent clauses Semicolons between items in a series Review A Review B Using Semicolons.

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Presentation on theme: "Why are semicolons important? Semicolons between independent clauses Semicolons between items in a series Review A Review B Using Semicolons."— Presentation transcript:

1 Why are semicolons important? Semicolons between independent clauses Semicolons between items in a series Review A Review B Using Semicolons

2 Why are semicolons important? A semicolon marks a pause in a sentence. It is not quite as strong as a period, but it is stronger than a comma. ; The rain finally stopped. Some sunlight broke through the clouds. The rain finally stopped, and some sunlight broke through the clouds. Slight pause (comma) The rain finally stopped ; some sunlight broke through the clouds. Medium pause (semicolon) Strong pause (period)

3 Why are semicolons important? In South America we visited Santiago, Chile, Bogotá, Columbia, and Lima, Peru. Like other punctuation marks, semicolons help readers follow your writing. Confusing In South America we visited Santiago, Chile ; Bogotá, Columbia ; and Lima, Peru. Clear [End of Section]

4 Semicolons between independent clauses Use a semicolon between independent clauses if the independent clausesindependent clauses Kim is a talented artist; she has even sold a few works. are closely related in meaning and are not joined by and, but, for, nor, or, so, or yet Independent clause

5 Semicolons between independent clauses Independent clauses An independent clause (or main clause) has a subject and a verb and expresses a complete thought. An independent clause can stand by itself as a sentence. Subject The aquarium is always clean. Keith raises tropical fish. Verb Subject Verb The aquarium is always clean. Keith raises tropical fish. The aquarium is always clean.

6 A period is used since the two clauses are not closely related. Semicolons between independent clauses Remember: Use a semicolon to join independent clauses only if the clauses are closely related. Thad likes Japanese food; his sister has always been a picky eater. Incorrect Thad likes Japanese food ; his sister prefers Indian or Thai dishes. These two clauses aren’t closely related. These two clauses are closely related. A semicolon can be used to join them. Correct Thad likes Japanese food. His sister has always been a picky eater.

7 1.Rosa slid into home plate her run tied the game. 2.Turn up the radio they’re playing my favorite song. Identify the two independent clauses in each sentence. Then, add the semicolon where it is needed. 3.Juanita takes photos for the school newspaper she is also on the yearbook staff. Semicolons between independent clauses

8 1.Rosa slid into home plate her run tied the game. ; Semicolons between independent clauses Clause #1: Rosa slid into home plate Clause #2: her run tied the game These clauses are closely related. They can be joined by a semicolon. Identify the two independent clauses in each sentence. Then, add the semicolon where it is needed.

9 2.Turn up the radio they’re playing my favorite song. Semicolons between independent clauses ; Identify the two independent clauses in each sentence. Then, add the semicolon where it is needed. Clause #1: Turn up the radio Clause #2: they’re playing my favorite song These clauses are closely related. They can be joined by a semicolon.

10 3.Juanita takes photos for the school newspaper she is also on the yearbook staff. ; Semicolons between independent clauses Identify the two independent clauses in each sentence. Then, add the semicolon where it is needed. Clause #1: Juanita takes photos for the school newspaper Clause #2: she is also on the yearbook staff These clauses are closely related. They can be joined by a semicolon.

11 Add semicolons where they are needed in the following sentences. 1.Lyle had practiced every night he was prepared for the concert. 2.I really enjoyed that book you would probably like it too. 3.Three candidates are running for mayor they all have experience in public office. 4.Nina has many hobbies drawing and making jewelry are two of them. [End of Section] Semicolons between independent clauses On Your Own

12 Add semicolons where they are needed in the following sentences. 1.Lyle had practiced every night he was prepared for the concert. 2.I really enjoyed that book you would probably like it too. 3.Three candidates are running for mayor they all have experience in public office. 4.Nina has many hobbies drawing and origami are two of them. ; ; ; Semicolons between independent clauses ; Answers

13 Semicolons between independent clauses Use a semicolon between independent clauses joined by a conjunctive adverb or a transitional expression.conjunctive adverbtransitional expression It snowed all night ; consequently, the roads were hazardous the next morning. consequently, The trip went well ; in fact, it turned out to be a great vacation. in fact, Notice that the conjunctive adverb and the transitional expression are each followed by a comma.

