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They are all connected. Related issues  > 62% of ESS are degraded  No fish by 2048  Lose ~€50Bn ESS => €14trn/yr by 2050  1/3 land degraded: impacts.

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Presentation on theme: "They are all connected. Related issues  > 62% of ESS are degraded  No fish by 2048  Lose ~€50Bn ESS => €14trn/yr by 2050  1/3 land degraded: impacts."— Presentation transcript:

1 They are all connected

2 Related issues  > 62% of ESS are degraded  No fish by 2048  Lose ~€50Bn ESS => €14trn/yr by 2050  1/3 land degraded: impacts 1.2Bn people in 100 countries  1.8Bn people absolute water scarcity  Invasive species >$1.4trn – 5% global GDP

3 Disasters weather related disasters doubled in 10 years due to increased severe weather, floods, storms increase mainly & medium-scale ‘forgotten’ disasters geophysical disasters unchanged

4 Water stress - impact 700M in water scarcity 900M no safe drinking water many more in water stressed countries. The poor are most vulnerable there is enough water for domestic, agriculture & industry. Many excluded by poverty, legal rights or public policies

5 Water stress - projections 50% of countries in water stress by 2025 75% of people by 2050 increased flooding & drought impacts on water supply, floods, health, agriculture, energy & aquatic ecosystems

6 Water stress - responses build institutional capacity implementation of water laws and policies transparent governance cooperation among government agencies involve stakeholders & communities decentralised approaches community-based adaptation

7 Food insecurity – impact 1Bn undernourished; the number one health risk 275,000 people become chronically hungry every day 29 countries alarming/ extremely alarming levels of hunger 30% of people in Africa have chronic hunger & malnutrition 25% are children 60% are women 75% poor agricultural livelihoods

8 Food insecurity causes not food shortage global wheat prices rose 181% 2005-7 global food prices increased by 83% 60-80% developing country hh spending on food development regressed 7 years 100m more people in food insecurity 30-50% further rises predicted 75% attribution to biofuels poor distribution, poverty, instability, poor governance, poor market acces, no voice single crops, rain dependence, HIV, conflict, unemployment, under investment; poor social protection northern agricultural subsidies, trade liberalisation, rising energy prices and increasing consumption

9 Emergency or chronic? 51 food crises between 2004 and 2008 23 countries in 2007 or 2008; 23 countries in 2000 and 2001 Treated as unexpected disasters = humanitarian relief Response too late to save assets & livelihoods Emergencies cause less than 8% of hunger's victims, but temporary shocks have higher visibility A child dies every 5 seconds

10 Climate change impacts on food undernourished people rising to 40-170m people staple crops not viable in S Asia, S & sub- saharan Africa >50% reduction yield across many African countries global food price rise loss of fisheries Increased floods, droughts, storms, pests & diseases $11-13bn adaptation by 2030

11 Food security - responses predictable cash or food transfers pre-position resources food aid & longer-term social protection source food from local markets to avoid market distortions improve early warning systems improve governance, access, distribution address biofuels

12 Environmental degradation virtually all Earth’s ecosystems significantly transformed 24% of land converted to agriculture 3-6 times water held behind dams than natural rivers >35% of mangroves lost >40% of coral reefs dead or dying 70% of temperate forests and grasslands lost 60% of ecosystem services unsustainably used: water, fisheries, air, climate, pests hitting the poor hardest

13 Climate change IPCC: Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, as is now evident from observations of increases in global average air and ocean temperatures, widespread melting of snow and ice and rising global average sea level, increased storm and severe weather events. Impacts on health, food, water, disasters, livelihoods, infrastructure, economies, conflict

14 Linkages Examples of hazards

15 Linkages Examples of environmental & geophysical impacts

16 Linkages Examples of environmental & geophysical responses

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