14 A conjunctive adverb shows how ideas relate to each other. It expresses a relationship between two independent clauses. Common Conjunctive Adverbs accordinglyfurthermoreinsteadnevertheless besideshowevermeanwhileotherwise consequentlyindeedmoreovertherefore Semicolons between independent clauses Conjunctive adverbs

15 A transitional expression shows how ideas fit together. It makes a connection between the ideas in two independent clauses. Common Transitional Expressions as a resultfor exampleon the contraryin fact for instancein conclusionin other wordsthat is Semicolons between independent clauses Transitional expressions

16 When a conjunctive adverb or transitional expression appears within one of the clauses, it is set off by commas. Semicolons between independent clauses Dad prepared the casserole; Wanda, meanwhile, fixed the salad. Notice that the two clauses are still separated by a semicolon.

17 Semicolons between independent clauses You may need to use a semicolon (rather than a comma) before a coordinating conjunction to join independent clauses that contain commas. Jamal plays basketball, hockey, and baseball, and softball, of course, is his sister’s favorite sport. Confusing Clear Jamal plays basketball, hockey, and baseball ; and softball, of course, is his sister’s favorite sport.

18 Semicolons between independent clauses You may need to use a semicolon (rather than a comma) before a coordinating conjunction to join independent clauses that contain commas. Looking everywhere, we could not find the mitt, the ball, or the bat, and Mom, who had paid for them, was not pleased. Confusing Clear Looking everywhere, we could not find the mitt, the ball, or the bat; and Mom, who had paid for them, was not pleased.

19 If a sentence is clear without a semicolon, don’t add one just because the clauses contain commas. Semicolons between independent clauses Lana, you are the best musician I know, as well as a great dancer. A comma is all that is needed in this case.

20 1.The walls are finished however, we still need to paint the trim. 2.My dog does tricks for example, he can roll over and play dead. Add semicolons where they are needed in the following sentences. Semicolons between independent clauses 3.Bev, who loves photography, has pictures of plants, flowers, and trees, but she has not, thus far, taken any pictures of animals.

21 1.The walls are finished however, we still need to paint the trim. ; Semicolons between independent clauses Add semicolons where they are needed in the following sentences. A semicolon is used between independent clauses joined by a conjunctive adverb, such as however.

22 2.My dog does tricks for example, he can roll over and play dead. Semicolons between independent clauses ; A semicolon is used between independent clauses joined by a transitional expression such as for example. Add semicolons where they are needed in the following sentences.

23 3.Bev, who loves photography, has pictures of plants, flowers, and trees but she has not, thus far, taken any pictures of animals. ; Semicolons between independent clauses Add semicolons where they are needed in the following sentences. Because the independent clauses contain commas, this sentence would be confusing without the semicolon. A semicolon makes the sentence clear.

24 On Your Own In the following sentences, add semicolons or replace commas with semicolons where needed. If a sentence is already correct, label it C. 1.Hank will not play basketball next year instead, he is going to try out for soccer. 2.Michelle trims the bushes, pulls the weeds, and sweeps the sidewalk, and the lawn is my responsibility. 3.The snow does not bother me, on the contrary, I love to go walking right after a big snowfall. 4.The car, Alan, needs some repairs, and you will have to pay for them. [End of Section] Semicolons between independent clauses

25 In the following sentences, add semicolons or replace commas with semicolons where needed. If a sentence is already correct, label it C. 1.Hank will not play basketball next year instead, he is going to try out for soccer. 2.Michelle trims the bushes, pulls the weeds, and sweeps the sidewalk, and the lawn is my responsibility. 3.The snow does not bother me, on the contrary, I love to go walking right after a big snowfall. 4.The car, Alan, needs some repairs, and you will have to pay for them. Answers Semicolons between independent clauses ; ; ^ C C

26 Winners in the competition were Alisa Murphy, first place ; Jeff Bates, second place ; and Eduardo Davis, third place. Semicolons between items in a series Use a semicolon between items in a series if the items contain commas.

27 Semicolons between items in a series Use a semicolon between items in a series if the items contain commas. My grandparents have called many different cities home, including Seattle, Washington ; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania ; and Atlanta, Georgia.

28 1.My three sisters were born on January 25, 1997, May 1, 1999, and June 21, I invited Karl, my cousin, Julia, my best friend, and Jerry, my neighbor, to the party. For each of the following sentences, identify each item in the series. Then change commas to semicolons where necessary. Semicolons between items in a series 3. Performers in the show were Tony Garza, trumpet, Lee Bryant, clarinet, and Phil Ward, drums and steel guitar.

29 1.My three sisters were born on January 25, 1997 ; May 1, 1999 ; and June 21, Semicolons between items in a series For each of the following sentences, identify each item in the series. Then change commas to semicolons where necessary. Item #1: January 25, 1997 Item #2: May 1, 1999 Item #3: June 21, 2002 A semicolon is used between items in a series when the items contain commas.

30 2.I invited Karl, my cousin ; Julia, my best friend ; and Jerry, my neighbor, to the party. Semicolons between items in a series For each of the following sentences, identify each item in the series. Then change commas to semicolons where necessary. Item #1: Karl, my cousin Item #2: Julia, my best friend Item #3: Jerry, my neighbor A semicolon is used between items in a series when the items contain commas.

31 3. Performers in the show were Tony Garza, trumpet ; Lee Bryant, clarinet ; and Phil Ward, drums and steel guitar. Semicolons between items in a series For each of the following sentences, identify each item in the series. Then change commas to semicolons where necessary. Item #1: Tony Garza, trumpet Item #2: Lee Bryant, clarinet Item #3: Phil Ward, drums and steel guitar A semicolon is used between items in a series when the items contain commas.

32 On Your Own Semicolons between items in a series Change commas to semicolons where necessary in the following sentences. If a sentence is already correct, label it C. 1.The photography club will meet on Tuesday, April 3, Friday, April 6, and Tuesday, April At the mall I bought several items I needed, such as socks, a pair of jeans, and a belt. 3.The ushers will be Jared Green, brother of the bride, Hershel Kemp, friend of the groom, and Fred Keller, cousin of the groom. [End of Section]

33 Change commas to semicolons where necessary in the following sentences. If a sentence is already correct, label it C. 1.The photography club will meet on Tuesday, April 3, Friday, April 6, and Tuesday, April At the mall I bought several items I needed, such as socks, a pair of jeans, and a belt. 3.The ushers will be Jared Green, brother of the bride, Hershel Kemp, friend of the groom, and Fred Keller, cousin of the groom. Answers Semicolons between items in a series ; ^ ; ^ C ; ^ ; ^

34 Review A In the following sentences, add semicolons or replace commas with semicolons where needed. 1.The two sides could not reach an agreement, however, they were willing to meet again. 2.Mr. Harrell, the cook, Mrs. Chang, the gardener, and Ms. Klein, the electrician, were all suspects. 3.We bring our own rackets, shoes, and bottled water, and the balls, I believe, are provided at the gym. 4.The elevator is broken we will have to take the stairs. [End of Section]

35 In the following sentences, add semicolons or replace commas with semicolons where needed. 1.The two sides could not reach an agreement, however, they were willing to meet again. 2.Mr. Harrell, the cook, Mrs. Chang, the gardener, and Ms. Klein, the electrician, were all suspects. 3.We bring our own rackets, shoes, and bottled water, and the balls, I believe, are provided at the gym. 4.The elevator is broken we will have to take the stairs. Review A ; ; ^ ; ^ ; ^ ; ^

36 Review B [End of Section] In the following sentences, add semicolons or replace commas with semicolons where needed. 1.My uncle has traveled to San Juan, Puerto Rico, London, England, and Madrid, Spain. 2.The spring rains have begun soon the hillside will be covered with wildflowers. 3.Close the lid tightly otherwise, the paint will dry out. 4.I missed several days of school because of illness, as a result, I am behind on my work.

37 In the following sentences, add semicolons or replace commas with semicolons where needed. 1.My uncle has traveled to San Juan, Puerto Rico, London, England, and Madrid, Spain. 2.The spring rains have begun soon the hillside will be covered with wildflowers. 3.Close the lid tightly otherwise, the paint will dry out. 4.I missed several days of school because of illness, as a result, I am behind on my work. Review B ; ; ^ ; ; ^ ; ^

38 The End


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